Under Interior Design (English interior architecture , sometimes interior design ) refers to the planning and design of interiors . It encompasses technical-constructive aspects as well as aesthetic-artistic issues.
The professional title of interior designer is protected by law and anchored in German architectural law .
Interior design in today's sense goes back to the understanding of living space in middle-class households in Holland in the 17th century. In the late 17th century, curtains, wallpaper and upholstery were first designed in France to form a harmonious whole. In the 19th century the home became a place of refuge, the rooms of which were clearly assigned to specific purposes (dining, bedroom, living room) and which were designed according to personal taste.
In industrialized countries with stagnating population growth, fewer new buildings are built than they are converted, renovated and modernized. Interior design is therefore becoming increasingly important.
Interior architecture describes the conception, drafting, planning and implementation of interior spaces with regard to practical aspects such as usability (and convertibility) as well as their atmosphere, symbolism and effect.
The environment exerts an influence on the body, mind and behavior of people. In addition to the technical aspects, it is important to design the sensory space, which conveys relationships and meanings to the space through spatial perception (see also: creative therapy ).
The work area of interior designers partially overlaps with that of interior decorators and with decorative art .
- Interior construction , space-forming construction ( drywall )
- Exposure , lighting , sun protection
- Indoor climate , ventilation
- Materials , colors, surfaces ( flooring , wallpaper , paneling , stucco )
- Technology Integration Facility Management , Building Services
- Sound, room acoustics
- Equipment ( textiles , works of art , furniture , media )
The Art Deco style is characterized by geometric shapes, streamlines and clear lines. Overall, this creates an elegant and cool look. Materials such as chrome, glass, stainless steel, shiny fabrics, mirrors, aluminum, lacquer, processed wood and skins from shark and zebra can be used. The colors are simple and just as cool: metallic, neutral, glossy, black and white as well as silver, gold, metallic blue, anthracite and platinum. In the 1920s and 30s, the black and white color scheme was also popular as a checkerboard pattern, on tiles, floors, or wallpaper.
This style is based on craftsmanship, beauty, careful elaboration and elegance. The facility is kept very simple, but attention is paid to the detail. Delicacy and simplicity are in the foreground. The rooms are used multifunctionally with paper walls or room dividers, the so-called Shōji . They create privacy and are translucent. Alternatively, there are sliding doors called Fusuma , which run across the entire width of the wall. Materials such as fine wood, bamboo, silk, rice straw mats and shoijs are preferred. Natural and simple colors such as black, white, cream, gray and brown are chosen.
Interior designers design overall concepts and detailed solutions for the interiors of buildings as well as temporary and mobile spaces. This includes the design of public and representative places (e.g. foyers, museums, hotels) and the design of business premises (e.g. shops, restaurants). Other important topics are working environments (e.g. office) and leisure and living areas (e.g. individual and serial furniture).
Interior architects address questions of the fundamental formal design of interiors and their structural arrangement, the choice of materials and products, the color and light concepts, the construction and joining of furniture and extensions as well as the integration of technology and media.
With their design products, interior architects help to give design expression to social values and demands in the world of work, business, leisure and living.
Like building architects, interior architects are members of a chamber of architects and provide evidence of certain qualifications during a registration process: a university degree in "interior design", professional experience of a certain duration, subject-specific further education and more. Interior architects conceive, plan and design interiors holistically according to the service profile in accordance with the fee schedule for architects and engineers (HOAI).
A building submission authorization for interior designers is regulated differently in the federal states (D). Bavaria: According to Art. 61 Para. 4 No. 4 BayBO, interior designers are authorized to submit building documents for structural changes to buildings associated with their professional task, interior work. Decisive for the building submission authorization is not the type of building structure, but the affiliation of the submitted plans to the tasks, as it defines the professional profile of the occupation exercised by the draftsman. Insofar as such changes are related to the interior construction, the building submission authorization can also relate to facade changes, changes to load-bearing components, renovations of old buildings and other conversions.
Fields of work
- Exhibition buildings ( exhibition structures , museums )
- Care and care buildings (including senior citizens' buildings, hospitals , nursing homes , doctors' and lawyers' practices)
- Leisure and recreational buildings (including spa facilities, sports facilities, wellness facilities)
- Commercial buildings (shops)
- Hotel and catering buildings (including hotels , restaurants , bars )
- Cultural buildings (including operas , theaters , discotheques , concert halls , meeting places )
- Private residential and working buildings (including villas , representative apartments ; studios , libraries )
- Sacred buildings (including churches, synagogues , mosques )
- Administrative buildings (including office buildings , banks , workplace designs , conference and training rooms)
- Transport structures ( e.g. airports , airplanes , train stations , caravans )
The job title "interior designer" is legally protected in Germany. This job title may only be used by those who are members of a Chamber of Architects. Entry in the Chamber of Architects can only be made if, in addition to other criteria, a degree in interior design has been successfully completed and two years of professional experience can be proven after completing the degree.
Interior design is a course of study that can be studied at universities, technical colleges and academies in Germany. In recent years, the course has been completed with the academic degree of Diplomingenieur or Diplom-Designer. In the meantime, almost all courses are switching to Bachelor and Master .
The professional association is the Association of German Interior Architects (bdia) in Berlin.
There are various schools in Austria that teach interior design. The HTBLA Hallstatt in Hallstatt (Upper Austria) has a branch for interior design and furniture construction . At the HTBLA Hallein in Hallein , at the HTL Mödling in Mödling , in Villach and Imst it is possible to choose the branch interior design and furniture construction . There is also the possibility of attending an HTL for applied arts, specializing in interior architecture and furniture design, HTBLVA Ortweinschule in Graz .
In the university sector, there is the possibility of studying interior design and 3D design at the New Design University in St. Pölten.
In Switzerland there are two options for training or Further training in interior design.
University of Applied Sciences:
- Institute of Interior Design and Scenography , University of Design and Art , University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland : Admission with high school diploma or professional diploma . 6 semesters full-time training. In the case of non-technical qualifications, an additional 2 semesters of relevant internship. Degree as Bachelor of Arts .
- Lucerne University of Applied Sciences , Interior Design: Admission to the degree program via a three-stage procedure consisting of admission to the portfolio procedure, the portfolio procedure with integrated preparatory work and a personal admission interview. The portfolio consists of a collection of own work of a creative and technical nature as well as the result of the preparatory work. In the case of non-specialist training (without a relevant apprenticeship), an additional 2 semesters of relevant internship or preliminary design course are required. Full-time and part-time training possible. Degree as Bachelor of Arts .
Higher technical school (formerly technical school ):
- The training is currently offered in Zurich ( BBZ ) and Chur ( ibW Graubünden ). Admission with a certificate of proficiency in an apprenticeship in relevant specialist areas and / or with successful completion of the two-semester BGK building ground course (BBZ) or the two-semester interior design course (ibW). Main course: 7.5 semesters of part-time training. Federal degree as Dipl.Tech.Interarch. HF.
The professional representation is the Association of Swiss Interior Architects ( Association Suisse des Architectes d'intérieur , Associazione Svizzera degli Architetti d'interni ).
In Tunisia there are three ways to Further training in interior design.
- École Nationale d'Architecture et d'Urbanisme de Tunis , in the artist village of Sidi Bou Saïd , about twenty kilometers northeast of Tunis in northern Tunisia . Admission with Baccalauréat and you can study architecture there with a focus on interior design. Twelve semesters of full-time training. Graduated as Diplôme national d'Architecte .
- École supérieure des sciences et technologies du Design de Tunis . Admission with Baccalauréat . Interior design ten semesters full-time training for the Diplôme National Architecte d'intérieur / Design . In the meantime, almost all courses are switching to Bachelor and Master .
- École supérieure des Beaux arts de Sousse
- Private universities admission with Baccalauréat . Interior design ten semesters full-time training for the Diplôme National Architecte d'intérieur / Design . In the meantime, almost all courses are switching to Bachelor and Master .
The training takes about five to seven years and eight to ten semesters.
- Association of German Interior Architects: Handbook Interior Design 2007/2008. Callwey Verlag, 2007.
- Association of German Interior Architects: Handbook Interior Design 2008/2009. Callwey Verlag, 2008.
- Association of German Interior Architects: Handbook interior design 2009/2010. Callwey Verlag, 2009.
- Association of German Interior Architects: Excellent interior design by Callwey Verlag, 2009.
- Oliver Heath: Green Living. Living ideas for the environmentally conscious. Knesebeck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-86873-022-7 .
- Rudolf Schricker (ed.): Interior architecture in Germany. Koch Verlag, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2002, ISBN 3-87422-646-8 .
- Interior architecture - Interior Design in Germany II. HM Nelte Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-932509-11-7 .
- ↑ Sir Terence Conran: Living ideas, living design. 3. Edition. 1996, ISBN 3-7701-3499-0 , p. 13.
- ↑ a b Beusterien, John. Rodriguez, EduardoLuis. Narciso G. The Architectural Avant-Garde: From Art Deco to Modern Regionalism. The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts, Vol. 22, Cuba Theme Issue (1996), pp. 254-277
- ↑ Stanley, Meisler. 'Art Deco: high style. Smithsonian ', Nov 2004, Vol. 35 Issue 8, PP 57-60
- ↑ Striner, Richard. "Art Deco: Polemics and Synthesis". Winterthur portfolio, Vol 25. No. 1 spring, 1990. pp. 26-34.
- ↑ Tinniswood, Adrian. 'The Art Deco House: Avant-Garde House of the 1920s and 1930s'. Watsonguptill publishing company. New York. 2002
- ↑ Yang, Jian. 'Art Deco 1910-39'. Craft Arts International, 2003, Issue 59, pp. 84-87.
- ↑ BDIA - Association of German Interior Designers