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Guild sign of the carpentry trade
Cabinet maker

Carpenter or joiner is a profession , which refers to the cutting, mating or ennobling processing of timber and timber products has specialized. This includes the construction of furniture through to construction elements in the sense of wood technology .

The joinery or joinery is the carpenter's workshop.

Joiners and joiners

Depending on the region of the German-speaking area, this craft has a different name. According to the word atlas of German colloquial languages , Bern / Munich 1977, map 20, the regional distribution is as follows:

  • in North, West and East Germany, Austria and South Tyrol they say carpenter and joinery .
  • In Hesse, Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate, Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Rhineland and occasionally in the Ruhr area, as well as in German-speaking Switzerland and western Austria (especially Vorarlberg ), they say carpenter and joiner's workshop .

The word carpenter is derived from shrine (= chest , coffin , box , cabinet ), while the word carpenter is derived from table . The historical names Kistenmacher , Kistner , Kistler as well as Tischer and Tischmacher are no longer in use .

Cabinet makers have also been called cabinet makers since the 17th century .

History of joinery

Carpenter in training (1952)
Carpenter grinding

From carpenter to carpenter

The joinery split off from carpentry in the 14th century. It is an old and respected craft. The carpenters found themselves early on in a guild in a first order with apprentice , journeyman and master . Compared to other wood professions, the carpenters' guilds had the exclusive right to use planes as tools and glue as fasteners. The production of certain workpieces was also reserved for them. This included windows, doors, wall and ceiling paneling, furniture and, from the 16th century, the newly emerging coffins. Admission to the carpenter's guild was tied to certain conditions (e.g. marital birth, descent from respectable parents, good repute, at times also German nationality) and took place after the end of the apprenticeship in secret ceremonies in which the test person "planed" and was instructed by an old journeyman in the equally secret "planing sermon" about the self-image and the rules of conduct of the guild members.

Guilds, masters and journeymen

At no time did the guilds include all members of a profession, at times not even the majority. Outside of the guild system, so-called “court joineries” emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries from the royal courts and rulers' courts, which often developed into centers of extraordinary craftsmanship (peinture en bois). The best-known example in Germany is the workshop of Abraham and David Roentgen in Neuwied (1750–1800), which, in addition to the French and Prussian kings, also the Tsarina Katharina II . supplied. In addition, since the 16th century, the appearance of the hated and persecuted by the guild craftsmen in many ways, "troublemakers, botchers and bunnies" has expanded. These were country carpenters, former church or army carpenters or married journeymen who were all considered "not fit for guilds" and who in their need worked illegally for cheaper money for city customers. A census by the Senate of Bremen in 1804 gave an indication of the explosive nature of this problem: 50 master carpenters worked in the city, but at the same time more than 200 so-called "Böhnhasen" in the same professional field.

In contrast to the guilds, which were organized locally at city level, the associations of journeyman carpenters exceeded this narrow framework and acted in disputes about wages, working conditions and questions of professional honor with the support of their supraregional mobilization possibilities. Weapons of war were strikes in the form of exodus from the city, but above all "disreputations", swear letters, which isolated those affected socially and damaged them economically, for example by cutting them off from the supply of new workers. In the 18th century in particular, the disputes between the masters and journeymen of the carpentry trade escalated in numerous incidents, some of which took on violent proportions. In 1793, for example, the Prussian king deployed the military to eradicate a disturbance of the peace that had been largely borne by journeyman carpenters in Berlin. In addition to the ringleaders, 52 journeymen were subsequently publicly whipped and sentenced to long imprisonment, imprisonment or exile.

While Augsburg was the undisputed center of the carpentry trade in Germany in the 16th century , Berlin developed into the most important center of craft furniture construction in the second half of the 18th century . This stems from its status as an up-and-coming royal seat, from the long-term neutrality pact of the Prussian king with Napoleon , who had subjected large parts of Germany to his rule after 1800, and from the Prussian state's ongoing action against the old guild rights, which is why it was already used by Prussian carpenters, for example 1790 was allowed to freely determine the number of employees. In the rest of Germany at the time, guild members were generally not allowed to have more than two journeymen. The first large furniture manufacturers were established in Berlin by the middle of the 19th century , which soon supplied all of Germany with the help of the railways that had been built in the meantime and put the traditional carpentry trade under massive competition. The "Berlin trash" was notorious because of its quality, but feared because of its prices and its omnipresent, mass availability.

Like the other guilds, the carpenters' guilds were abolished by decree under Napoleonic rule. After Napoleon's defeat, the reaction tried to reconnect with the old conditions in economic policy : The guilds were reinstated - only important privileges such as admission to the master craftsman's examination and their regulation, e.g. Some of the restrictions on the number of employees were no longer enforced in many German states. In the 1860s, with the introduction of freedom of trade in most German states, the guild system was dissolved and the laws of the capitalist economic system also dominated the area of ​​the carpentry trade.


While industrialization meant that important woodworking machines such as the circular saw , the planer and the milling machine were in use since around 1840 , the necessary size of the drive system prevented its use in the craft sector, as did the corresponding capital investment. It was only when the surface planer was invented in 1875 that a system of continuous machine processing of wood was available, which was able to find its way into carpentry workshops from 1890, because from this point onwards smaller drive options were available with gas and later mainly electric motors. At the same time, the first factories for industrial furniture production were established in the Herford area near the Ruhr area , which were able to gain important market shares within a very short time if they did not completely displace the carpentry trade from some segments such as parquet flooring production.

The mechanization of the carpentry trade, which had been taking place especially since the turn of the century, turned the traditional way of working significantly upside down. Not only was human power replaced by machine power and output increased, the methods of how something was manufactured and what could be manufactured had to be adapted to the new technology. This was done with the ideal help of some architects (e.g. Bruno Paul ) and not least the work of the Bauhaus (Weimar / Berlin). Since the market for mass furniture had been occupied by the newly emerging furniture industry, building joinery developed into the most important field of work for carpenters. The manufacture of luxury furniture and the equipment of ships and yachts, and in some cases even of shops, played a subordinate role. Many of the carpenters who had not followed the path of mechanization became dependent on the publishing system with which the furniture industry had outsourced jobs through supplier and assembly activities. During the world economic crisis and during the time of National Socialist rule, residential construction activities were increasingly reduced. Many of the small workshops with a sole master or one or two journeymen were forcibly closed by the state in 1937 or 1942 during the "waves of cleansing"; Only a few larger companies that had received government contracts, especially in the context of the armaments expenditure of the German Reich, were better off.

Construction joinery after 1945

After the end of the Second World War, the reconstruction boosted the economy in West Germany. Most carpentry firms found their main focus of work in building joinery. It was not until the end of this construction boom in the early 1970s that many business owners started building up at least a second economic leg with interior design and furniture construction, if not shifting their focus here. The main trailblazer here was the “Carpentry Industry Project”, a research project jointly launched by the Federal Association of Carpenters and the Wood and Plastics Union, which described the current situation of the carpentry trade in the actual report and the tasks for a future competition in the “target part” the furniture industry formulated. Since the 1950s, new materials (chipboard, PVAC white glue, plastic film coating) had replaced traditional solid wood furniture with the technology of panel furniture and created a new processing technology (hot pressing for veneer technology, machine edge processing in a continuous process). Concerning side effects such as the detected emission of harmful formaldehyde aroused public attention and protest and within the carpentry trade a movement of ecologically working companies, which often also resorted to solid wood processing.

East Germany

In East Germany, the development of the artisanal joinery was largely determined by the socialist state ideology. The large construction and handicraft businesses were expropriated shortly after the end of the war and declared public property. Since the 1950s the pressure to collectivize the craft has increased. In addition to membership in the purchasing and delivery cooperatives, there was pressure to merge into the “craft production cooperatives” (PGH). This pressure can also be explained by the fact that the private trade, despite the controlling allocation of materials and personnel, repeatedly eluded overall economic planning, but also because it only inadequately fulfilled its intended tasks in the repair and service sector. Instead, the material interests of the handicraft businesses concentrated on the more profitable series production of mass-produced items and cooperation services for industry. This was politically unwanted, but ironically largely the result of planning specifications, which only reward repair services with the extremely low rate of "control power prices" and, in contrast to production linked to industry, allowed this work to be provided with a very low allocation of raw materials and materials. After another wave of collectivization at the beginning of the 1970s, which resulted in further substantial gaps in supply, there was great unrest in the population of the GDR . In 1976, therefore, the state's craft policy was realigned: new business permits were issued, cheaper credit options were granted and apprentices were reassigned to the craft for the first time. However, this only happened to a degree in order to maintain the status quo - the charging rates were not raised either, so that the decline in private businesses slowed down but has not been reversed. For the year 1989 the Federal Statistical Office published the following figures for the carpentry trade in the GDR: In addition to 160 production cooperatives of the trade (PGH) with 5873 employees, 6836 private companies with 19,581 carpenters are listed.

Interior work

Even after an interlude in the first three years after reunification in 1990, the reorientation towards interior design, initiated by the current economic crisis, continued. In view of the massive reduction in public building subsidies and the real construction figures, building joinery became a secondary area of ​​work for carpenters, and interior work appeared to be the way out. But the economic crisis set the pace of the carpentry businesses: Between 1996 and 2006, sales fell by 21 percent (from € 21.81 billion to € 17.26 billion), the number of employees fell from 299,964 to 185,427, i.e. H. by 38%, and the number of training contracts concluded also fell by 46%. The number of carpenters remained relatively stable with a decrease of around 4%.

The hoped-for lifeline of interior construction turned out to be ambivalent for the profession, because since the beginning of the 1990s the technical revolution in computer technology had also reached carpentry companies. Since then, data processing in work preparation ( e.g. CAD ) has been an integral part of the way a carpentry works. The use of CNC technology in production, however, had more far-reaching consequences , combined with the need for standardization, i.e. for the adoption of a principle of industrial operation. On the one hand, this provoked strong emotional defenses among those affected, and on the other hand, it intensified the competition within the carpentry trade due to the necessary high capital expenditure and the increase in productivity that followed. So from the end of the 20th century, highly specialized and high-tech production facilities emerged - on the other hand, many carpenters were pushed out of production and took on more and more tasks of direct customer service, as well as assembly work. This was also possible because the industry offers a large mass of high-quality articles in the construction sector, which often require the knowledge and skills of a professional for the necessary processing and which exceed the level of a do-it-yourselfer.

Assembly instead of craft

However, the reorientation of some of the master joiner's workshops to focus on assembly was faced with strong competition from the start. In 1994 the federal government under the leadership of the CDU opened the craft regulations . Now, in addition to master craftsmen, non-master craftsmen were also able to legally run a craft business if it fell into the category of professions and activities listed in Appendix B. "Assembly of standardized built-in parts" was listed under point 24 of Annex B. In the following years, a flood of new assembly companies was established, which from 2005 exceeded the number of master craftsmen. In 2006 there were 42,564 master carpenters' workshops, compared to 47,059 assembly companies, which one year later, in 2008, had 113,000 employees with whom they achieved sales of € 6.9 billion. In contrast to the continuing decrease in the number of master craftsmen after HWO plant A, their number continued to increase, albeit at a reduced rate; the Central Association of German Crafts (ZDH) reported 48,713 (assembly) companies in the first half of 2013.

Wood mechanic

Scientific observers of the structural change in the carpentry trade list the assembly companies mentioned as part of the carpentry trade in addition to the actual master craftsmen. The organizations of the (masterful) carpentry trade, which are united in regional guilds, state associations and the Federal Association of Carpenters and Carpenters Germany (TSD), Berlin, have made various attempts to address the new assembly companies and include them in their ranks - without, however, achieving any major success can. A decisive obstacle to a uniform representation of interests are differences in the question of training entitlement. The assembly companies are not entitled to this according to the craft regulations and the self-image of master carpenters - but at the same time it is necessary for the development of special skills of the employees there for the existence of these companies. This conflict of interests has led to the establishment of a separate interest organization, the Bundesverband Innenausbau, Element- und Fertigbau eV , based in Bad Honnef. The focus of his work is the effort to implement a new training course. The plan was to expand the existing profession of wood mechanic and to include the new branch of assembly. In August 2015, the training regulations for the wood mechanic occupation in the wood industry were expanded to include the “assembly” specialization and put into effect by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The carpentry trade has split organizationally and institutionally, because this change was no longer possible within the framework of the chambers of crafts, but only within that of the chambers of industry and commerce. However, the Bundesverband Innenausbau has also recorded a low level of organization among the HWO Annex B companies and the first numbers of apprentices reflect a rather hesitant implementation of the new training option.


Like the general economy in Germany, the carpentry trade also recovered in the years after 2006. We have succeeded in opening up important new fields of activity. As Dieter Roxlau, General Manager of the Fachverband des Tischlerhandwerk NRW, presented on June 11, 2012, this includes the renovation of old buildings and energy-saving renovations, age-appropriate home furnishings and the areas of wellness baths and the security of home and apartment. Roxlau has also pointed out that the proportion of assembly activities in the company's working hours has increased significantly: "However, this generally leads to stagnating value creation in the joineries, to a decline in in-house production and finally to the downsizing of the companies." If the increasing importance of Assembly activities that put pressure on small and medium-sized carpentry shops on the one hand, internal competition at the same time ensures the growing importance of high-tech production facilities with large capital expenditure. They are trying more and more to apply the principles of networked manufacturing to the conditions of the craft. Observers of this development of part of the joinery and joinery trade towards "Craft 4.0" emphasize the "shift in value creation" (Markus Faust), which leads to an increased importance of work preparation (AV) and speak of a "digital production: (... ) The production is no longer the 'production', but only the 'realization' of a digital product. Similar to a digitally written letter. The service is already in the file. " For example, there is a report of a 120-man carpenter's workshop that has set up a remarkable 14 qualified jobs, which corresponds to around 17% of the employees, in the AV. The key points of this in-house further development are the transition of the construction activity with the help of a 2D CAD software to a 3D CAD software and the introduction of a comprehensive ERP program (Enterprise Resource Planning) for the digital control of the operational process. The introduction of both systems is a lengthy, cost-intensive process, as the standard software has to be adapted to the operational conditions.


According to the HWO, Annex A, the available figures from the Federal Statistical Office show an increase in sales from 18,981,541 billion euros in 2008 to 21,560,548 billion euros in 2015, which corresponds to around 13.6%. According to the craft census, the number of businesses fell by 6.5% to 31,847 in 2015, and the number of employees in the same year was 200,950. With fewer companies and with significantly fewer employees (approx. −33%), a turnover was achieved in 2015 that was roughly back in the order of magnitude of 1996 (see above). The enormous increase in productivity is essentially due to the broad and comprehensive application of computer technologies both in the administration and in the production of the carpentry workshops.

Fire protection

After entire rows of houses burned down in many villages, strict regulations were issued in the 18th century under Count Palatine Karl IV to prevent a fire, which also regulated the removal of shavings every evening in the carpenters' workshops.

Situation of carpenters in Vienna in the 18th century

Larder veneered with Italian walnut, polished. Heavily burdened, often broken, richly profiled cornices. Inlays: bands of dark-colored and light pear wood. Theresian, 1740
Chest of drawers veneered with cherry wood, polished. Inlays made of black colored pear wood. The composition of the veneers represents stone architecture. Josephinist 1780–1790

The Viennese carpentry trade was at a considerable height in both the Theresian and the Josephine style periods, which, despite ancient craft tradition, would hardly have been achieved without the active support of the leading positions at the time. The master carpenters and their journeymen were granted numerous privileges, which were intended not only to secure their prosperity, but also their respected position in the community of the city. However, there were also economically significant differences within the carpenters' guild. The suburban masters were only allowed to take goods made of soft wood on the Drey Jahr-Märckten except instead of as at St. Margarethen Jahr-Marckt in the Leopold Statt, then to Peter and Pauli on the Hochen Marckt and to Michaely on the Holz-Marckt feyl to keep and for sale . The inner city markets, on the other hand, were reserved for the city masters. Her household items, veneered with hard wood, came to Georgy, at Pentecost and St. Catharina . for sale. Other items required for interior decoration are likely to have been offered for sale at the Pentecost market. So we learn from a cost estimate for the establishment of the Graeflich-Lambergschen house in Vienna (today Wallnerstraße 3) the hanging chandeliers can be selected at the current Whitsun market at the Linzer Glaser .

As with all other guilds, the granting of master craftsman rights in Vienna was tied to numerous regulations. For the higher artistic demands that were placed on the carpenters, however, speaks an ordinance that the journeyman required a certificate from the Imperial and Royal Baukunstacademie in order to be admitted to the production of the masterpiece. This masterpiece had to be a clean bedstead, box, table or something else , but it was not allowed to be made by Old Vatterischer Arbeit, but rather procured so that it could soon be sold again, usable and without any particular harm . In addition to the masterpiece, the candidate had to record the crack of a piece of furniture which had to be handed over to the kk architecture academy . Master drawings of this kind can no longer be found today. These would make the dating of the furniture much easier and provide the desired information about some phases of the style development. The lack of any graphic or archival material in Viennese furniture research is partly the reason why most of the scientific manuals dealing with interior design hardly mention Viennese citizens' furniture.

Construction, furniture or model joiners

Work of a model maker: wooden model as a template of the casting to be produced
The carpenter (from What do you want to become , around 1880)


The joiner manufactures fixed components of a building and installs them. This includes windows, doors and stairs. Direct cooperation with the other trades is important here . Similarities and dependencies arise with the carpenter , bricklayer , glazier , painter and varnisher , restorer and other professions.

Cabinet maker

The cabinet maker traditionally manufactures the moveable furnishings of a building, including tables, cupboards, benches and chests. Chairs traditionally built their own guild, the chair maker . The word furniture comes from the Latin term mobilis = movable.

Model maker

Model carpentry is a craft that is needed in foundries. The model maker produces wooden models for creating a negative form using the sand casting process . The models must have a precisely defined oversize in relation to the end product , as the metal shrinks when it cools. In addition to his woodworking skills, the model maker must also have knowledge of the metal foundry.



There is the possibility of training in the trade as a carpenter or in industry as a wood mechanic . The training of the wood mechanic is similar to a carpenter's apprenticeship.

Hobelbank a carpenter

In Germany, the aspiring carpenter goes through a three-year vocational training , of which the first year as Berufsgrundbildungsjahr or basic vocational school year (BGJ) in full-time classes at vocational schools can take place. In the basic vocational training year, there is both theoretical and practical training (practical training in the workshop of the vocational school). In the practical course, basic skills in handling hand tools are taught using the techniques of wood connections (prongs, tongue and groove, dowels, overlays). The search for a training place often only takes place during the basic vocational training year.

At least the second and third year of training is completed in a carpentry workshop. Attendance at vocational school takes place one day a week or in block form for a few weeks per year. During the apprenticeship, there are courses on surface treatment ("TSO 1 and 2", only regional), a course for hand tools, and machine courses ("TSM1, 2 and 3").

The training ends with the journeyman's examination and, in the positive case, with the delivery of a journeyman's certificate . In addition to the theoretical part and work samples created under supervision, the examination also includes the independent design and production of a journeyman's piece . This can be a single piece of furniture, part of an interior or a component (window, door or stairs). Depending on the focus of the training, the prospective builder and cabinet maker can choose what is to be built after consultation.


The training content is similar to that in Germany and the vocational training takes place in the dual system at vocational schools and at relevant training companies in the carpentry trade or the woodworking industry. The prerequisite for starting the apprenticeship is completing the nine years of compulsory schooling. Most of the apprentices, however, have a degree from secondary school or polytechnic school .

In Austria, the apprenticeship lasts three years and ends with the final apprenticeship examination . This is divided into a theoretical and a practical part. The theoretical examination covers the subjects of technical knowledge, applied mathematics and technical drawing. The practical test consists of a technical discussion and an examination. According to the examination committee, this test work should be carried out on a company work order, whereby the task extends to the production of a workpiece (journeyman's piece) taking into account work planning, quality control, safety and health protection measures.

Training as a carpenter technician
  1. Four years of apprenticeship. The training is similar to that of a carpenter, but the additional year of training can provide additional content in the area of ​​production or planning - depending on the focus of the training.
  2. Four years of training at a technical school for woodworking and sawing technology or for carpentry.
  3. Five years of training Higher education institute for interior architecture and wood technology or for art and design (training branch: furniture and room design).


Carpenter EFZ

The apprenticeship as a carpenter with a federal certificate of proficiency takes four years. The training locations are apprenticeship companies , vocational schools and inter-company courses .

The vocational school is a day once a week. The subjects are:

  • Expertise
  • Technical drawing
  • Technical computing
  • General education
  • Gymnastics and sports

The vocational baccalaureate is possible alongside work or after the apprenticeship.

The inter-company courses last ten weeks. The partial examination is after the third year of training. In the fourth and last year of the apprenticeship, the subject (furniture / interior design or construction / windows) is deepened. The degree consists of IPA (individual productive work) and LAP (final apprenticeship examination). In the field of furniture / interior design, a distinction is made in practice between assembly joiners and bench joiners. Bank carpenters mainly deal with the manufacture of furniture at the workbench. Assembly carpenters, in turn, work as furniture fitters, i. H. they assemble or assemble furniture on site.

Carpentry Practitioner EBA

The training to become a carpenter with a federal professional certificate usually lasts two years. The training locations are apprenticeship companies , vocational schools and inter-company courses .

The vocational school is once a week. The inter-company courses last seven weeks.

A further training option is the shortened apprenticeship to become a carpenter EFZ.

further education


For further professional training, the journeyman has the opportunity to acquire the master craftsman's certificate or to train in a two-year technical school to become a state-certified technician in the field of wood technology , the so-called wood technician , or the state-certified technician in the field of interior design or interior design.

Since July 14, 2004, the opportunities for further training for the joinery and joinery trade have expanded. On this date, the three advanced training courses for certified customer advisors , certified production planners and certified construction managers came into force. These nationwide advanced training courses are offered to journeymen, as a functional level, for advanced training in the carpentry trade. They can be credited towards parts of the master craftsman examination.

Professional development includes the opportunity as a restorer or conservator retrain.

Joiners who are interested in design and who want to train professionally in it can gain further qualifications in one of the academies or technical schools for design to become designers in the craft or state-certified designers (various fields). This can be done in a one-year full-time course or in two years part-time. The design academies are linked to their respective chambers of crafts.

The training at state technical schools, which concludes with the professional title state-certified designer , lasts two years. However, it can be shortened by one year if the technician qualification is available, Fachschule Holztechnik & Gestaltung HGH Hildesheim. Parts of this training are credited towards the master craftsman examination. A well-known institute is the Bern University of Applied Sciences (BFH) in Switzerland.


In addition to relevant advanced training courses, Austrian carpenters can be trained in related professions such as boat builders , wood technicians or prefabricated house builders with a shorter apprenticeship period. Appropriate courses must be attended for training as a master craftsman. The master craftsman's examination facilitates access to independent professional practice (craft license), but is not absolutely necessary. For higher qualifications at colleges, technical colleges and universities, you usually need the vocational maturity examination (Austria) , which consists of the final apprenticeship examination and four other exams. A carpenter must be at least 24 years old to be able to train.


  • Shortened basic education
    • Carpenter
    • Draftsman EFZ (specializing in interior design)
  • Professional examination (BP)
    • Carpenter foreman
    • Federal certificate for project manager and production manager for carpentry (professional examination) (in preparation).
    • Production manager carpentry (professional examination)
    • Wood specialist
  • Higher professional examination (HFP)
    • Master carpenter construction
    • Master carpenter in furniture and interior design
  • Higher technical School
  • University of Applied Sciences
    • Bachelor of Science (FH) in wood technology, civil engineering, interior design or architecture

Work equipment

A large number of hand tools, light hand machines and heavier machines are part of the daily work of the carpenter.

Situation of the profession

The carpenter's profession is a classic male domain . In 2010, the proportion of women in training and professional practice in the three German-speaking countries did not exceed 9.5 percent. The number of carpentry businesses in Germany fell from 44,486 in 1996 to 42,564 in 2006.

Carpentry museums

There is a carpentry museum in Bremen and in Eilsleben .

Well-known carpenter

Carpenters were not only successful in their profession, some were active in a variety of other areas.


The carpenters' patron saint is St. Joseph . Walter Ulbricht (1893–1973; 'first man' in the GDR from 1949 to 1971) was a carpenter (apprenticeship from 1907 to 1911). This was often mentioned or emphasized, probably to emphasize Ulbricht's membership of the working class . There are several well-known public figures who originally trained as a carpenter: for example, in addition to the conservative Prussian Prime Minister Adam Stegerwald (1874–1945), the founder of the famous Berlin Hotel Adlon ( Lorenz Adlon , 1849–1921), the Hitler assassin Georg Elser (1903-1945) as well as the 1st President of the German Democratic Republic, Wilhelm Pieck (1876-1960). The SPD politician Steffen Reiche (born 1960, former state minister) and the philosopher and artist Hugo Kükelhaus (1900–1984) are also among them.


  • Peter Benje: Woodworking by machine. Its introduction and the effects on forms of business, products and production in the carpentry trade during the 19th century in Germany. Darmstadt 2002. Online:
  • Peter Benje: Early sawing machines, furniture factories and steam joineries in Bremen - the introduction of woodworking machines into the carpentry trade in Bremen in the 19th century. Darmstadt 2004. Online:
  • August Graef, Carl Hettwig: The woodworking machines for joiners , sculptors, carpenters, wagon manufacturers and wheelwright, steam tailors and milling companies, gold molding manufacturers, etc. Voigt, Weimar 1877. (digitized)
  • Fritz Hellwag: The history of the German carpentry trade. From the 12th to the beginning of the 20th century . Publishing house of the German Woodworkers Association, Berlin 1924. (Reprint: Ed. Libri Rari, Hanover 1995, ISBN 3-88746-333-1 )
  • Peter Werner Janssen: Schreiner, Zimmermann & Co. International history of wood crafts. Wooden crafts from 3000 BC to the middle of the 19th century . Self-published / Museum für Holzhandwerke, Sinzig 2000, ISBN 3-00-002843-9 .
  • Wolfgang Nutsch: Handbook of construction: furniture and built-in cupboards . DVA, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-421-03187-8 .
  • Declan O'Donoghue (Ed.): Werkbuch Holz . Ulmer, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-8001-4829-3 . (German edition of the Hamlyn book of woodworking )
  • Wood technology expertise. 20th edition. Europa-Lehrmittel, Haan 2005, ISBN 3-8085-4039-7 .
  • Thomas Heyn, Hubert Lämmerzahl, Wolfgang Müller-Herzberg: Specialized wood technology . Bi.Verlag EINS, Troisdorf 2005, ISBN 3-8242-4604-X .
  • Wolfgang Nutsch among others: specialist knowledge of wood technology. with CD. 21st edition. Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Haan-Gruiten 2007, ISBN 978-3-8085-4040-4 .
  • Wolfgang Nutsch among others: Wood technology table book. 5th edition. Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Haan-Gruiten 2007, ISBN 978-3-8085-4185-2 .
  • Fritz Spannagel: The furniture industry: A textbook for carpenters, architects, teachers and enthusiasts. 18th edition. Verlag Holzwerken in Vincentz Network, 2008, ISBN 978-3-87870-666-3 .
  • Fritz Thurneyssen: The Munich carpentry trade: an economic and social study. Cotta, Stuttgart 1897.
  • Christian Zander: The carpentry trade in Germany (1350-1870). Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-8300-7034-4 .
  • Christian Zander: From the plane to the computer - On the economic history of the modern joinery and joinery trade in Germany. Echterdingen-Leinfelden 2008, ISBN 978-3-87181-734-2 .

Web links

Commons : Carpenter  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Carpenter  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Schreiner  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Christian Zander: The carpentry trade in Germany (1350-1870). Hamburg 2013, p. 65 ff.
  2. ^ Christian Zander: The carpentry trade in Germany (1350-1870). Hamburg 2013, p. 55 ff.
  3. Michael Stürmer: Handicraft and court culture. Munich 1982.
  4. Barbara Post: Writing furniture for the Bremen carpenters from the first half of the 19th century. Dissertation Bremen 1995, p. 30.
  5. ^ Christian Zander: The carpentry trade in Germany (1350-1870). Hamburg 2013, pp. 166–170.
  6. ^ Reinhold Reith , Andreas Grießinger, Petra Eggers: Strike movements of German journeymen in the 18th century. Göttingen 1992, p. 131.
  7. Achim Stiegel: A Berlin cylinder office. In: Weltkunst. Munich 2000, Volume 70, p. 2387.
  8. ^ Christian Zander: The carpentry trade in Germany (1350-1870). Hamburg 2013, p. 209 ff.
  9. Peter Benje: Machine wood processing. Its introduction and the effects on forms of business, products and production in the carpentry trade during the 19th century in Germany. Darmstadt 2002.
  10. Christian Zander: From planer to computer. Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2008, p. 37 ff.
  11. Peter Benje: Machine wood processing. Its introduction and the effects on forms of business, products and production in the carpentry trade during the 19th century in Germany. Darmstadt 2002.
  12. Christian Zander: From planer to computer. Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2008, pp. 65–95 ff.
  13. ^ Special edition dds (the German carpenter and joiner): Research for the joinery trade, results, analyzes, possibilities . Stuttgart-Echterdingen 1986.
  14. On the problem of formaldehyde: Dietmar Koch u. a .: Materials and hazards in the carpentry trade. Bremerhaven 1985, pp. 109-113.
  15. Clemens Bütner: The craft in the economic development of the former GDR and in the transition to a social market economy. Frankfurt am Main 1997, p. 130.
  16. ^ Federal Statistical Office (Ed.): Crafts according to trade groups, branches of industry and countries 1888 and 1989 - special series with contributions for the area of ​​the former GDR. Wiesbaden 1993, p. 19.
  17. Federal Association of Wood and Plastics: Carpentry / joinery trade in numbers. Berlin 2008.
  18. Roland Fischer: CNC technology for carpenters. Konstanz 2004, p. 15.
  19. Christian Zander: From planer to computer. Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2008, p. 122.
  20. Change among carpenters and joiners continues. In: wood. Zentralblatt of August 13, 2010, p. 766.
  21. dds (der deutsche schreiner) 10/2013, p. 71.
  22. Pro Wood Foundation (ed.): Investigations into structural change in the joinery trade. Frankfurt am Main 2004.
  23. Ralf Bickert, Martin Plümer: Make targeted use of the opportunities in a future market. In: Building and furniture joiner. (BM) 2/2006.
  24. Experts wanted for assembly. In: Exactly. 11/2010, p. 64.
  25. ^ Announcement from the associations of the German wood, furniture and prefabricated construction industry: Training figures for wood mechanics, Bad Honnef, December 20, 2016.
  26. Trade and craft, structural change leads to new opportunities. In: Exactly. 6/7, 2012, p. 8.
  27. Eduard Schiessl, Niklas Kögel: Networked production: No question of company size. In: Builder and cabinet maker (BM). 9/2016.
  28. Markus Faust: Fit for tomorrow? In: the German carpenter. 4/2017, pp. 40–43.
  29. Hans Graffé: Craft in the blood. In: Building and furniture joiner. 6/2017, pp. 28–31.
  30. Carpenter Schreiner Germany: Carpentry / joinery trade in figures, Berlin, May 12, 2016.
  31. ^ Franz-Josef Sehr : The fire extinguishing system in Obertiefenbach from earlier times . In: Yearbook for the Limburg-Weilburg district 1994 . The district committee of the Limburg-Weilburg district, Limburg-Weilburg 1993, p. 151-153 .
  32. ^ Archives of the Carpenters Cooperative Vienna.
  33. ^ Archives of the City of Vienna, Act 2/1743.
  34. ^ Archives of the City of Vienna, Act 2/1743.
  35. Act of June 27, 1740, Graeflich-Lamberg family archive in Ottenstein, Lower Austria.
  36. ^ Archives of the Carpenters Cooperative in Vienna V / 4.
  37. Günther Heine: The carpenter's and turner's tool. Th. Schäfer, Hannover 1990, ISBN 3-88746-228-9 .
  38. Text of the ordinance on vocational training as a carpenter .
  39. Wood and sawing technician training ordinance of the Austrian Ministry of Economics. Retrieved January 17, 2020 .
  40. Subjects in the apprenticeship as a carpenter. Retrieved October 1, 2019 .
  41. Differentiation between assembly joiner and bank joiner in practice. Retrieved October 1, 2019 .
  42. Traditional craft in Switzerland. Retrieved October 1, 2019 .
  43. Carpenter's Practitioner EBA - career advice. Retrieved October 1, 2019 .
  44. ↑ Entry requirements for the carpentry trade ( Federal Law Gazette II No. 91/2003 ) of the Austrian Ministry of Economic Affairs
  45. ^ Association of Swiss master joiner and furniture manufacturers VSSM: Graduates
  46. Federal Association of Wood and Plastics: Carpentry / joinery trade in numbers. Berlin 2008.
  47. Christian Zander: From planer to computer. Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2008. Here also the imprint of nine memoirs of carpenters working in the 19th and 20th centuries