The Ulm Cathedral (or Cathedral of Our Lady in Ulm ) is a in the Gothic style built church in Ulm . It is the largest Protestant church in Germany . The 161.53 meter high tower , completed in 1890, is the tallest church tower in the world .
The foundation stone was laid in 1377 when Ulm was a free imperial city and still a Roman Catholic . The sermons of the Ulm reformer Konrad Sam (from 1524) were the trigger for the gradual introduction of the Reformation in Ulm. In 1530 the decision was made in a popular vote in favor of the Protestant creed. The Ulm Minster became a place of worship for the Protestant church . It was owned by the city of Ulm until 1894 and then came into the possession of the evangelical parish of Ulm. The minster survived the air raids on Ulm in 1944/1945 in the last months of the Second World War largely undamaged.
The Ulm Minster is one of the largest Gothic buildings in southern Germany and a cultural monument . With a height of 161.53 m, it has the highest church tower in the world to this day. The choir of the minster is flanked to the right and left by the two choir towers, which with their height of 86 m belong to the group of particularly high towers . The church building is 123.56 meters long and 48.8 meters wide. The central nave is 41.6 meters high and the side aisles are 20.55 meters high. The cathedral has a volume of around 190,000 cubic meters, and the high west tower loads the foundations with a mass of 51,500 tons. [A] When the foundation stone was laid in 1377, this parish church should be a church of the citizens. It was funded by the city's fewer than 10,000 citizens. Since the minster was never planned as a bishopric, only a central west tower and two choir towers were planned from the start (see illustration of the foundation stone relief). Main facades with two flanking towers were generally reserved for episcopal churches and abbeys. For a similar reason, the Ulm Minster does not have a crypt that could have served as a ruler's or bishop's burial place. Their "function" is taken over in Ulm by chapel extensions, some of which have now disappeared, some of which are still preserved, and numerous (burial) chambers of Ulm patricians and citizens connected by corridors and stairs to each other and to the nave.
The building materials used are interesting: All edges of the nave and almost all parts of the towers are made of sandstone (in neo-Gothic parts partly also limestone ) and lavish stone carvings. As a result, it is hardly noticeable that the outer walls are mostly made of brick , which is also exposed openly in the facades. Thus, on the one hand, the cathedral is stylistically as close to the classic Gothic stone buildings of the Île de France and Champagne as the Freiburg Cathedral or the Frankfurt Cathedral , but on the other hand it can also be viewed as a brick church. Among these, it is behind San Petronio in Bologna , but about on a par with the Munich Frauenkirche and the Gdańsk Marienkirche . To what extent this brick visibility was originally intended as a stylistic device is questionable due to the aesthetically unintentional, purely structural-related change between stone and brick masonry, the largely missing plastic design of the brick masonry and numerous plaster residues with painted masonry. Rather, it must be assumed - at least for the medieval construction phase - that the use of the brick masonry was not so much for aesthetic reasons as it was for purely technical or building physics reasons, and that a large part of the brick masonry that is now revealed was originally not designed "on sight", but was hidden under plaster and a painted "stone blockwork".
The Münster offers 2,000 seats in normal seating. During the Württemberg State Trombone Day, which takes place every two years in Ulm, there is space for 4,500 wind players with instruments in the cathedral thanks to additional seating. In the Middle Ages it offered space for 20,000 to 22,000 people, as it was customary at that time to stand during worship.
The main tower can be climbed via 768 steps to a gallery in the upper third of the tower spire at a height of 143 m. From there, the visitor is offered an impressive panorama of the city and its surroundings. On some days of the year, when the foehn is blowing, you can even see the whole of Upper Swabia and the Alps .
First construction period 1377–1543
Since the city of Ulm was repeatedly involved in conflicts in the 14th century, but its parish church was at the gates of the city (today the old cemetery is there), the citizens strove to build a new church within the city walls. They were tired of being cut off from the church, as had happened, for example, in 1376 during the siege of Ulm by Emperor Charles IV . In addition, they wanted to make themselves independent of the Reichenau monastery , to which the church was subordinated in 813 by Emperor Charlemagne .
So they decided to rebuild the church within the city wall, financed by the residents themselves. At that time the town had barely 10,000 residents. On June 30, 1377 the foundation stone was laid by the mayor Ludwig Krafft and the master builder Heinrich II. Parler . He had previously gained experience at the Heilig-Kreuz-Münster in Schwäbisch Gmünd . The blueprint for the Ulm Minster obviously originated from Master Heinrich II. Parler, who had already worked on the old parish church of Ulm. This plan included a hall church with three naves of roughly the same height, a west tower and two choir towers. He built the choir and the lower parts of the choir flank towers.
The choir, which has a length of 29 meters and a clear width of 15 meters, already showed the dimensions of the planned project. The women from the Ulm collection also helped to lay the foundation stone , as can be seen in a contemporary depiction of this event. The only known Ulm composer of the 17th and 18th centuries later went from the "collection". Century - Barbara Kluntz - emerged.
In 1381 the construction site was taken over by master Michael Parler, who had previously worked at the cathedral builder in Prague . He continued the construction in the nave, which was initially designed as a three-aisled hall church with naves of almost the same width and height. From 1387 to 1391 Master Heinrich III took over. Parler took over the management of the site.
In 1392 Ulrich Ensinger , also called Ulrich von Ensingen, was entrusted with the construction management, who had previously worked in Prague and at the Strasbourg Cathedral . He dreamed of a main tower over 150 m high. So that the proportions were balanced, the nave was now to be significantly higher than the Parlers had planned, which can be recognized by the difference in height between the central nave and the choir. The cathedral was consecrated on July 25, 1405, only covered by a temporary emergency roof. With Matthew Ensinger 1446 the son took over from Ulrich construction management (to 1463). He completed the choir vault in 1449 and the vault of the north nave in 1452. After Matthäus' death in 1463, his son Moritz Ensinger took over the construction management. He arched the central nave and built the new sacraments by 1471. According to his grandfather's concept, the minster has now become a basilica .
The new master builder Matthäus Böblinger changed the plans in 1477, especially those of the main tower. The first massive damage occurred in his time (up to 1494): the vaults, which were now of different heights but equally projecting, threatened to bend the pillars in 1492 and bring the structure to collapse. The north wall of the central nave still shows a deviation from the perpendicular of up to 27 cm. The master builder Burkhard Engelberg from Augsburg took over the construction and carried out the necessary security measures: Reinforcement of the foundations of the west tower, demolition of the heavy aisle vaults, subdivision of the aisles with slim pillars and construction of lighter vaults. The slender vaults of the new pair of side aisles are about the same height as the broken off wide aisles. Although a disaster had been averted with some effort, the walls stood for three and a half centuries without the buttress arches common in most Gothic basilicas.
North side aisles, middle imperial eagle walled over when subdivided
Door in side portal with sheet mask
While the walls of the choir, the side aisles and the tower base were mostly built in brick and were also completed in this material, the masonry of the upper aisle that was added as a result of the plan changes consists mainly of stone . The natural stone used in the cathedral in the Middle Ages is mostly sandstone from quarries near Isny . Limestone from the nearby Alb was only used to a small extent.
In 1530/1531 the population of Ulm converted to the Protestant faith in a roll-call vote . During the subsequent iconoclasm on June 19, 1531, over 60 altars were removed, including the main altar. However, the city council had previously informed the owners of the altars of its intention so that they could bring their altars to safety. The city brought any remaining altars to its storage facility. Some of them are now set up in village churches in the area, e.g. B. in Scharenstetten .
In 1543 the almost finished building came to a standstill - due to internal political tensions, but also the Reformation and simply due to a lack of money. At that time the main tower was around 100 m high, the choir towers were each around 32 m high. From 1543 onwards, construction was inactive for over 300 years. The copper engraving from around 1650 in De Merian Sueviae shows the structural condition at the end of the first phase of construction.
Ulm Minster around 1643, by Merian
Second construction period 1844–1890
In 1817 the frescoes inside the minster were painted over gray during painting work . With the arrival of a new prosperity, construction continued on the cathedral from 1844. Builders during this period were Ferdinand Thrän until 1870 and then Ludwig Scheu (1871–1880). The newly designed buttress arches leading over the aisles stabilized the central nave. The pinnacles of this buttress have a historical model, the westernmost pinnacle on the south side is still medieval. Work on the choir towers also began with safety measures. Its completion followed medieval intentions, but medieval plans were not available here, so that upper floors and spiers are a new creation Scheus.
From 1880 onwards, maintenance measures had to be initiated again before the completion of the main and west tower began in 1885. This was completed on May 31, 1890 with the placement of a finial , and the cathedral received its present appearance. August von Beyer was in charge of this construction phase . The main tower was increased by ten meters compared to the original plans. On closer inspection, you can also see a slight kink on the highest platform. It was speculated that this change was made so that the tower should tower over Cologne Cathedral (157 meters) at just over 161 meters . However, this representation was always denied by Ulm. According to the construction plan, the cathedral should be built 20 meters higher.
On June 28, 1890, the completion was celebrated with a ceremony at which 320 singers performed the oratorio Elias by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy under the direction of the cathedral organist Johannes Graf . The choir was founded in the same year as an association for classical church music .
From the 20th century
In the devastating air raids on Ulm on December 17, 1944, the cathedral was hardly damaged, although almost all other buildings on the Münsterplatz were badly hit. Only the 19th century windows were destroyed; other medieval choir windows that were important in art history had previously been removed from the church. On March 1, 1945, a 500 kilo bomb hit the choir vault. It fell to the ground without exploding. Their effect can still be seen through the appearance of new wall cracks.
Several hundred thousand euros are spent annually to maintain the state of construction of the minster.
In 2015, on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the completion, a movable LED light construction was installed. This means that 23 spotlights illuminate the top of the tower with high contrast.
Works of art in and around the cathedral
First construction phase: late Middle Ages (1377–1543)
Design of the portals
The representations in the tympana of the portals of the cathedral are remarkable . Those have an extremely complex and sophisticated theological program. In contrast to most of the tympana of the main portal (west portal), the tympanum of the main portal of the Ulm Minster - located in a 3-bay porch - not only contains a representation of the Last Judgment (very much in the background in the 3 corners of the tympanum), but the main motif is a representation of the story of creation , which was probably made in the 1380s. Here God creates the earth as a rotating sphere, which is surrounded by "planetary balls"; an indication that in the Middle Ages it was already known that the earth was a sphere (see also the portal on the north side of the Freiburg Minster ).
Like other representations in the cathedral (e.g. the philosophers of the choir stalls) this one also refers more to ancient worldviews than to literally adopted descriptions of the Bible. The representation of the tympanum thus unites the beginning and the end of "world history" as they are described in the Bible, and at the same time refers in a very complex way to Christ, who in the Bible describes the Alpha and Omega, beginning and end, judge of the world and suffering man becomes. This is also reflected in the depiction of the Man of Sorrows by Hans Multscher (1429) on the central pillar between the two portal doors below the tympanum (today as a copy, the original is inside the minster on the southwestern choir pillar). The cladding of the main portal is surrounded by numerous wooden holy figures, which only have a painted “stone setting”. Also noteworthy are the “soft”, so-called “international style” figures on the pillars of the vestibule.
At the small Marienportal (northwest portal ) the birth of Jesus and the adoration by the kings are shown. The tympanum dates from 1356 and was taken over from the old parish church "Our Lady above the Field". The Passion or Reformation portal (northeast portal, around 1370) shows scenes from the Passion of Christ. On the south-east portal, the bride or court portal, the depiction of the Last Judgment (1360) can be seen, which probably also comes from the old parish church. The most magnificent and largest portal is the great Marienportal (southwest portal ), the representations of which were probably originally intended for the main portal. The tympanum (1380) shows motifs from the life of Mary. Below there are three reliefs (probably from 1400). The left relief shows the adoration of the child by the Magi. The right relief shows the birth of Christ, in the middle square block the procession of the three kings to the child can be seen.
The end of the choir consists of five sides of a regular decagon. The more than 15 meter high windows in the choir date from the 14th and 15th centuries. These windows are if you start looking towards the choir altar after the half-high window from left to right:
- Window of the two Johannes , workshop Jakob Acker der Elder Ulm, created after 1385, the second oldest window of the minster - In the upper part this window tells the biblical stories of John the Baptist (from top to bottom): the baptism of Jesus by Johannes, the preaching Forerunner, the feast of Herod and the beheading and burial of the caller in the desert. The legends of the disciple John are shown in the lower part .
- Kramer window , Strasbourg workshop of Peter Hemmel von Andlau , around 1480 - This window was donated by the Kramer guild (i.e. shopkeepers or merchants) and was probably installed in place of an older window that came from Jakob Acker. The crown coats of arms of the donors can be seen in the lower part. Above is a root Jesse representation. In the upper part there are six pictures of the Christmas season: Annunciation to Mary, the Visitation, the birth of Jesus, the circumcision, the kings and the presentation in the temple.
- Council window , Strasbourg workshop of Peter Hemmel von Andlau, around 1480 - The window that was donated by the city council was probably also installed in place of an older window. It stands in the central axis of the choir and is a window of Christ, which can be read from bottom to top: at the very bottom in the middle you can see the imperial eagle and two Ulm coats of arms. The patron saints Antonius and Vincenz are shown on the left and St. Martin with the beggar on the right. Above it are from left to right: the temptation of Jesus , the Canaanite woman and a healing. Ornate canopies are made above which (from left) one can see: the feeding of the five thousand, the attempted stoning and the entry into Jerusalem. In the upper part of the window, the resurrection is shown over the entire width of the window and the ascension of the Lord over further canopies . The figure of God the Father that used to be in the tracery above and four angels making music were destroyed in 1945.
- Anna-Marienfenster , Jakob Acker workshop, around 1385 - This window is considered to be the oldest window in the cathedral and was donated by the weavers' guild, probably because Maria was a temple weaver and Anna is the weaver's patroness. In 20 comparatively small-scale scenes, it shows Annen's legend and Mary's birth, which can be read from top to bottom: Joachim's rejection from temple service, his flight into the desert, the angel's apparition, the meeting of both at the golden gate. Below then in the fifth line: Mary's birth, the temple visit and the temple virgin Mary weaving. Then the advertisement for Mary, the marriage, Joseph traveling and Mary alone, the Annunciation, Mary's visit to Elisabeth, Joseph's dream and the birth of Jesus. The bottom 13th line, which was probably added later, shows the appearance of the three kings, the flight to Egypt and the murder of children.
- Window of the five joys of Mary , Jakob Acker workshop, around 1400 - This window is also a foundation of the weavers' guild and is to be understood from bottom to top with the following images: Birth of Christ, Adoration of the Magi, presentation in the temple, Mary's death and inclusion in the sky.
- Medallion window, Jakob Acker workshop, around 1404 to 1408 - This window is located on the straight south wall and contains themes from the Lent Gospels, such as: the feeding of the five thousand or the raising of Lazarus.
The three seat and the choir stalls with hundreds of figures carved from oak wood are one of the most famous and beautiful stalls of the German Gothic . It was built between 1469 and 1474 by the carpenter and sculptor Jörg Syrlin the Elder. Ä. Made with the collaboration of the sculptor Michel Erhart (especially the busts on the side cheeks). Along with the choir stalls in St. Martin zu Memmingen, it is one of the most important Gothic stalls in Germany. The three seat from 1468 under the choir arch is a test piece by Jörg Syrlin the Elder. E., Before the city council gave him the order for the complete choir stalls. It is characteristic and atypical of the Gothic that the choir stalls tend to emphasize the horizontal. The 18 meter long side parts are clearly structured and covered with richly decorated canopies .
The busts on the desk cheeks on the north side show famous men of antiquity : Pythagoras , Cicero , Terenz , Ptolemy , Seneca , Quintilianus and Secundus the silent . This, too, represents an innovation at the transition from Gothic to Renaissance . The first bust on the male side is without a description that can be found in all other busts. According to art historians, this bust is supposed to represent the ancient poet Virgil . It is assumed that Jörg Syrlin the Elder Ä. has created a self-portrait here. But since, according to more recent findings, Michel Erhart is considered to be the creator of the busts, this is not very likely.
Opposite the ancient scholars, wise women of antiquity are depicted on the desk cheeks on the south side , the Sibyls : Phrygian, Cumanian, Cimeric, Tiburtine, Hellespontic, Delphic and Libyan Sibyls . The first bust on the female side is also without a description that can be found in all other busts; according to art historians, it is supposed to represent the Persian Sibyl. Two more sibyls can be seen at the three seat.
What is certain is that Master Syrlin signed the choir stalls at least four times. For this reason, the choir stalls were previously attributed to him artistically alone. However, the realization prevails that several other masters have worked in his workshop. It is still unclear who apart from Michel Erhart was involved in the choir stalls.
A special feature of the choir stalls of the Ulm Minster are the inscriptions in a Gotico-Antiqua font. This is a comparatively rare type class from the incunable period , which is a hybrid of Gothic and humanistic script, and refers to the typography in the time the stalls were created.
In place of the high altar , which was lost in the 16th century, there is the Holy Family Altar, which is also known as the Hutzaltar after its founder Laux Hutz (the "Junker Lukas"). The wings of the altar were made by Martin Schaffner in 1521. The workshop of Niklaus Weckmann (around 1450 / 44–1528 Ulm) is said to have created the shrine with Christ's clan . The predella shows the Lord's Supper .
Chapels at the choir
To the south and north of the choir there are three chapels named after personalities from the town's history. These are the Besserer, Neithart and Konrad Sam chapels (former sacristy ).
The most interesting is probably the smallest chapel, the Bessererkapelle , which can be reached from the choir to the right - on the women's side of the choir stalls in the rear part. It was built around 1429 under foreman Hans Kun. This chapel was a private chapel and got its name after the patrician family Besserer , which can be traced back to Ulm over several generations. For example, Bernhard Besserer (1471–1542) was mayor during the Reformation. Above the entrance door is the year of the foundation 1414 and on the wall is the double cup, the coat of arms of the Besserer family. First of all , the stained glass in the little choir , created in 1430 by Hans Acker , the son of Jakob Acker the Elder, is remarkable . The history of salvation is represented in eight pictures in each of the five choir windows. This is completed in the south window by the Last Judgment. In this window the third apostle is supposed to be a self-portrait of Hans Acker in the second row. According to art historians, these stained glass are technically perfect and of the greatest drawing mastery. The crucifix next to the south window comes from the workshop of Michel Erhart (around 1490/1500). The east window was made in 1480 in the Strasbourg workshop of Peter Hemmel von Andlau .
Altarpiece by Bartholomäus Zeitblom (around 1489–1497)
Glass pane of St. George by Hans Acker , around 1440
The Neithart Chapel is located on the ground floor of the northern choir tower and has been expanded to include two more rooms to the east. It was donated by Heinrich Neithart as a private chapel in 1437. The year 1444 can be read above the entrance - the year from which it was built by Matthäus Ensinger until 1450 - as well as the coat of arms of the Neithart family: a clover leaf over three mountains. It contains several altars and other altar panels:
- Sebastian Altar, around 1500,
- Barbara altar, around 1520,
- Marien Altar from 1491 with portraits of the donors of the chapel on both sides of the image of the Virgin Mary,
- Altar from 1491 with predella under the east window,
- "St. Georg " disk by Hans Acker, around 1440,
- Panels with St. Margaret and a group of holy virgins from the Wengen monastery church , created around 1489–1497 in the workshop of Bartholomäus Zeitblom .
The Konrad Sam Chapel below the southern choir tower is the former sacristy and was named after the first Reformation preacher (from 1524) of the minster. It partly dates from the time of the Parler. However, your Passion Window was created in 1957 by Hans Gottfried von Stockhausen . The so-called “Schongau Altar” (around 1480) is located under this window. Other altar panels in the chapel are the apostle panel by Bartholomäus Zeitblom (around 1489–1497), as well as by Martin Schaffner (around 1525) Saint Elisabeth with the beggar and Anna Selbdritt.
More works of art
- The 26.5 m high sacrament house from 1467/1471, which is located on the left choir arch. The figures of Saints Sebastian and Christophorus are under the flight of stairs . Six statuettes of popes and bishops can be seen on the railing.
- The 29 old consoles on the central pillars are evidence of excellent stonemasonry , which was created between 1383 and 1391. Noteworthy are the six consoles near the pulpit of the unknown sculptor, who signed his works with two crossed drawing pins and who is therefore called the "drawing pin master".
- Above the pulpit in the central nave is the approximately 20 meter high sound cover by Jörg Syrlin the Younger from 1510. The support bracket and staircase date from around 1498, with older parts being used.
- The holy water font (1507) can be found in the south aisle near the choir.
- Not far to the west of it is the octagonal baptismal font (1474) under a canopy with six prophets, two kings and the coats of arms of the seven electors and the empire on the base.
- Nearby on the seventh central nave pillar is the relief of the laying of the foundation stone. This shows how the mayor Lutz Krafft and his wife symbolically lift the model of the church onto the back of the bowed builder Heinrich Parler. (See picture under "First construction phase 1377–1543" )
- At the end of the south aisle is the Kargnische , the remainder of a wall altar made in 1433 by Hans Multscher on behalf of the Karg family. The stone figures depicting the Annunciation to Mary were destroyed in the iconoclasm in 1531, so only the magnificent background has been preserved.
- Above the choir arch is a 145 m 2 large fresco from 1471, which depicts the Last Judgment and was possibly created by Hans Schüchlin . It is one of the largest wall paintings north of the Alps.
- Below the choir arch - in front of the three seat - is the altar of the cross and soul with a depiction of the Last Supper by Dürer's pupil Hans Schäufelein from 1515.
- There are also 133 historically valuable coats of arms or death shields in the cathedral, making them the largest collection of coats of arms in Germany.
Second construction phase: modern times (1844-90)
When building the buttresses on the cathedral, which give the house stability, gargoyles were created, imaginative figures made of stone, through which the water is "spat" outwards. Among the figures are animals such as elephants, fish and birds, as well as human figures and dragon animals. However, only the rear part of an ostrich can be seen. According to legend, a journeyman came up with this gag: He fell in love with the master's daughter, but according to the guild rules he was not allowed to marry her. Now the journeyman was supposed to create an animal sculpture - and according to the motto of Götz von Berlichingen , the ostrich pointed the buttocks directly in the direction where the master lived. It is not known whether the journeyman got his “Schatzle” or not.
For the 500th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone of the cathedral in 1877, members of the Ulm synagogue community (including Albert Einstein's father ) donated the statue of the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah . It is the only statue with a veiled head. The statue, which can be found on the pulpit side of the main nave below the large organ, was created by the court sculptor Karl Federlin , who also created the 16 larger-than-life sculptures on the pillar consoles.
The windows of the minster, which date from the 19th century, were not relocated during the Second World War and consequently destroyed in 1944. (See: Fritz Birkmeyer )
A “restoration”, which is now very questionable and therefore largely reversed, happened to the interior of the minster in 1817. All the walls were covered with an “ancient gray color” in order to show the minster “in that simply sublime garb, as the old German building spirit demanded ".
Additions from the 20th and 21st centuries
In the western area of the south aisle there is a 1981 cast of the bronze sculpture “The Beggar” by Ernst Barlach .
Most of the windows in the naves are kept very simple because they date from the 19th century and were destroyed in 1944; Gradually, however, these "emergency windows" are being replaced by windows with art paintings.
Münster windows, which reflect the history of art as well as the development of stained glass in the 20th and 21st centuries, are (small selection):
- Wilhelm Geyer : Bridal Window (1953, above the southeast portal)
Hans Gottfried von Stockhausen :
- The Six Works of Mercy (1956, south side),
- Freedom (In fellowship 47th US Inf. Regiment , 1958, side aisle, foundation of the US soldiers stationed in Ulm)
- Israel Window (1986, above the southern exit of the Western Front)
Wolf-Dieter Kohler :
- Homecoming window (1959, north side),
- Ascension Window (1962, above the Marientor)
Valentin Peter Feuerstein :
- Sermon Window (1981),
- Window of Promise (1985, it shows the development of modern natural science with the heads of Nikolaus Copernicus , Galileo Galilei , Johannes Kepler , Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, who was born in Ulm, including his groundbreaking Einstein formula E = mc 2 ),
- Window of Fulfillment (1985; all three figural windows are on the south side)
Johannes Schreiter :
- World hazard window ,
- World completion window (both 2001, eastern part of the south side).
All choirs of the Ulm Minster are summarized under the term Münsterkantorei . The Münsterkantorei in its current form was founded in 1956 by the then Münster organist Hans Jakob Haller and today includes the motet choir (as the house choir of the Ulm Minster) as well as the youth choir, the children's choir, the children's choirs and the vocal ensemble ulmer münster, a chamber choir that only existed since 2011 . The overall musical direction of the Münsterkantorei is traditionally the responsibility of the first organist and cantor at Ulm Minster. Since 2010 this has been Friedemann Johannes Wieland .
The tasks of the choirs at the Ulm Minster include the musical accompaniment of various church services (e.g. the Christmas services) as well as regular concert performances in the Ulm Minster and in the Pauluskirche (e.g. the oath concert at the beginning of the oath weekend or the passion concert Good Friday ) and concert tours.
It cannot be assumed that the Liebfrauenkirche, the predecessor of the Ulm Minster (see architectural history ), had an organ . The Ulm chronicler Felix Fabri does not mention any musical activities there. It is possible that organ music was played in the cathedral choir, which was used for church services as early as 1383. Here is a chronological list of some of the stations in the course of its long history:
- In 1414 an organ master was mentioned in the Stuerbuch, in 1416 he was named: "Höckel den Orglenmaister". Did he build an organ?
- In 1423 there are concrete references to an existing work in the building maintenance book of the minster.
- 1431–1433: Master Ludwig from Breslau builds a new organ.
- 1439: Brother "Chunrad Rottenburger, the organ master barefoot order" from Nuremberg works on the organ. The entries in the document VE URK 1439 May 23 (in the Ulm city archive) do not indicate a new building; The Ulm chronicler Elias Frick probably misread this in 1731.
- 1486/88: New organ built, perhaps by Master Thomas. In his Ulm organ sermon, Dieterich dates the new building to the year 1488; it is certain that Jacob Acker painted the organ wings in 1486.
- 1531: In Ulm, too, the so-called "Götzentag" takes place, the comprehensive Ulm iconoclasm to which 60 altars and many important works of art fall victim (see Ulm School ). Because the Reformation in Ulm was initially shaped by Switzerland and its “Reformed thinking” around Ulrich Zwingli , the organ also fell victim in the process (see events in Zurich ). An old report about this time tells: “When they were unable to lift the body with the pipes in the great organ, they tied ropes and chains around it, then harnessed horses to them and suddenly tore them down and over a heap let fall ".
- According to Elias Frick, an emergency organ was built on wooden pillars in 1550
- 1576–1578: Kaspar Sturm from Schneeberg built a new organ (the fourth work) with 34 registers and over 3000 pipes for 11,000 guilders after three years of construction.
- 1595 (or 1599): Conrad Schott, Peter Grünwald ( Nuremberg ) and Andreas Sartor (i.e. Schneider, from Reutlingen ) expand the organ to 39 (or 40) registers. The art-friendly theology of Martin Luther had meanwhile found its way into the city and made the appreciation of music in church and in worship possible again.
- 1630: The organ is renovated by Johannes Meier.
- 1688: A violent hailstorm in Ulm ruins around 500 pipes.
- 1699: Chrysostomus Baur (* 1662 in Ulm as the son of the carpenter Martin Baur; † 1729 in Augsburg) repairs everything.
- 1735: After four years of work, Georg Friedrich Schmahl completes a total of three new keyboards , a breastwork and a Rückpositiv . The organ now has 45 registers on three manuals and one pedal . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart played on this organ during his stay in Ulm in the summer of 1763.
- 1843: Eberhard Friedrich Walcker is contacted; Conclusion of contract in 1849.
- 1856: Eberhard Friedrich Walcker erects a new building, op 144, with 100 registers; Consecration on 12/13. October 1856. Now the organ has four manuals and two pedals (double pedal!) With mechanical action , making it the largest organ in the world for some time.
- 1889: The organ, broken down in 1882, is reinstalled in an expanded form by Walcker's sons. Prospectus and gallery design by master builder Beyer.
- 1929: Albert Schweitzer visits Ulm and suggests building a choir organ; However, this idea was not implemented until 1960.
- 1930: The organ receives an electro-pneumatic action with additional stops (now: 109 stops).
- 1960: As an organ expert, Helmut Bornefeld suggests building a new organ in the main nave for acoustic reasons (because of 8 seconds of reverberation for each note).
Main organ on the west gallery
The current main organ (also called "Great Organ" or "West Organ") was built from 1967 to 1969 by the organ building company Eberhard Friedrich Walcker & Cie. (Ludwigsburg) built. It is located on the main gallery under the main tower (access via a separate staircase). The installation of the instrument was supervised by the organ expert Walter Supper . Parts of the existing pipe material from the old Walcker organ were used in the instrument. It has 100 registers on five manuals and a pedal with a total of 8,900 pipes. The organ is considered "opus 5000" by the Walcker organ company.
In 1995/1996 the organ was equipped with a modern electronic composer system and has the following disposition :
- Pairing :
- Normal coupling: V / I, IV / I III / I, V / II, IV / II, III / II I / II, V / IV, V / III, IV / III, I / P, II / P, III / P, IV / P, V / P
- Playing aids : crescendo roller , two swell kicks, tutti, tongue and mixture holder.
- Effect register : Zimbelstern
In addition to the main organ on the main gallery, four other organs can be heard regularly in the Ulm Minster.
The choir organ (also called swallow's nest organ ) is located on the south wall of the choir high above the choir stalls . It was built in 1960 by the Rieger organ builder (Vorarlberg). Helmut Bornefeld made the planning . The instrument has mechanical slide chests , two manuals, a pedal and a total of 20 stops (including the rare alphorn ). In May 2019 the choir organ, which could not be renovated due to static reasons, was offered for sale. The buyer was a parish in Biłgoraj (Poland). A new instrument should be installed by 2022.
- Coupling : I / II, I / P, II / P
Other church musical instruments
- 1962: Organ positive (this instrument is usually placed near the large pulpit at concerts, it can be used on the move), made by Walcker. Five registers (slider drawer, mechanical action). This organ is mainly used as part of the basso continuo in concerts with choir and orchestra. This organ was replaced in 2012 by a chest organ made by Reinhard Tzschöckel.
- 1977: Organ in the Konrad Sam Chapel , disposition: Edgar Rabsch , execution: Reinhard Tzschöckel. Main work, upper work and pedal with 14 registers (sliding drawer, mechanical action).
- 1991: Altar organ , disposition: Edgar Rabsch, execution: Reinhard Tzschöckel. This organ has a fully mechanical action with nine registers on two manuals and a pedal. The instrument can be moved and dismantled.
- Since 1890, during the tourist season, the organ can be heard in Ulm Minster every day at lunchtime. Currently (as of 2014) between May and September there are organ concerts from Tuesday to Saturday from 12 p.m. to 12.30 p.m., on Sundays there is an organ concert at lunchtime. Every year on the 4th Advent the season closes with a “request concert”, the program of which is put together from the audience's requests.
Münster organists (selection)
Unless otherwise stated, the numbers at the end of the name indicate the period during which the person was organist at the Münster.
- Around 1452 the minorite Konrad Kaufmann was employed as organist with an annual salary of 30 guilders .
- Kaufmann's successor is Meister Lienhart in 1468, previously he was organist in Stuttgart from 1450 to 1467.
- Martin Grünenbach receives in 1515 "consolation for organist position" from the council
- Wolf Widenmann: 1578–1579 (dismissed after a year for breach of contract and represented until the successor was found by the town piper Heinrich Maier, who stood in again after Reintzke's death in 1595)
- Christoph Reintzke: 1579 or 1580–1595
- Adam Steigleder : 1595–1634
- Tobias Eberlin : 1634–1653
- Adam Hollart: 1653-1655
- Johann Conrad Merckh: 1655-1659
- Andreas Schwilge : 1659–1671
- Sebastian Anton Scherer : 1671–1712
- Conrad Michael Schneider : 1712–1751
- Johann Christoph Walther: 1751–1770 (son of Johann Gottfried Walther )
- Johannes Martin: 2nd half of the 18th century (from 1770?)
- J. Christoph Scheifelen
- J. Chr. Kienlen
- Samuel Gottlob Auberlen : from 1817 († 1829)
- Johann Friedrich Dieffenbacher : 1830–1881
- Johannes Graf : 1890–1918
- Fritz Hayn : 1923–1955
- Hans Jakob Haller : 1955–1971
- Edgar Rabsch : 1972–1990
- Friedrich Fröschle : 1991–2009
- Friedemann Johannes Wieland : from 2010
There are a total of thirteen church bells in the main tower of the minster . Ten of them can be rung, the other three hang on the wall of the octagon, but are not rung. Until the motorization in 1953, all bells were rang by hand by young people or towers .
On September 16, 2005, the bell was stopped due to massive damage to the steel bell cage. When the bells were removed on October 3, 2006, severe damage to the Great Prayer Bell and the Landfire Bell came to light. The prayer bell was then welded in with a new crown and hood, while the country fire bell on the brass knuckles was restored. Except for the cross bell , the clapper of which had already been renewed once within the last few decades, and the oath bell, all other bells received new clappers. In addition, restorations were necessary on various wooden yokes.
After completing this work and repairing the bell cage, the bells were rung again for the first time on April 12, 2009 (Easter Sunday).
- Partial ringing of the imperial bell (b) on YouTube , duration: 5:29 minutes
- Partial ringing: 3 bells of the cathedral church on youtube.com , duration 31:26 minutes.
Of the ten bells that can be rung, nine bells form the holiday bells. Bell no. 10 ( oath bell ) "corresponds" in disposition and nominal (roughly) to bell no. 3 ( large praying bell ). It rings on special occasions.
|No.||Surname||image||Casting year||Foundry, casting location||Ø (cm)||Mass (kg)||Chime||Remarks|
|1956||Bell foundry Kurtz (Stuttgart)||199.5||4,912||as 0||Lat. the glorious . Biggest, heaviest and deepest bell.
Annually on December 17th at 7:15 pm, its 15-minute chime reminds of the air raid on the city in 1944.
The bell ornament was made by Helmuth Uhrig and shows the Archangel Michael fighting the dragon .
(Sunday bell or Reformation bell)
|1931||185||4,301||b 0||Lat. the consecrated to the Lord .
Cast in 1931 on the occasion of the celebrations for the 400th anniversary of the Reformation in the free city of Ulm. Because of its particularly high quality sound, the bell did not have to be handed in for war purposes in 1942.
The hours are looked up on Dominica. As the lowest bell of a weekday service as well as a main Sunday service, it rings 30 minutes before the service begins to sign.
Prayer Bell (Our Father Bell)
|1454||Foundry Eger (Reutlingen)||170||3,800||c 1||In 1454 the first bell that was rung in the bell-room of the minster.
It is rung for the Lord's Prayer in the main and evening services and Monday to Saturday at 12:00 noon for the noon prayer .
|4th||Funeral bell||1678||Ernst foundry in Lindau||142||1,750||of the 1st||Sounds as a soloist while a member of the Münster, Paulus or Georgskirch parishes is being carried to the grave.|
|5||Small praying bell||1956||Bell foundry Kurtz (Stuttgart)||139||1,766||it 1||It rings daily at 6:30 a.m. for morning prayer and at 7 p.m. (in summer at 8 p.m.) for evening prayer and is thus an invitation to be under God's guidance day and night. On Sundays, 30 minutes before the start of the service, she gives the sign for early and evening services.
The bell ornament from Helmuth Uhrig shows ornaments .
|6th||Cross bell||124||1,248||f 1||According to the old chime, the bell was rung every Friday at 3 p.m. at the traditional hour of Jesus' death . The new ringing order provides for cross ringing instead .|
|7th||Country fire bell||14th century||114||900||as 1||The bell was originally in the Church of Our Lady outside the city. It once rang in the event of danger such as fire or approaching enemies, and was used until the beginning of the 20th century to announce the closing of the city gates. Since their brass knuckles were damaged, it had to be restored in the Lachenmeyer bell welding plant in Nördlingen.|
|8th||Baptismal bell||1956||Bell foundry Kurtz (Stuttgart)||93||506||b 1||Call for baptism.|
|9||Arbitration bell||83||345||c 2||Rings at 9 a.m. after a death becomes known.|
|10||Oath bell||14th century||164||3,500||c 1||The oldest bell in Ulm Minster, which initially hung in front of the gates of Ulm in the parish church “above the field” near today's old cemetery. It has a crack in the upper part, which - presumably shortly after it was cast - was repaired with staples.
The bell is rung by hand. It only sounds on Oath Monday , during the mayor's oath on the great oath of 1397, and at the mayor's funeral instead of the funeral bell .
|style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! occasion||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! occasion||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! Number of
|style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! number 1||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! No. 2||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! No. 3||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! No. 4||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! No. 5||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! No. 6||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! No. 8||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! No. 9||style = "background-color: #dddddd;" !! Comments / order|
|1 Advent||Morning service||6th||of the 1st||it 1||f 1||as 1||b 1||c 2|
|Main service||4th||as 0||of the 1st||it 1||f 1|
|Evening service||6th||b 0||c 1||of the 1st||it 1||f 1||as 1|
main and evening services
|9||as 0||b 0||c 1||of the 1st||it 1||f 1||as 1||b 1||c 2|
|Turn of the year||New Year at midnight||9||as 0||b 0||c 1||of the 1st||it 1||f 1||as 1||b 1||c 2|
|Invocāvit (1st Sunday of Passion Time )||Morning service||4th||c 1||of the 1st||it 1||f 1|
|Main service||5||as 0||b 0||of the 1st||it 1||as 1|
|Evening service||4th||b 0||c 1||of the 1st||it 1|
|Lent||Morning service||5||c 1||f 1||as 1||b 1||c 2||(F minor chord)|
|Main service||6th||b 0||c 1||of the 1st||it 1||f 1||b 1||(B minor chord)|
|Evening service||5||b 0||of the 1st||it 1||f 1||b 1||(B minor chord)|
|Good Friday||Main service||4th||as 0||b 0||it 1||as 1||ascending|
|Hour of Jesus' death (3 p.m.)||1||as 0||Following the ringing, the entire ringing is silent until Easter Vigil.|
|Easter Eight / Easter Sunday||Gloria in excelsis||9||as 0||b 0||c 1||of the 1st||it 1||f 1||as 1||b 1||c 2|
|Pentecost Sunday||Main and
|9||as 0||b 0||c 1||of the 1st||it 1||f 1||as 1||b 1||c 2|
|baptism||Baptismal service||4th||it 1||as 1||b 1||c 2|
|Baptismal act||1||b 1|
|wedding||4th||it 1||f 1||as 1||c 2|
|funeral||Funeral service||4th||c 1||f 1||as 1||c 2||(F minor chord), ascending|
|Walk to the grave||1||of the 1st||(Funeral bell)|
|School service||4th||f 1||as 1||b 1||c 2|
|Cross bells||Fridays, at the hour of Jesus' death||4th||b 0||of the 1st||f 1||b 1||(B minor chord with cross bell )|
|Night prayer||Daily, 10 p.m.||1||as 1||Night bells are no longer implemented since the night prayer offered in the Münster was discontinued due to a lack of participation.|
Bells in an octagon
In the cathedral tower there are three more bells on wall brackets in the octagon - above the tower parlor. Up until the electrification, these three bells were (also) operated by the tower guard. The porter's bell and the Arbeitsglöcklein are no longer rung and no longer struck.
|No.||Surname||Casting year||Foundry, casting location||Ø (cm)||Mass (kg)||Nominal||Remarks|
Gate bell early bell
||1644||Bell founder Allgeyer (Ulm)||80||375||The bell hung in the belfry until 1931, but was "no longer in use in 1907 - except when a delinquent was executed early in the morning." Since its sound was felt to be impure, it was exchanged for a new c 2 bell in 1931 .
According to historical sources, this bell was struck until the beginning of the 19th century to signal the gatekeepers at the city fortifications that the large city gates could be opened. Other sources report that the land fire bell was demonstrably used for this purpose .
bell (also: hangman's bell)
|1606||46||According to an older tradition, it was rung when the hangman went about his work on the Galgenberg in Ulm. However, this information was confused with the gate bell|
|13||Chime bell||1414||Bell founder Seitz (Nuremberg)||121||1,500||g 1||According to an older tradition, this cathedral bell competed with the town hall bell for who was to sound first to indicate a full hour. Both bells had the same function.
The striking bell is struck with a hammer.
On the occasion of the 41st Wuerttemberg State Trombone Day 2006, at which the ringing of the bells was not possible due to renovation work on the bell cage and some bells, Hans-Peter Braun composed the piece Ulmer Festgeläut for brass for four eight-part trombone choirs , in which the bells ring through the sound of Brass instruments is mimicked. At weddings during the bellless period, the sacristan played the bells off the tape for the congregation so that they did not have to do without the bell.
- Ulm Minster - bells and organs. Friedrich Fröschle plays on three organs (recording from 2000, CD AGK 12219) - Commentary: nine bells of the minster ring individually, in groups and in full bells, three organs of the minster can be heard.
- Organ request concert in Ulm Minster. Friedrich Fröschle at the Great Organ (recording from 2003, CD AGK 12223) - Comment: the main organ can be heard with 16 classics of the organ literature.
- Confidentia - winds make music at the 40th State Trombone Day (recording from 2004, CD SACD 9155) - Comment: 4000 winds make music in Ulm Minster, 8500 in front of Ulm Minster under the direction of church music director Hans-Ulrich Nonnenmann Music by Georg Friedrich Handel , Johann Sebastian Bach and Joseph Haydn , lastly the cathedral bells ring for this game.
Use of the minster for company logos and company names
The Ulm-based fire equipment supplier and vehicle manufacturer Magirus made the Ulm Minster a central part of its trademark in 1917 . After this was redesigned in 1925, it only showed the stylized silhouette of the minster in combination with an "M" for Magirus. After the takeover of Magirus by the Humboldt-Deutz Group, the new version then adorned the trucks , buses and fire-fighting vehicles of the Magirus-Deutz brand , which spread the trademark with the stylized silhouette of the Ulm Minster in over 100 countries around the world. In 1964, the new parent company, now called Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz (KHD), made the Magirus logo its own company logo and subsequently used it for other products not made in Ulm (e.g. for Deutz tractors ). So over time it was identified more with Deutz than with Magirus. After Magirus-Deutz was incorporated into IVECO , the logo with the stylized silhouette of the Ulm Minster disappeared from trucks, buses and fire engines in 1980. Today's Deutz AG , which has since emerged from KHD, has retained it as a company logo in a slightly compressed form. The old version of the Magirus company logo from 1917, which still shows the entire Ulm Minster, lives today in the logo of the oldtimer club Magirus IVECO e. V., who takes care of the preservation of historic commercial vehicles from Magirus, Magirus-Deutz and IVECO.
The Ulm Minster is the main component of the logo for the non-commercial, regional web radio; with its radio waves, it represents a thematic reference to radio, although web radio can only be heard over the Internet.
The Ulm Minster gave its name to the "Ulm Minster Brewery ", which produced "Ulm Minster Beer " from 1908 to 2002 only 2 kilometers from the church .
The tool manufacturer Ulmia, which was founded in Ulm and is now based in Langenenslingen , also has the cathedral in its logo.
The blood-red shrub rose ' KORtello ', introduced by Reimer Kordes in 1982 , was named after him in honor of the minster.
The cathedral as the junction of various pilgrimage routes
At the beginning of the 21st century, the cathedral became more and more a junction for various pilgrimage routes . A pilgrim stamp for the pilgrim pass is available at the gate of the minster .
St. James pilgrimage routes
Two signposted Jakobspilger routes lead to Ulm from the north, which unite at Ulm Minster:
- the eastern route, the Franconian Way of St. James , from Nuremberg
- the more westerly route from Würzburg or Rothenburg ob der Tauber via Lonsee to Ulm is called the Franconian-Swabian Way of St. James .
- From the Münster, the Upper Swabian Way of St. James , which has been marked since 1997, continues south.
← Previous location: Franconian-Swabian Way of St. James , Franconian Way of St. James | Ulm Minster | Next place: Ulm →
Other pilgrimage routes
Since 2008, part of the Upper Swabian Pilgrimage Route has started at the cathedral and continues to spiritual places in Upper Swabia.
Some pastors of the minster
The Münster parish has three parishes: South, West and East. Some of the officials in the 21st century are listed below:
- Stephan Krauter (2009–2019, managing pastor, West Parish Office)
- Tabea Frey (2012)
- Peter Schaal-Ahlers (from 2016, parish office east)
- Ernst-Wilhelm Gohl (Parish Office South)
- Søren Schwesig
- Ulm Sparrow
- Ulm Minster Square
- List of the tallest sacred buildings
- Dome, minster and cathedrals in German-speaking countries
in alphabetical order by authors / editors
- Myrah Adams, Christof Maihoefer: Jewish Ulm. Locations and traces . Medien und Dialog Schubert, Haigerloch 1998. ISBN 3-933231-03-5 (on Judeo-Christian togetherness in view of the Ulm Minster).
- Hermann Baumhauer, Joachim Feist: The Ulm Minster and its works of art . Konrad Theiss Verlag , Stuttgart / Aalen 1977. ISBN 3-8062-0164-1
- David Gropp: The Ulm Choir Stalls and Jörg Syrlin the Elder. Research on architecture and sculptures . Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft , Berlin 1999. ISBN 3-87157-182-2
- Franz Härle: The choir stalls in Ulm Minster . Langenau 2000. ISBN 3-88360-115-2
- Klaus-Ulrich Högg: The inscriptions on the choir stalls of the Ulm Minster . In: Ulm and Oberschwaben 45/46 (1990), pp. 103-161.
- Birgit Bergander: Gargoyles on Ulm Minster . Photos Marcellus Kaiser, Laupheim. C & S, 2004. 168 pp., Numerous. Ill. ISBN 3-937876-09-X
- Wolfgang Lipp: Guide through the Ulm Minster . Armin Vaas Verlag 2005. ISBN 3-88360-011-3
- New Year's Lechner: Ulm under National Socialism. City guides on the trail of the regime, the persecuted and the resistance . Documentation Center Oberer Kuhberg e. V. (DZOK), Ulm-Jungingen 1997. ISBN 3-9805396-4-4 . (The Münster history up to the 19th century: pages 27 to 34; Der Münsterplatz: pp. 34–42).
- Peter Morsbach: Upper Swabia and Swabian Alb - art, culture and landscape between the Middle Neckar and Iller . DuMont Buchverlag , Cologne 1999. ISBN 3-7701-4701-4 (pp. 31-39).
- Claus Reisinger : Flanders in Ulm: stained glass and book illumination. The glazing of the Better Chapel on Ulm Minster . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 1985. ISBN 978-3-88462-036-6
- Hartmut Scholz: The medieval glass paintings in Ulm . Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-87157-168-7
- Elmar Schmitt, Adolf Silberberger: The Ulm Minster in the past and present . Konrad, 1989. ISBN 3-87437-288-X
- Wolfgang Lipp : Pictures and meditations on the Marienportal of the Ulm Minster . Langenau 1983. ISBN 3-88360-042-3
- Erhard John: The stained glass in Ulm Minster . Langenau 1999. ISBN 3-88360-067-9
- Kathrin Schulthess: Heavenward. The Ulm Minster for children, young people and adults Süddeutsche Verlagsgesellschaft Ulm in Thorbecke-Verlag , Ostfildern 2005. ISBN 3-88294-356-4
- Hans-Eugen Specker, Reinhard Wortmann (ed.): 600 years of Ulm Minster = research on the history of the city of Ulm 19 ( Festschrift ). Kohlhammer Verlag , Stuttgart 1977. ISBN 3-17-004224-6
- Wim Swaan: The great cathedrals . DuMont Buchverlag , Cologne 1996. ISBN 3-7701-3817-1 (pp. 244-250).
- Reinhard Wortmann: The Ulm Minster = DKV-Kunstführer 286th 9th edition, Deutscher Kunstverlag , Munich 2014. ISBN 978-3-422-02270-6
- Ulm Minster - The Building (Site of the Ulm Minster Community)
- Baden-Württemberg - State monument preservation - Database building research / restoration - Münster of Our Lady (Ulm)
- Ulm Minster in the “Image Index of Art and Architecture” (image database), Photo Archive Photo Marburg
- www.kathedralen.net - Photos from Ulm Minster
- Flickr - Ulm Minster "Backstage"
- Online project on glass windows in the Ulm Minster of the Albert Einstein Secondary School Ulm-Wiblingen
- Stadtarchiv Ulm: The introduction of the Reformation in Ulm
- ^ Dagmar Hub: When Luther's writings were circulating in Ulm, Augsburger Allgemeine, January 22, 2013
- ↑ Ulm history (s): December 17, 1944 ulm.de, accessed on October 17, 2016
- ↑ Tobias Apfel (www.uni-bamberg.de, master's thesis): The Ulm Minster - building research on the late Gothic brick building in the western Danube region , (PDF; 6.4 MB)
- ↑ a b Volume calculations for the Frauenkirche in Munich and the Marienkirche in Gdańsk on built.eu
- ^ Wolfgang Lipp: Companion through the Ulm Minster . Ed .: Evang. Total Church Community Ulm, 1977, p. 3
- ↑ Ulm History (s) - The Ulm Collection 1230–1808 ( Memento of March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 4, 2014.
- ↑ http://www.muensterbauamt-ulm.de/muensterbauamt/baugeschichte.html
- ↑ History (s) of Ulm: The Ulmer and their Minster ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 4, 2014.
- ↑ Oratorienchor Ulm e. V. (Ed.): Festschrift for the 100th anniversary on May 24, 1990 . 1990.
- ↑ Oliver Helmstädter: Danger of falling rocks: Plastering is going on under the highest church tower in the world . In: Augsburger Allgemeine . October 19, 2018 ( augsburger-allgemeine.de [accessed October 21, 2018]).
- ↑ Südwest Presse Online-Dienst GmbH: Ulm Minster: After the plaster has crumbled: the choir is closed until March 2020 . In: swp.de . October 19, 2018 ( swp.de [accessed October 21, 2018]).
- ↑ swp.de: Prelude to the tower anniversary - Ulm Minster shines from within
- ↑ Wolfgang Lipp: Companion through the Ulm Minster , Langenau 1999, pages 30 and 31
- ^ Hermann Baumhauer, Joachim Feist: The Ulm Minster and its artworks , Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart and Aalen 1977, pages 59 to 62
- ↑ David Gropp: The Ulm choir stalls and Jörg Syrlin the elder. Research on architecture and sculptures. Berlin 1999. There also a research overview and the older literature.
- ^ Alfred Klemm: Sürlin . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 37, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1894, pp. 166-169.
- ↑ Reisinger.
- ↑ Anecdote from a tour of the cathedral.
- ↑ designbüomaus - www.designbueromaus.de: The Ulm Minster - the highest church tower in the world. In: www.ulmer-muenster.de. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016 ; accessed on December 23, 2016 .
- ^ Helmut Völkl : Orgeln in Württemberg , Hänssler-Verlag, Neuhausen-Stuttgart 1986, p. 15.
- ^ The music in past and present , vol. 12, p. 1647, Bärenreiter-Verl.
- ↑ www.ulmer-orgeln.de ( Memento from January 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ): Main organ Ulmer Münster, accessed on December 4, 2014.
- ↑ swp.de: Ulm Minster. The cathedral's choir organ is on sale , accessed on June 12, 2019.
- ^ Donau Zeitung, September 20, 2019
- ↑ Homepage of the Ulm Minster Cantorate ( Memento from January 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 4, 2014.
- ↑ Tourist Information Ulm: Organ concert
- ↑ Südwestpresse of October 21, 2009: The plans of the future cathedral cantor ( Memento of September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 4, 2014.
- ↑ [http://www.swp.de/swp_import/nachrichten/lokal/art659266,216637 '' Bells peal after three years of silence ''] (Link not available)
- ↑ Südwestpresse from November 11, 2006: The oath bell threatens to lose face ( Memento from April 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file)
- ↑ Henning Petershagen: "The cathedral bells and their ancestors", Südwestpresse, Ulmer Kulturspiegel, special edition from April 11, 2009
- ↑ See: Henning Petershagen: "The cathedral bells and their ancestors", Südwestpresse, Ulmer Kulturspiegel, special edition from March 11, 2009
- ↑ Logo Magirus Ulm ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ RadioUlm8.com ( Memento from December 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Gerhilde Fleischer, Jakobsweg I, Ostfildern 1997
- ↑ Wolfgang W. Meyer, Jakobswege, Tübingen 2006, 5th edition, p. 7 and pp. 189–227
- ↑ Thank you dear Pastor Krauter , accessed on February 27, 2020.
- ↑ Ulm in youtube , accessed on February 27, 2020.
- ↑ Der Neue am Münster , accessed on February 27, 2020.
- ↑ a b The penultimate , accessed on February 27, 2020.
Coordinates: 48 ° 23 ′ 55 " N , 9 ° 59 ′ 33" E