As a painter, painters or painters in to craft skilled workers referred to the paintings of all kinds and all visible and invisible pre- and final coatings produced on walls and ceilings indoors and outdoors. Areas such as B. Doors and windows pre-painted and varnished. These skilled workers also coat surfaces to give them protection, e.g. B. from corrosion.
The training of painters and varnishers also prepares them for a professional life as an upholsterer .
The word is derived from the Latin : macula “Fleck, Makel”, is related to Middle High German times “Fleck” and Gothic mela “ Script ”. Accordingly, painting originally meant something like “write” or “stain” (make spots).
In the past, the painter was also known as a whitewater . This goes back to an overlap of different trades. In the middle of the 19th century, Tünch is the name for a fine layer of plaster (gypsum plaster, lime plaster) that the Tüncher applies to ceiling and wall surfaces. Rarely, the name is also in some white binder (actually plasterers ) used because until about the middle of the last century by him on the one hand the white color pigments, such as the lime , with binders - for example with potassium silicate to - paint bound , were respectively on the other hand by means of its preliminary work, the applied as white coverage, diluted with water, slaked lime (a suspension of calcium hydroxide ultimately through and water) carbon dioxide to be durable white paint of the air calcium carbonate , so a thin layer of limestone as a white color, bonded was.
Official names today:
- The official job title in Germany is painter and varnisher . The former painter and varnisher - with a focus on vehicle varnishers, has been an independent three-year apprenticeship as a vehicle painter since the new training regulations from 2003 .
- In Austria, the occupational field comprises two official apprenticeships , painter and house painter and varnisher.
- In Switzerland and Liechtenstein, the official job title is painter.
- Painter and varnisher is the name in South Tyrol.
The professional painter's field of work comprises two areas of activity:
- The coating , the surface treatment including the pretreatment of the surfaces and the application of coverings (wallpapering, wall, ceiling and floor coverings, foil coatings, etc.)
- The painting (painting, setting), the application of primer, paint and varnish layers as protection and embellishment.
The field of activity relates to plaster , stone , wood , concrete , metal and plastic surfaces , and extends from painting in the construction industry (walls, ceilings, floors, windows, doors and furniture) to painting components, devices and machines ( Protection from moisture, heat, rust, impact) to the color design of any products, as well as the handling of colorants and aids of all kinds.
Her most important work techniques include priming , papering , spatulas (balancing, smoothing), grinding , brushing, spraying , dipping and flooding , the work means include brushes , paint rollers and scrapers , injection units , equipments, and - pistols , colors and paints , chemical solvents and other things.
The work takes place both on site, outdoors and indoors, as well as in workshops and workshops , today increasingly spray booths and painting lines , also on ladders or scaffolding ( facades , large objects). The erection of scaffolding (protective scaffolding or normal working scaffolding) can also be part of the painting trade depending on the company. Commercial painting and varnishing ranges from small businesses to industrial production . In addition, contact with the end customer, advice on products , design and execution and sales also play a role in many jobs .
Some areas of this craft are also carried out by other professional groups:
- Interior decorator (carpets and wallpapers)
- Plasterer or plasterer (painting grounds, frames)
- Stage painter (specialty of event professions)
- Decoration painter ( wall painter , Lüftlmaler )
- Monument protection (renovation of old buildings, facade renovation), restorer for wall painting
- Road maintenance profession ( road marking )
- Colorant chemist , laboratory assistant in color production
- Building biologist
- Glaser (repair glazing )
- Building physicist
- Floor layer
In Austria, women are considered to be heavy workers as opposed to men within the meaning of the Heavy Labor Ordinance and the related professional list. Employers have to report the existence of heavy work in women over the age of 35 (men over 40) independently to the health insurance ( Heavy Work Ordinance ).
Germany: painter and varnisher
The job of a painter and varnisher is divided into three disciplines:
- Design and maintenance (painters and upholsterers)
- Church painting and monument preservation
- Building and corrosion protection
According to the training regulations, the three subject areas have the same training content in the first two years. A differentiation takes place in the 3rd year of training.
There is also a two-year training course to become a building and object coater, which ends with a qualification test that is identical to the intermediate test for regular painters and varnishers. Passing this examination entitles you to transition to normal training and to take the journeyman's examination after a further year of training.
In the past, a minimum of three and a maximum of five years of practical experience as a journeyman was required in order to register for the master craftsman examination for the painting and varnishing trade. Today, according to the new examination regulations in the painting and varnishing trade, it is possible to take the master craftsman examination directly after completing the journeyman's examination. However, it is to be expected that most journeyman will not be able to finance a master craftsman's course immediately after acquiring the journeyman's certificate. One financing option, however, is the master BAföG. The costs in the mostly state schools are moderate. The only private school, which is also the oldest German school, which has very high numbers of graduates year after year, is more expensive.
Attending a preparatory school is not compulsory, but it is recommended, as the exam covers the four areas of trainer aptitude for professional education , business administration ( specialist ), specialist practice and specialist theory. Only the latter two are also taught during the apprenticeship as a journeyman, but mostly not in the depth required for the master craftsman's examination.
Another possibility for further training is the designer in the craft , there are also work academies and design schools nationwide.
The professional representation is the Federal Association of German Painters and Varnishers , the Federal Association of Color Design and Building Protection .
The collectively agreed social fund for the industry is the painter's fund .
Austria: painter and coating technician, varnisher
In Austria, both apprenticeships, painter and coating technician or varnisher, comprise three years of apprenticeship. The apprenticeship "painter" was converted into the three-year apprenticeship "painting technology" on July 1st, 2013.
Apprentices are trained in the dual system in vocational schools and training companies. With a successfully completed apprenticeship and four further exams, a vocational matura (vocational matriculation examination) is possible, as is the master’s examination .
In the past, the designation painter, varnisher and sign maker was common. Sign manufacturer is outsourced as an apprenticeship today. The upholsterer (in construction), which is part of the job description in Germany, is part of the apprenticeship upholsterer and decorator . The usual further training to become a car painter in Switzerland - in Germany a vehicle painter - is part of the apprenticeship as a body shop technician . For these professions, as well as for the road maintenance specialist , years of apprenticeship are taken into account when switching. Art painting and restoration aspects ( restorer ) are not part of the job description.
Vocational schools for painting and coating technicians can be found in every federal state, for painters in Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Vorarlberg and Vienna. There is also the technical school for painting and design HTL Baden Malerschule Leesdorf and the technical school for arts and crafts HTL Innsbruck building and art , training branch applied painting . There are master schools in Baden and at the HTBLuVA Graz Ortweinschule .
In 2008 there were 2,614 apprentices painting and decorating, and 281 apprenticeship painters.
Professional representation is the federal guild of painters and upholsterers (federal guild of painters: for painters and house painters; varnishers; gilders and staffers; sign production and floor markers as an associated craft).
- Training company : Here the practical skills of the painting profession are taught (private companies or training workshops).
- Inter-company course (formerly called introductory courses): Support of practical knowledge and skills in addition to teaching. Using a model course in a course center.
- Vocational school : imparting the corresponding theoretical basics for vocational training. In addition, tips and solutions to everyday problems and personal training in general education.
The three-year training ends with the final apprenticeship examination. This test should provide information on whether the knowledge of the three training locations, training company, inter-company courses and vocational school have been processed in such a way that the certificate of proficiency as a trained painter can be issued.
After two or four years of professional experience and the corresponding knowledge, which is voluntarily acquired in further education schools , the exams for foreman SMGV (Swiss Association of Painters and Plasterers) or federally certified master painters can be taken. From every level of the painting profession, related professions can be learned and completed through a shortened additional apprenticeship.
- Related professions:
- Special fields and advanced training professions
The professional association is the Swiss Association of Painters and Plasterers
South Tyrol: painter and varnisher
Painter and varnisher (ital. Pittore e verniciatore / Pittrice e verniciatrice ) is apprenticeship training in South Tyrol , which is completed in a maximum of 54 months and ends with the final apprenticeship examination ( journeyman's certificate ) at the vocational school . The school for the job is the state vocational school in Schlanders .
Continuing education consists of attending specialist courses e.g. B. for lettering , decorative painting , restoration , design , as well as attending a master's school - schools for this are the Scuola Professionale Provinciale per l'Artigianato e l'Industria "Luigi Einaudi" in Bolzano - or taking the master craftsman examination . Specializations exist as Baumaler, car painter , industrial painter , stage designer , decorative painter .
Professional association is the professional association of painters and varnishers in the national association of craftsmen .
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