New Year

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Beginning of the New Year 2022

New Year (also New Year's Day ) is the first day of the calendar year . Because of the sometimes different in different cultures and religions eras and thus calendar is the beginning of the year at different times. In almost all cultures it is associated with a New Year festival with associated customs, and it is often a public holiday . The choice of which day the 1st day of the calendar system falls on is called the calendar style .


On an astronomical basis, New Year's dates for solar calendar systems ( solar and lunisolar calendars ) refer to long-term fixed times such as winter / summer solstices (solstices) or passage through the winter / autumn point (equinox, equinoxes), i.e. the geometry of the ecliptic to relate, more unusual about the perihelion passage (maximum proximity to the sun), i.e. the geometry of the orbit of the earth. Pure lunar calendars ( lunar calendars ) relate their system to events of the [sun] earth-moon system (such as new moon / full moon ). The two models “wander” towards each other with respect to the beginning of the year . In addition, because of the length of the solar year of roughly 365¼ days, there is also intercalation (leap days and similar bridging units), which can be solved in different ways. The choice of the New Year's date is purely arbitrary and culturally determined, and is therefore called the calendar style .

The Gregorian calendar , which is used internationally today, is based on the sun low in the northern hemisphere (December 21, so the spring date fluctuates), and is shifted by 10 days from the solar year in this sense (the tropical year on which the year is based, however, is by definition related to the spring point today which is easier to measure).

In the following text, the dates mentioned are either that of the calendar system that is dealt with or that of the Gregorian calendar to which other calendar systems and styles are related.

New Year's date in the western cultural area

In 153 BC According to their calendar , the Romans moved the beginning of the year of office from  March 1st to January 1st  , the day the consuls took office . However, the calendar year kept the March style with March 1st as the beginning of the year. It was not until Caesar's calendar reform ( Julian calendar ) that the originally appended months of January and February were set at the beginning of the year, so that the calendar year and the year of office began on January 1st. The counting months (September, as much as 'seventh'; October, 'the eighth'; November, 'the ninth'; December, 'the tenth') lost the positions corresponding to their names. Instead of counting the year, the Romans named the years after the consuls' periods of office .

Until the New Year's Day was established in 1691 by Pope Innocent XII. On January 1st, January 6th ( high New Year ) was the beginning of the year in large parts of Europe .

In the western cultural area, January 1st as the date for the beginning of the year has been widespread since the Middle Ages . Regardless of this, there were and are different dates in different regions and times, and in addition, different New Year's dates were sometimes used simultaneously in the same geographic areas.

The following variants, which are mainly used in the church sector (see church year ), are worth mentioning :

New Years Dates

Fixed dates

  • March 21 (beginning of spring)
    • In the Bahá'í - calendar year begins on March 21 in common years and 20 March in leap years , the Naw Ruz or Nowruz is called. This celebration is in Iran, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, in the Parsee celebrated community in India, Kosovo, Pakistan and by the Kurds and allegedly goes on Zarathustra back.
    • The first day of the year in the Iranian calendar is determined by the astronomical beginning of spring, the spring equinox (see Nouruz ). In the Gregorian calendar this is between March 19th and March 21st. If the time of the spring equinox is before 12:00 noon Tehran local time, that day will be the first day of the new year, otherwise the next day.
  • First Wednesday after April 14th:
    • New Year (Serê Sal) of the Yazidis
  • April 13th to 15th
  • September 14th
    • ecclesiastical Orthodox New Year, corresponds to September 1st according to the Julian calendar; see above January 14th
  • December 25th (Christmas)
    • widespread in England, Germany and Switzerland until the 16th century
    • Spain 14th to 16th centuries

Moving appointments

The date is flexible relative to both the Gregorian calendar and the solar year:

  • Chinese New Year (see there)
  • Easter in the church year (between March 22nd / 23rd and April 25th); the paschal style, from Latin pascha (e.g. in the Georgian calendar )
  • Jewish New Year (see there)
  • Muslim New Year (see Muharram ). Since the Muslim year is about 11 days shorter and leap months are never inserted, the New Year's date moves compared to the Gregorian calendar, so that two Muslim New Years fall into a calendar year about every 33 years.
  • Balinese New Year (day after the first spring new moon)
  • Matariki , the New Year celebrations of the New Zealand Māori and other Polynesian peoples in the South Pacific: the rise of Rigel or the neighboring Pleiades , in early June.
  • 1st Advent : Beginning of the church year in the western church

See also


Web links

Commons : New Year Celebration  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: New Year  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikisource: New Years  - Sources and Full Texts

Individual evidence

  1. Tacitus , Annals 13.10; Censorinus , De die natali 21.7. See Little Pauly . Munich 1979, Volume 2, Column 1311.
  2. See Eszter Spät: The Yezidis. Saqi Books, London, 2005. pp. 64-66.
  3. Cf. Hieronymus Engberding : The New Year of the Byzantine liturgy on September 1st. In: The Christian Orient in the past and present. Volume 1, No. 3, 1936, pp. 12-17.