|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||kassel|
|Height :||261 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||104.04 km 2|
|Residents:||68,635 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||660 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||36037, 36039, 36041, 36043|
|Area code :||0661|
|License plate :||FD|
|Community key :||06 6 31 009|
|LOCODE :||DE FUL|
|City structure:||24 districts ,
11 city districts
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Heiko Wingenfeld ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Fulda in the Fulda district|
The city of Fulda on the river of the same name is the regional center of the East Hesse region and the ninth largest city in Hesse . It is the district town of the Fulda district and one of seven special status towns in Hesse. Fulda is the largest city in the East Hesse region and its political and cultural center. The city belongs to the Rhine-Main area , one of the eleven European metropolitan regions in Germany .
The city of Fulda is located near the center of Germany in Hessen ; the state borders with Bavaria and Thuringia are 15 km south-southeast and 25 km east. On the upper reaches of the Fulda river , it is embedded in the Fulda valley between the Fulda-Haune-Tafelland in the north and the low mountain range Rhön in the east and Vogelsberg in the west. The city center is above sea level. Fulda belongs to the eastern part of the Rhine-Main area .
The nearest large cities are each over 100 km from Fulda: in the south-west Frankfurt am Main (104 km), in the south-east Würzburg (110 km), in the north-east Erfurt (168 km) and in the north Kassel (106 km).
Fulda is surrounded by the surrounding communities of Petersberg , Künzell and Eichenzell and, together with these three communities, forms an agglomeration of around 106,000 residents (as of 2009). Other neighboring communities are: Großenlüder , the city of Hünfeld , Neuhof and the city of Schlitz .
In addition to the core city, Fulda comprises 24 districts:
|Bronnzell (with brick)||1412|
|Istergiesel (with Niederröder Höhe)||408|
|Maberzell (with Trätzhof )||1727|
The core city of Fulda is also subdivided into eleven statistical districts or inner-city quarters, which, however, do not form separate districts:
|Westend (with Neuenberg and Münsterfeld )||3,947|
The city of Fulda was enlarged by the Hessian regional reform on August 1, 1972 by the above-mentioned 24 surrounding communities, but lost its district freedom on July 1, 1974 . For this, like six other Hessian cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants, it became a special status city . This means that the city has more tasks and rights than other cities that belong to a district, but fewer than cities that are not a district.
Development of the urban area
At the beginning of the 1970s, a new district was built on the Aschenberg, the development of which is characterized by apartment blocks and high-rise buildings. Today's urban development continues on the western edge of the city center. In addition, the new Fulda-Galerie district was built in the west . In 2005 the new Esperanto Culture and Congress Center was completed and inaugurated. There is a new swimming pool in it, which replaces the old central pool. Other major construction projects in the city center were the redesign of the vegetable market, the redesign of the university square, and the redesign and redevelopment of inner-city industrial wastelands such as the former enamel factory and the disused dairy factories.
Due to its location in Central Europe, Fulda is in the cool, temperate climate zone . Winters are cold with an average of 0.6 ° C in January, summers are cool with an average of 17.7 ° C in July. Nevertheless, it can get over 30 ° C in summer. On January 17, 1963, the lowest confirmed temperature in an inhabited place in Hesse was measured in Fulda at −27.5 ° C.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Fulda
Origin of name
The origin of the name Fulda is unclear. The following names are documented: from the year 750 Uulta and Uulthaha , from 751 Fulda, from 752 Uuldaha , before the year 769 Fulde , and in the 16th century Fuld , Fult and Fuldt .
The most likely origin is a so-called hydronymy (water names ) from Old Saxon folda "earth, soil" and the basic word -aha , which is related to the Latin aqua "water" and occurs in many German river names (cf. Ache , -a ); the underlying reconstructed Germanic words are * fuldō "Earth, earth; Field; World ”and * ahwō “ river ”.
Due to the fact that there are a large number of words in Indo-European with the root * pel- / pol-, there is also the possibility that Fulda would be a variant of the Indo-European polota . For the name Fulda , certain kinship relationships can be found in Eastern Central Europe: In Latvian there is palts, palte "puddle, pool", but also the river Pelta or Peltew .
Fulda area until the city was founded
After the eventful geological history of the Fulda area , Stone Age evidence can also be found here. The first settlements are around 5000 BC. Demonstrable ( see timeline ). Cultures developed, the migration of peoples brought new settlers to the region. A Celtic city was built on the Milseburg . The Frankish Empire developed after the fall of the Roman Empire to the center of power in Central Europe. The Frankish king Clovis I secured the support of Rome with his baptism, and a broad Christianization began. Boniface was commissioned by the Pope to proselytize the Germanic tribes in this area and to subordinate them to the Roman Catholic Church .
The development of the place began in 744 through Sturmius . In 754 Boniface was buried in this monastery . By Charlemagne received the monastery 774 the immunity and became one kingdom monastery . The Ratgar basilica (named after the abbot Ratgar ) was built between 791 and 819 , at that time the largest church building north of the Alps. At the same time, the first farmers and craftsmen settled around the monastery.
Abbot, citizen and peasant (11th - 16th centuries)
The abbey and the settlement received coinage, market and customs rights in 1019 through Heinrich II . In 1020 Pope Benedict VIII visited Fulda: an indication of the importance of the monastery. 1114 Fulda was first mentioned as a city (civitas). Under Abbot Markward I (1150–1165) the city experienced a boom, many estranged goods were restituted. The abbot was helped by one of the most famous document forgers of the Middle Ages, the Fulda monk Eberhard . Abbot Markward had to drive out robber barons, he built castles and fortified the city in 1162 with a city wall, around twelve towers and five city gates (Heertor, Peterstor, Florentor, Kohlhäusertor and Frauentörlein).
The abbots of the monastery were raised to the rank of imperial prince by King Friedrich II . Prince Abbot Heinrich von Weilnau had an abbey castle built between 1294 and 1312 in which he resided outside the monastery. This castle was converted into a Renaissance palace in the 17th century by Prince Abbot Johann Friedrich von Schwalbach .
Uprising of the citizens
In 1208 Fulda was raised to the rank of city and guarded its rights against the claims of the abbots, who already owned a castle next to the monastery. As Prince Abbot Heinrich VI. von Hohenberg built a second castle within the city in 1319/20, the citizens, with the help of the monastery bailiff, Count Johann I von Ziegenhain , stormed both of the abbot's castles and destroyed the new castle, including the tower and curtain walls. On complaint of the abbot who had fled the Emperor were over the city and the Count imperial ban imposed.
, In 1326 took Heinrich von Hohenberg his starched power as lord of the city, the annual tax of the city for seven years from 100 to 800 pounds Heller increase. When he wanted to raise taxes again in 1330, renewed resistance formed in the city. When he then imprisoned some wealthy citizens and demanded bail of 9,500 pounds Heller to be released, the citizens rose against him in 1331. They again allied with Count Johann von Ziegenhain, stormed the Abtsburg, the monastery, the Frauenberg and the Petersberg. Again the city was punished with imperial ban. The abbot's ministerials put down the uprising. Archbishop Balduin von Trier brokered an atonement according to which the citizens had to restore the tower and the curtain walls of the new castle and pay significant compensation. The city of Fulda received a council and mayor under the supervision of a princely mayor .
Peasant wars in the Fulda region
The situation of the townspeople and the farmers in the surrounding area was very deplorable due to the high taxes and compulsory labor. The monastery plundered the rural people and built ever more magnificent buildings. The farmers in the Fuldaer Land rose up against the authorities together with the citizens of the city and took part in the German Peasants' War in the spring of 1525 .
In the peasant wars in Fulda and in the Fuldaer Land the Pfaff of Dipperz Hans Dahlhopf was important, who gathered 10,000 farmers around him. Landgrave Philipp von Hessen came to the aid of the monastery with a strong army and put down the uprising in the battle of Frauenberg .
Witch hunt in Fulda
In 1603, during the time of the witch hunt, Balthasar Nuss was appointed to Fulda as a cengrave . Balthasar von Dernbach also entrusted him with carrying out the witch trials in the entire bishopric. In three years, Balthasar Nuss had around 300 alleged witches and warlocks tortured and then executed. He confiscated the property of the victims for himself. Ms. Merga Bien was a particularly well-known victim of the witch persecution in 1603. (For more information on the witch trials, see Balthasar von Dernbach).
Fulda as a baroque city
During the Thirty Years' War , the city was hard hit on June 20, 1640 by Swedish patrol corps.
During his tenure (1678–1700) as abbot, Prince Abbot Placidus von Droste fundamentally restructured the finances of Fulda Abbey. His successor, Prince Abbot Adalbert von Schleifras , was able to appoint Johann Dientzenhofer as master builder in Fulda in 1700 and commission him to build today's Fulda Cathedral and a city palace in the Baroque style on the site of the Romanesque Ratgar basilica .
In 1752 the prince abbots were elevated to the status of prince-bishops. During the Seven Years' War, Fulda was taken by a Hanoverian corps under Luckner in 1762.
During the tenure of Prince Abbot Adolf von Dalberg , Fulda became a university town . The Catholic University of Fulda existed from 1734 to 1805 . The facility had four faculties : theology, philosophy, medicine and law. The baroque building of the court architect Andreas Gallasini was built between 1731 and 1734. Today it houses the Adolf von Dalberg elementary school.
The secularization of 1802 disempowered the prince-bishops. The Fulda possessions went as the "Principality of Nassau-Oranien-Fulda " to Friedrich Wilhelm von Oranien-Nassau until Napoleon annexed the province of Fulda in 1806. The furnishings of the castles and numerous baroque town houses were looted or confiscated and auctioned. In 1810 Fulda became part of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt and the capital of the Fulda department . At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the province was dissolved and, after a year of Prussian administration, handed over to the Electorate of Hesse. After the German War of 1866, Fulda and Kurhessen became part of the Kingdom of Prussia.
On November 2, 1850, Fulda was occupied by Prussian troops, but after the clash of their outposts with Austrians near Bronnzell , it was evacuated on November 9 and then briefly occupied by the Bavarians. In the war of 1866, the Prussians occupied it again on July 6th.
During the Kulturkampf, the city of Fulda was a major bulwark of ultramontanism in the German Empire. The number of inhabitants was in 1885 with the garrison (a mounted division of field artillery No. 11) 12,226 (including in 1880: 3347 Evangelicals and 602 Jews). Fulda was u. a. the seat of a bishop, a cathedral chapter , a district court and a tax office.
Fulda emigrants founded in America a. a. the Fulda health support association .
Weimar Republic and National Socialism
In 1927 Fulda became an independent city .
In Fulda, the NSDAP could not win more than a quarter of the votes in the Reichstag election in March 1933 , and it also played a subordinate role in the city council. In the course of the Gleichschaltung , the Fuldaer Actiendruckerei was destroyed in 1933, and the historic Jewish cemetery and synagogue in the former Judengasse were destroyed during the Reichspogromnacht on November 9, 1938 . The former mayor of Fulda, Karl Ehser , later said that the Gau propaganda administration in Kassel had asked him to ensure that there were also attacks in Fulda. He had received orders to have the synagogue destroyed. In 1940 the Franciscans were expelled from the Frauenberg monastery .
During the Second World War , Fulda was repeatedly targeted by air raids. The first major attack, in which the cathedral was also damaged, took place on July 20, 1944 and claimed 80 deaths; on August 5, Fulda was hit by 30 incendiary bombs in a minor attack. On September 11th and 12th, and especially on December 27th, 1944, there were the most victims. During the air raid on December 27, 1944, around 1,000 people sought refuge in a canalised underpass under the railroad tracks and the marshalling yard, which had been provisionally converted into an aerial warfare tunnel , the Krätzbach bunker . When both tunnel entrances were buried, more than 700 people, including 451 Mehler employees , lost their lives. The Allied forces aimed to destroy the still intact train station as a traffic junction in the Third Reich and a supply route for the Ardennes offensive . A memorial stone inaugurated in 1981 on Mehlerstrasse commemorates the victims, as does a manhole cover in the sidewalk on Heidelsteinstrasse.
A total of 1595 war deaths were counted in Fulda; there were also a number of wounded and missing persons. About a third of the city was destroyed, and transportation and industry were badly hit. The historic buildings in the old town, especially around the vegetable market and in the baroque quarter, were also damaged.
Post-war and present
After the Second World War, Fulda belonged to the American zone of occupation and was thus part of the later federal state of Hesse, but no longer located in the center of Germany, but geographically and economically on the edge of the FRG. The inner-German border with the GDR ran only about 35 km from the city center. As a result, Fulda was cut off from its eastern hinterland until 1989, as the traditional transport and economic relations with Thuringia in particular were interrupted. During the German division, Fulda was part of the so-called border area .
During the Cold War , Fulda had a special strategic importance, which is illustrated by the term Fulda Gap . The term coined by NATO came from the idea that in the event of an attack by the Warsaw Pact, it would attempt to penetrate through the Fulda valley via Frankfurt am Main, about 100 km away, into southwest Germany. In this scenario, Fulda would probably have become one of the first theaters of war in a possible third world war . In Fulda there was therefore also a large US garrison in the Downs Barracks with the 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment , which was reflagged in 1972 to the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment ("Blackhorse Regiment"). In 1994 the stationing of US forces in Fulda ended. Various authorities and companies settled on the site of the former barracks and the new Fulda-Galerie and exhibition grounds were built on the area of the airfield belonging to this unit in the Sickels district .
Fulda developed into a modern industrial location after 1945 despite its peripheral location. In 1972, as part of the regional reform in Hesse, on August 1st, state law incorporated 24 municipalities around the city. In addition to the core city, they now form the 24 districts of Fulda. In 1974 the city lost its district freedom, which it had had since 1927, but a functional special status has been in effect since 1980 , with which various tasks of the district level are connected.
On November 17 and 18, 1980, Pope John Paul II was greeted with enthusiasm by more than 100,000 believers in the city center and at an open-air service on Domplatz.
On September 29, 1984 there was a peaceful demonstration in Fulda. Around 30,000 supporters of the peace movement demonstrated against military policy in East and West. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the opening of the inner-German border on November 9, 1989, several thousand citizens of the GDR visited the baroque city every day .
In 1990 the 30th Hessentag was held in Fulda . In 1994 the city celebrated its 1250th anniversary and hosted the first Hessian horticultural show . In 2002 the anniversary "250 years of the Diocese of Fulda " was celebrated.
In 2004 the 1250th anniversary of the death of the Holy Bishop Boniface was commemorated. On this occasion, the Bonifatius musical was premiered in the Fulda Castle Theater. In February 2019 Fulda was awarded the title “City of Stars” by the International Dark-Sky Association .
Fulda's 1275 anniversary
There were four anniversaries to celebrate in 2019: On March 12, 744, Sturmius and seven companions founded the Fulda Monastery and thus laid the nucleus for 1275 years of settlement in the entire East Hesse region. The establishment of built 1200 years ago Ratgar Basilica and by the Mainz on November 1, 819 Archbishop Haistulf performed consecration of Ratgar Basilica , the funeral of King Conrad I. in Fulda Cathedral 1100 years ago and the awarding of the market and Münzrechte by Emperor Heinrich II . 1000 years ago on July 1, 1019 were further milestones in the history of the city of Fulda, which had to be celebrated in 2019. During the city's anniversary seven gigantic new productions of the "Bonifatius" musical took place on the huge stage in front of the cathedral as a backdrop. In a summery, Mediterranean atmosphere, 35,000 people visited the play and the accompanying offers.
In Fulda, which was dominated by Catholicism , the center was traditionally the strongest party during the Second Empire and the Weimar Republic . After the war, the city established itself as a stronghold of the CDU in the state of Hesse. The best-known Fulda politician of the post-war period was Alfred Dregger , who was Mayor of Fulda for 14 years and a member of the Bundestag (at times CDU / CSU parliamentary group chairman) of the Fulda constituency for 26 years .
A coalition of CDU and CWE has ruled Fulda since the local elections in 2016.
The local elections on March 6, 2016 produced the following results, compared to the previous local elections from 2001:
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||46.5||27||51.0||30th||58.6||35||61.9||36|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||15.2||9||18.4||11||20.2||12||23.0||14th|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||12.0||7th||17.8||10||8.4||5||7.0||4th|
|CWE||Christian voter unity e. V.||6.6||4th||4.6||3||3.3||2||2.6||1|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||6.6||4th||3.4||2||4.9||3||2.6||2|
|LEFT||The Left. Open List||6.2||4th||3.0||2||2.6||1||-||-|
|Voter turnout in%||44.1%||41.2%||36.2%||47.7%|
Results of the local elections in Fulda from 1946 to the 1997–2001 electoral period.
|It accounted for the nominations of|
Lord Mayor and Magistrate
|Franz Danzebrink ( center ) (from 1937 NSDAP )||1930||1945|
|Erich Schmidt (appointed by the Americans after the war)||1945||1946|
|Cuno Raabe ( CDU )||1946||1956|
|Alfred Dregger (CDU)||1956||1970|
|Wolfgang Hamberger (CDU)||1970||1998|
|Alois Rhiel (CDU)||1998||2003|
|Gerhard Möller (CDU)||2003||2015|
|Heiko Wingenfeld (CDU)||2015|
The council consists of the main statutes of the mayor, the mayor, the city architect - who are employed full elected and six-year periods - and eleven other honorary councilors.
Heiko Wingenfeld (CDU) has been Lord Mayor of the city of Fulda since 2015 . His election took place on March 15, 2015, he won the election with a share of the vote of 66.6 percent and a turnout of 33.3 percent. Dag Wehner (CDU) was elected the new mayor on May 19, 2014 with 33 out of 58 votes by the city council. Daniel Schreiner (independent) was elected to the City Building Council on October 17, 2014 with 40 out of 54 votes by the city council and took office on January 1, 2015.
In the 18th electoral term (April 1, 2016 to March 31, 2021), five of the voluntary city councilors belong to the CDU , one city council each belongs to the SPD , Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen , CWE , FDP , LINKE and the Citizens for East Hesse parliamentary group ( BfO) (The Republicans until November 4, 2019).
coat of arms
“A split shield; in front a black, continuous cross in silver, behind in red a green three-mountain from which a green lily shrub with three silver flowers grows. There is a five-pinned wall crown above the sign. "
The cross comes from the coat of arms of the Fulda Abbey , through which the city was created. The lilies represent the three patron saints of the city ( Simplicius , Faustinus and Beatrix ). The three hills under the lily are said to represent their graves because Beatrix buried the two soldiers and was therefore killed. Boniface brought relics of these saints to the monastery church in Fulda. The red background stands for the martyrdom that the three died. The top of the wall symbolizes the city wall.
After the dissolution of the Order of St. Simplicius , the three garden lilies from the abbey coat of arms, which was part of the order's social and order coat of arms, came into the city's coat of arms. Before that, Fulda had a natural falcon in its shield on silver and a beech trunk that had been branched twice in the left upper corner . Shield holder was the patron saint Simplicius as a knight in armor .
- Como , Italy , since 1960
- Arles , France , since 1964
- Sergiev Posad near Moscow , Russia , since 1991
- Wilmington , USA , since 1997
- Litoměřice , Czech Republic , since 2001
- Dokkum , Netherlands , since 2013
The city of Fulda has taken on sponsorships for
- 1955: Oberglogau ( Silesia )
- 1961: Litoměřice ( Bohemia )
- 1988: Boeing 737-330 D-ABXP Fulda
- 1997: Mine hunting boat Fulda
- 2001: Intercity Express (ICE) Fulda
- 2007: ASW 28 D-KANZ glider (glider airfield Johannisau) STADT-FULDA
- 2014: Airbus A320-214 D-AIZF Fulda
- 2018: Locomotive 193 477 "Fulda" (SBB Cargo International)
As of December 31, 2017, 44.6% of the residents are members of the Catholic Church and 18.7% of the Protestant Church. 36.6% of the population admitted to another denomination or were non-denominational.
Roman Catholic Church
As the Catholic bishopric of the Diocese of Fulda and a regular venue for the German Bishops' Conference , Fulda is traditionally Catholic. The founding of the monastery in 744 is also considered to be the year the city of Fulda was founded. The diocese developed from the monastery and its domain until 1752. One of the best-known bishops was Archbishop Johannes Dyba (1929-2000), who was both popular and controversial due to his conservative positions.
After the Reformation , catholic services only took place in the church on Severiberg . The Counter-Reformation, with the intensive commitment of the Jesuits in schools, sermons and catechesis, recaptured Fulda for Catholicism .
Since 1896 the Fulda Evangelicals have had a representative church in the city center, the Christ Church. Hereditary Prince Wilhelm Friedrich of Orange-Nassau (1772–1843), from 1814 King William I of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg, founded an Evangelical Reformed community in Fulda in 1802 as the new sovereign. On April 3rd, Palm Sunday in 1803, the first service of the newly founded evangelical reformed community took place in the Collegium Marianum of the University of Fulda . This room was available to the Protestant congregation for services until the inauguration of the Christ Church on July 1, 1896. After the Christ Church was destroyed in World War II, Protestant services were held again in the Collegium Marianum from Easter 1946 until the re-consecration on September 25, 1949. From the beginning 343 evangelicals and one pastor, over the course of 200 years in Fulda and the surrounding area, eight Protestant parishes with twelve pastors and almost 20,000 parishioners represent the Reformation faith in this region. Fulda has been the seat of the office of the German Evangelical Church Congress since 1949 . The wife of the founder Reinold von Thadden-Trieglaff (1891–1976), Freiin Elisabeth von Thüngen (1893–1988), came from the nearby Rhön.
An Evangelical Community (formerly the State Church Community ) - to the Evangelical Community Association Hessen-Nassau e. V. belongs - has been in Fulda since 1899. The local EC youth work is located in the same building .
Since 1948 there has been an active Christian scouting work with children and young people in the Christ Church Congregation. The local Fulda VCP tribe Graf Folke Bernadotte has over 100 members today.
On the former helicopter base (Sickels Army Airfield) in Sickels, after the withdrawal of the US Army, not far from the Kreuzkirche, a new district of Fulda-Galerie was built in 2000, the area of which was also part of Ev Kreuzkirche counts.
→ Main article: Kreuzkirche Fulda
There are several free church congregations in Fulda , such as the Baptists (Evangelical Free Church Congregation ), the Jesus-Haus Congregation ( Bund Freikirchlicher Pfingstgemeinden ), the Free Evangelical Congregation , the Biblical Congregation Oase and two large Christian Brethren congregations with Russian-German characteristics. Since 2002 there is also a group of Jesus Freaks .
Russian Orthodox Church
Since February 2006 there has been a parish of the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate in Fulda . It was named in honor of the feast of the meeting of the Lord . Services are held regularly.
Today there is a Jewish community in Fulda. It continues the centuries-old tradition of Jewish life in Fulda .
The larger communities include the Turkish-Islamic Association and the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat , which produces a program to educate people about Islam (“Hour of Islam”) in the Fulda Open Channel.
Since June 2007 there has also been a Muslim cemetery in Fulda on the grounds of the Westfriedhof .
The Fuldaer Zeitung has been published in Fulda since January 1st, 1874 by the long-established Parzeller Verlag . The same publisher issues numerous publications on local history. A competing daily newspaper, the Fuldaer Volkszeitung , had to cease publication in 1974. The Kreisblatt had already appeared in Fulda since January 2, 1869, as the Fuldaer Kreisblatt since January 1, 1885 and as the Fuldaer Tageblatt since April 30, 1920 , but ceased publication on September 1, 1922. Further rival newspapers to the Fuldaer Zeitung could not establish themselves later.
The advertising newspaper Fulda Aktuell is published for the city of Fulda, the district of Fulda and parts of the Vogelsberg district and the Wartburg district. The weekly circulation is over 116,000 copies, which are distributed across the budget. The newspaper belongs to the publishing group of Dirk Ippen .
The Hessischer Rundfunk operates a regional studio in Fuldaer Rabanusstrasse , from which reports from East Hesse are broadcast. The private broadcaster Hit Radio FFH also has a regional studio in the Parzeller building on Frankfurter Strasse .
The headquarters of Medienkontor Fulda, which has been operating the regional news portal "Osthessen-News.de" since 2001, is also located in Fulda.
Fulda in the film
The historic old town and the baroque quarter of the city, which was still well preserved after the Second World War, occasionally served as a backdrop for well-known German feature and television films. The most famous productions are:
- 1953: the feature film Königliche Hochheit with Dieter Borsche and Ruth Leuwerik , director: Harald Braun ,
- 2007: the television film Alles Wasrecht is broadcast on ARD with Michaela May , Fritz Karl and Vadim Glowna and others
- 2008: the sequel to the ARD television film broadcast in 2009 with the title Alles wasrecht - The Italian variant , again with Michaela May, Fritz Karl and Anna Schudt .
Other productions for which Fulda was the location are the science fiction film Die Hamburger Kranken (1979), the disaster film Die Wolke (2006) and the crime thriller Tatort: Schwindelfrei (2013) with Ulrich Tukur.
The music school of the city of Fulda was founded in 1968. In addition to elementary, instrumental and vocal lessons, ensemble playing and theory lessons, there is preparatory training. 1,300 students are taught by around 40 teachers. The music school building is a classicist building by Clemens Wenzeslaus Coudray from 1810, which was renovated in 1985 to meet the needs of the music school under monument protection aspects.
Choirs and orchestras
- Evangelische Kantorei, performs at least once a year one of the great oratorical works of sacred choral music (JS Bach: Passionen, B minor Mass ; J. Brahms: German Requiem ; F. Mendelssohn: Elias , Paulus o. A.)
- Concert choir "Winfridia" Fulda . It has existed since 1876 and performs two great works of sacred and / or secular choral music per year, such as B .: Bach: Mass in B minor , St. John and St. Matthew Passions; Beethoven: 9th Symphony; Requiem settings by Mozart, Brahms, Verdi and many more
- Collegium musicum Fulda e. V.
- Fulda Cathedral Choir
- JugendKathedralChor Fulda (formerly the girls' choir and cathedral boy)
- Cathedral parish choir St. Simplizius
- Children's and youth choir of the cathedral parish of Fulda
- Children's choir St. Bonifatius Fulda
- Boys' Choir Marianum Fulda
- Chamber Orchestra of Youth V.
- Fulda Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1999
- Trumpet Choir of the Evangelical Community of Fulda, founded in 1946
- Band of the Freiherr-vom-Stein-Schule Fulda, founded in 1952
- Musikverein Fulda-Niesig
- Fulda Symphonic Wind Orchestra, founded in 2009.
- Fulda Town Musicians, 1823 to 1852, re-founded as e. V. 1988
- Fulda Tower Blowers e. V.
- Accordion Orchestra Fulda e. V., founded in 1951 by Arno Hartmann, conductor Richard L. Doernbach
Rock and jazz
- Tobias Sammet's Avantasia
- TMF (Tischer Men's Friends)
- TNC (Thursday Night Crawlers)
- the incredible peanutz
- Mighty Vibez
- Mercury Falling
- Hartmanns Harmonists e. V.
- Mambo KingX
- The Fulda Castle Theater is located in an annex to the City Castle. It has 690 seats. It operates without its own ensemble . On June 3, 2004, on the occasion of the 1250th anniversary of Bonifatius' death, Bonifatius - The Musical and on June 3, 2011 The Popess - The Musical premiered.
- In Fulda there are various art house cinemas that show sophisticated films, including a. the “Winterzeitkino im Museumscafé”, the “Filmbühne Fulda” and the “35Kino”, which is currently the only branch and representation of the umbrella association of cultural cinemas and film clubs, Filmkommunikation Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, in Hessen.
- The Cinestar Filmpalast in the Schildeck-Center (Löherstraße and Schildeckstraße) is the only mainstream cinema in Fulda.
- German Fire Brigade Museum : The museum in Fulda-Neuenberg shows the history of German fire fighting on 1,600 m² of exhibition space. The sponsor is the German Fire Brigade Museum Fulda e. V.
- Cathedral Museum : The museum houses a large number of liturgical vestments and objects, including the silver altar, an altarpiece from the 18th century. This contains the reliquary with the head of St. Boniface, the dagger with which he was murdered, and other relics of the Fulda diocese saints.
- Recorder world of experience : The world of experience of the recorder manufacturer Conrad Mollenhauer GmbH provides information on everything to do with the recorder as a musical instrument. In the exhibition, visitors can try out a lot for themselves.
- Ferdinand Braun Collection in the City Palace : A cabinet dedicated to Ferdinand Braun (1850 to 1918), the inventor of the Braun tube, can be viewed in the City Palace .
- Permanent collection of the University and State Library Fulda : In its exhibition room, the library presents a selection from its precious book treasures in changing exhibitions. The cimelia include a Gutenberg Bible.
- Historical rooms in the city palace : Many of the historical rooms in the city palace can be viewed and are almost in their original condition. There is also a large number of works of art on display (including paintings, stucco work, porcelain).
- Johannisberg handicraft collection: Tools, workshops, work and restoration techniques as well as guild objects are presented in several exhibition areas on the premises of the Johannesberg Provostry. Furthermore, one of the largest collections of models of historic half-timbered houses from different regions of Germany can be seen in the handicraft collection. The objects were made by the model maker Dieter Ehret, who lives in Hemsbach in the Odenwald.
- Children's Academy Fulda - Werkraum museum: The museum for children houses many exhibits to try out for yourself. The centerpiece is the “Walkable Heart” (location of the day 2006 of the “Germany - Land of Ideas” initiative).
- Blackhorse Museum : Museum about the history of the Americans in Fulda.
- Vonderau Museum : The museum is named after the local historian Joseph Vonderau . There are numerous finds from prehistoric times, as well as pieces from the Celtic settlement of the Fulda area . A planetarium is part of the museum .
Buildings and sights
- The pre-Romanesque Michaelskirche , one of the oldest churches in Germany (built 818–822) , is still preserved in Fulda from the time before 1000 AD . Like the former Ratgar basilica , it probably also served as a church of the Holy Sepulcher. The interior of the Michaelskirche is decorated with fresco paintings .
- St. Andrew's Church : The newly restored crypt from Ottonian times is a well-preserved work of art and contains one of the oldest wall paintings north of the Alps. St. Andreas is a former monastery and provost church that dates back to 1020.
- Cathedral St. Salvator zu Fulda : The Fulda Cathedral is the city's landmark. Inside the cathedral is u. a. the grave of St. Boniface , the first apostle of the Germans. The plans for the cathedral were made in 1700 by one of the most important German baroque master builders, Johann Dientzenhofer (1663–1726), on behalf of Prince Abbot Adalbert von Schleifras. The previous building, the Ratgarbasilika, once the largest basilica north of the Alps, was abandoned in favor of the new cathedral before construction began in 1704 in the (then current) Baroque style. The cathedral was consecrated on August 15, 1712. The internal system of the Fulda Cathedral is based on St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
- Domdechanei : The Dechanei and the Domdechaneigarten are located in the immediate vicinity of the Fulda Cathedral, which is now a lapidarium. Today the cathedral museum is located in one area of the Dechanei building.
- Frauenberg Monastery (1758–1765): As the favorite place of St. Boniface, Frauenberg was given the name Bischofsberg. An originally wooden chapel was soon replaced by a stone church by Abbot Ratgar (802 to 817). Until 1525 the Frauenberg monastery was one of the Fulda provosts. Franciscans have settled on the Frauenberg since March 31, 1623 until today. In 1757 the monastery and church burned down down to the prince's building, so that the monastery complex was built in its current baroque form between 1758 and 1765.
- City parish church St. Blasius : In 1771, under Prince-Bishop Heinrich von Bibra, the old church was demolished and the construction of a baroque church began. The plans for this come from the Jesuit Father Andreas Anderjoch. The consecration took place on August 17, 1785.
- Holy Spirit Church (Fulda) : Today's baroque Holy Spirit Church was built between 1729 and 1733 as a hospital church on the site of its Gothic predecessor from the 13th century by Prince Abbot Adolf von Dalberg.
- Severikirche (Fulda) : The church was built between 1438 and 1445 in the Gothic style. From 1620 to 1623 the building was used as the first monastery church by the Franciscans called to Fulda. The building served the Benedictines as a church for a short time from 1626.
- Benedictine Abbey of Saint Mary : The Benedictine Abbey is a monastery of the Benedictines in the city center of Fulda, founded in 1626 by the Fulda prince abbot Johann Bernhard Schenck zu Schweinsberg (1623–1632). The monastery church, built between 1629 and 1631, was built in the late Gothic and Renaissance styles. Sisters of the Benedictine order have settled there to this day.
- St. Bonifatius in Horas , replica of the Elisabethkirche (Marburg) 1885, with glass windows by Charles Crodel 1958 and 1974.
- Propstei Johannesberg : First mentioned in 811. Under Abbot Rabanus Maurus (822–842) the church was enlarged and a Benedictine monastery was founded, which was subsequently converted into a provost's office. Around 1500 a late Gothic new building followed, which was converted into a baroque form from 1686 to 1691.
The Bait-ul-Hamid Mosque was officially opened in 2019 on Edelzeller Strasse. The 976 square meter building, which has two floors, was opened on the 2900 square meter site. The mosque has a 130 square meter prayer room as well as other rooms on both floors. The mosque has two non-accessible minarets and a dome.
The Jewish community of Fulda owns a cultural center in Von-Schildeck-Straße , on the first floor of which there is a synagogue. There is also a library, a museum and community rooms in this building
- City Palace : The first predecessor of the Fulda City Palace was an Abtsburg, which was built at the beginning of the 14th century. Then the castle was rebuilt into a palace complex at the beginning of the 17th century, which was rebuilt and expanded into a renaissance palace in the last quarter of the same century. This facility was rebuilt in the Baroque style by Johann Dientzenhofer at the beginning of the 18th century. When it was converted into an electoral prince's residence at the beginning of the 19th century, the castle was partially rebuilt in a late Classicist style.
- Schloss Fasanerie ("Adolphseck"): The castle, once the prince-bishop's and later the electoral Hessian summer residence, is located in the Eichenzell district . The castle was built between 1730 and 1757. The extensive baroque complex that the Fulda prince-bishop Amand von Buseck created for himself clearly reflects his power and love of splendor. The architect was the Italian court architect Andreas Gallasini , who was in the service of the prince-bishop . In the castle there is a porcelain collection with Fulda porcelain that is unique in Europe.
- Orangery with Floravase : The orangery was built from 1721 according to plans by Maximilian von Welsch . The baroque rooms were used by the prince abbots for summer festivals. Ornamental trees such as oranges and lemons were kept there in the winter months; this is how the name orangery can be explained.
- University of Fulda : The Adolph University of Fulda was founded in 1734 by Prince Abbot Adolph von Dalberg and existed until 1805. During the 71 years of its existence, the university had around 4,100 students, who were divided into four faculties: theology, philosophy, medicine and law. The baroque building from 1731 to 1734 was designed by Andreas Gallasini.
- Old Town Hall (reconstruction of the appearance from 1531)
- Palais Altenstein in the baroque quarter
- Paulustor : construction period 1710 to 1711; the original location of the gate for the apostle Paul was between the city palace and the main guard house. It was designed by Johann Dientzenhofer in 1710. It was moved to its current location in 1771 so that the cathedral could be integrated into the city.
- Department store for Karstadt designed by the Munich architect Sep Ruf (1908–1982), who reorganized both the University and Borgiasplatz between 1961 and 1964. Opened in 1964, the building is committed to the aesthetics of the economic boom. "(...) through the structuring of building dimensions, through careful detailing and materialization (...) [he] fits into the neighborhood of the baroque stone facades."
- Jewish mikveh
- Preserved facades in the Swiss house style
- Sculptures by the Fulda artist Franz Erhard Walther in the street
- The Hexenturm is the best preserved tower of the medieval city fortifications.
- Two historical (now inhabited) water towers as relics from the time of the steam locomotives
- Bonifatius Monument - An ore statue of St. Bonifatius has stood on the former Schlossplatz (today Bonifatiusplatz ) since 1842. It was unveiled on August 17, 1842 by Johann Werner Henschel .
- Memorial Ferdinand Braun , 1971, bronze, created by Ottomar Gassenmeyer , in front of the State Library, Heinrich-von-Bibra-Platz
- Memorial stone for those who fell from 1870 to 1871 on the old central municipal cemetery in Künzeller Strasse, unveiled on June 22, 1879 - earlier in the Hundeshagenanlage
- Memorial stone for those who fell from 1914 to 1918 in the 47th Infantry Regiment in the Hundeshagenanlage
- Memorial plaque at the city palace
- Obelisk in front of the parish church
- Memorial stone for 270 victims of the burning of witches in the Fulda bishopric between 1600 and 1604 on the former cathedral parish cemetery
- Old Jewish cemetery (today Jerusalemplatz )
- Factory ruin Horaser Weg 71
Papal Seminary Fulda (Today: Vonderau Museum )
Fulda City Palace seen from the palace garden
View of the Frauenberg monastery
Fulda Cathedral , interior view
Parks and recreational areas
In Fulda there are a variety of different parks and recreation areas and other green and leisure facilities, u. a .:
- Monastery garden of St. Maria Abbey
- Ferdinand Braun Park
- Fulda floodplain with state horticultural show area (first state horticultural show in Hesse 1994)
- Rauschenberg with walking paths and observation tower (Petersberg municipality)
- Home zoo
- Dahlia garden
- Klostergarten Kloster Frauenberg
- Palace garden at the Fulda City Palace (part of the State Horticultural Show 1994)
- Park of the Fasanerie Castle (Eichenzell municipality)
- Hiking trails and bike paths around Fulda
- Tümpelgarten (garden and exhibition of the Scalare aquarium and terrarium association )
- Fulda is Hesse's largest carnival stronghold. The Foaset , which dates back to the 15th century, consists of a total of 13 carnival clubs , headed by the Fulda Carnival Society . The associations “governing” around the city center are called “peripheral states” . On Rose Monday , these and numerous regional carnival associations march in the traditionally largest Rose Monday procession in all of Hesse through Fulda city center.
- In the summer months (mostly April – October) there is also the bi-weekly Night Skating Experience , an inline skating event on the city's public streets under the protection of the police. The project is supported by the city of Fulda and the police headquarters in East Hesse.
- Since 2007, the “RhönEngergie Challenge Run” for runners and Nordic walkers has taken place once a year at the end of May / beginning of June. With over 7,000 participants in 2013, the event is one of the largest popular sports events in the region.
- Once a year in the summer months the mostly ten-day shooting and folk festival takes place, which attracts around 120,000 visitors a year. The venue is the Ochsenwiese located between Magdeburger Straße ( L 3419) and the Waides tributary to Fulda , which is normally used as a large car park.
- The Hochstift Marathon takes place every year at the beginning of September .
- The Fulda Christmas market takes place in the historic old town from the end of November to December 23rd.
- From 1972 to 2010, the Osthessenschau, a regional exhibition that was well-known across national borders, took place in autumn . The exhibition, which is held every two years, took place for the 19th time in 2010. Since 2004, the venue was no longer the Ochsenwiese , but the exhibition area Messe-Galerie on the western outskirts of the city.
- Food tradition: A well-known Fulda dish is the Zwibbelsploatz ( onion cake ), which was traditionally made on Fridays in Altfulda households and brought to the nearest bakery for baking. This Fulda specialty can still be bought today in the long-established bakeries. Then there was often potato soup . This dish is also based on the Catholic Fulda tradition, since meatless meals serve on Fridays to commemorate Jesus' death. Fulda is also known for its diverse types of bread ; is popular u. a. a rustic mixed rye bread with a crust, baked in a wood oven, which is available in bakeries under the name “farmer's bread ” . In the area around Fulda, especially in the Rhön , house slaughter, especially of pigs and cattle, is still widespread. Well-known specialties are Fulda Schwartenmagen and Flurgönder .
- Beer tradition: Fulda has a brewery with the Hochstiftlichen Brauhaus Fulda on Leipziger Strasse. The best-known product of the brewery, which has existed since 1848, is the slightly tart tasting "Hochstift Pils" . There is also a smaller brewery in Fulda, the Brauhaus Wiesenmühle , which specializes in the production of naturally cloudy types of beer and, with a width of 6.5 meters and a mass of 55 tons, has the largest mill wheel in Europe.
- Wine tradition: Fulda has an old wine-growing tradition , as evidenced by documents and archaeological finds. After the monastery was founded in 744, church needs were initially the driving force behind the cultivation of wine. In reports from the 12th century, various wine-growing areas on sunny limestone cliffs in Fulda are mentioned. This also included the vineyard of the Frauenberg monastery.
Economy and Infrastructure
At the time of the Holy Roman Empire, Fulda had a central function for the small, manageable territory of the bishopric. Economic life at the time was shaped by the rigid guild constitution. Fulda was the main center of the surrounding rural areas with the administration of the prince-bishop's properties; The city was shaped by handicrafts, such as the tanners in Löherstrasse, worsted spinning mills, cotton weaving mills, damask and sackcloth production (Fulda canvas), plush, felt cloth, wax light production, wool dyeing, wax bleaching, saltpeter mills and the manufacture of wind instruments.
The location on the old Frankfurt-Leipzig trade route was an important economic factor.
With the Napoleonic Wars and the associated secularization , a new era began in 1802. The beginning democratization and liberalization was initially marked by the loss of the residence function and changing political affiliations. The position as provincial capital with the influx of higher officials could not solve the economic problems of the loss of the residence in the first half of the 19th century. The city's economy produced practically only for local needs with an oversupply of goods and services. 130 master shoemakers and 53 tailors produced in 1847 for the population, which rose only moderately from around 7,000 in 1802 to 8,900 fifty years later.
1850 to the First World War
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The spatial limitation to the local market led to a slow changeover from small-scale craft to industrial production. The first reliable trade statistics from 1852 counted around 600 master craftsmen with roughly the same number of journeymen and a total of 234 traders with 51 additional employees for Fulda. A total of 214 people, half of them women, are counted as self-employed manual workers. These are seamstresses , woodcutters and other day laborers . Under the heading servants 636 servants, maids and domestic workers are counted, including 527 women.
Twelve of the handicraft businesses are referred to as factories in the list . Including the linen weaving mill founded by Johann Heinrich Schmitt in 1822 as the largest employer at the time with a total of 456 employees, 60 of whom were not yet 14 years old, at 284 looms . Another weaving mill employed 155 people, including 60 children under the age of 14, on 85 looms. One of the largest employers was the “ Poor Employment Institution ” at the Heilig-Geist-Spital , where sewing and weaving work was also carried out, with 350 employees. Only one company had 135 employees and one had 50 employees. The other eight factories remained under 20 employees. Of the total of 900 factory workers, 800 worked in the textile industry.
The connection to the Frankfurt-Bebra Railway in 1866 changed the one-sided structure of the Fulda economy through the connection to the industrial centers of Frankfurt and Kassel. The connection to Fulda was not originally planned and only came about after the city council had insisted on the need to stop the increasing impoverishment of the city and its population. As a result, a rapid economic upswing began. The city expanded beyond the medieval area bounded by the city walls. The first expansion with industrial settlements took place between the university square and the station building and another around the barracks (today the location of the university ).
The company founders were initially locals who further developed their handicraft businesses. At the beginning they were mainly active in the textile sector. Valentin Mehler founded what later became Mehler AG , which soon exported its products. Today's felt factory was founded in 1888 as a plush factory. There were also around a dozen other textile companies, some with three-digit employees. Johann Heinrich Schmitt, the largest employer in 1852, however, failed to switch to mechanical weaving and the company was sold in 1885.
In other areas, only a few companies managed to achieve industrial production sizes. Particularly noteworthy here is the Bellinger company, founded in 1867, which mainly produced stamped and enamelled goods and was Fulda’s largest employer in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1863, the Weissensee metal goods factory, which still exists today, was founded from the ranks of a pewter foundry family. Another focus of the Fulda production was wax goods. Eika , Gies Kerzen , Berta and Rübsam (founded in 1886 and 60 employees in 1900). Johann Ferdinand Müller was the son of a court locksmith and in 1864 Fuldas founded the first machine factory and iron foundry, which was closed in 1886. Maschinenfabrik Paul Keil was founded early on by a local blacksmith.
From the last third of the 19th century, companies began to be founded in areas in which the founders were not previously active, partly through the arrival of foreign entrepreneurs. The brothers Max (1857–1926) and Emanuel Stern (1856–1930), who came from a family of traders in Fulda, founded a paint factory in 1892, which later came to the Teknos Group via Rhodius . From 1874, weaving mills were founded by entrepreneurs from Arnstadt , Salzhausen and Frankfurt. Even before the turn of the century there were factories for mechanical engineering, cigar production and also a predecessor of the ball factory that still exists today .
At the turn of the century, another phase of business start-ups began, in which, from the start, business considerations in conjunction with sophisticated technical expertise were decisive. Fulda Reifen can be mentioned as an example , where the technician Gustav Becker from Gelnhausen and the investor Moritz Hasenclever from Remscheid chose the location of the new company in Fulda because of the good rail connections and the low local wages. The number of employees in the rubber works rose from 15 in 1901 to over 300 before the First World War. The company Klein & Stiefel , a machine builder specializing in woodworking machines, was also founded during this time, in addition to the five other machine builders who were already manufacturing on site.
The development of Fulda was also promoted by the repair works (from 1866), the gas works (from 1863) and the electricity works (from 1912). The construction of the public water supply was from 1892 and the sewer system from 1903. In 1904 the first trade exhibition took place.
In summary, the development before the First World War was
- that the population increased from 8,900 to 23,226 inhabitants from 1852,
- that in the 1913 address book 57 factories are named,
- that in 1914 1,450 workers were employed in twelve factories of the textile industry and
- that the Bellinger enamelling plant alone had 1,200 workers.
- There were 400 employees in five machine factories,
- There were significantly fewer people working in the five wax factories.
In total there were around 4,000 employees in the factories. Textile production rapidly lost its importance. Of the 300 businesses in 1880, there were only twelve left in 1914.
1914 to 1945
The framework conditions changed fundamentally during the First World War . Some companies such as the felt factory had to close temporarily, while most of the larger factories in particular (for example Bellinger, Mehler, Gummiwerke) had to switch to "war production" of grenades, uniforms, etc. In the beginning, the total number of employees in Fulda was even increased. After a brief upswing at the beginning of the 1920s, the Fulda industry was also negatively affected by the consequences of hyperinflation in 1923 and the global economic crisis at the end of the decade. Between 1927 and 1932 the number of employees decreased by 26% from 9355 to 6960. The number of recipients of welfare benefits increased from 513 on January 1, 1929 to 855 on January 1, 1930, further to 1,694 on December 31, 1932, which corresponded to six percent of the population.
Overall, however, the situation was more stable than in most other cities and industrial areas. In addition to a few smaller companies, only two companies in the textile industry had to close, while the larger factories in particular did not collapse despite economic difficulties.
After the seizure of power , which led to changes more slowly in Fulda than in other places due to the grown Catholic structures and the strength of the Center Party, Jewish businessmen in particular were persecuted. The best-known example is Arthur Kayser , majority shareholder and managing director of the Mehler company, who died in 1938 while fleeing Germany. As early as 1933, together with Sally Klebe from the Hutstoffwerke and Emil Kahn from Schwab's Schuhwarenhandel, he had to give up his office in the Fulda Chamber of Commerce and Industry . By the outbreak of the Second World War, almost all of the 200 businesses in the chamber district, which were run by owners of Jewish origin in 1933, had been Aryanized .
The apparent upswing in the 1930s with a noticeable reduction in the number of unemployed, in the Fulda area also due to the Rhön Plan , should not hide the fact that the measures primarily served to prepare for war.
During the Second World War , many companies had to switch back to a war economy. There was a general shortage of raw materials and labor, as many workers were committed to the Wehrmacht . To compensate for this, several thousand forced laborers, mainly from Russia and Poland, were used in industry, craft and trade, in public institutions and also in agriculture.
For a long time Fulda was less affected by the aerial warfare in World War II , as its industrial production was not considered to be of any importance to the war effort. Between July 20, 1944 and March 25, 1945, four major and several minor attacks destroyed, among others, Fulda Reifen, Bellinger, Berta, the railway repair shop and the machine builders Rübsam and Weißensee. An attack on the Mehler company was tragic, in which all entrances were hit by the Krätzbach tunnel, which had been developed as a shelter for employees there. 700 of the total of 1,600 air war casualties in Fulda died, including 350 slave laborers.
End of the war until reunification
After the liberation from National Socialism in Fulda in the first days of April 1945 with the invasion of the United States Army , the infrastructure first had to be repaired. In addition to 200,000 cubic meters of rubble to be removed, the repair of the gas and electrical supply was a priority. To integrate the displaced and refugees, housing and school construction were a priority until the 1950s.
In 1946, 70 industrial entrepreneurs were entered in the Fulda commercial register for a total of 331 companies. In 1947, 16,000 people were employed in the 1442 companies registered. In 324 of them only the owner was employed and in another 780 only one to five other employees. Of 33 large companies with more than 50 employees, Mehler was the leader with just under 1,200. The Bellinger company only had 480 left, while the rubber works, which had been completely destroyed in the war, had already been rebuilt so that 630 people were working there.
The next decades were shaped by the location of Fulda in the border area , through which the traffic situation deteriorated significantly while on the other hand companies relocated because of the zone border promotion. Some entrepreneurs expelled from the Soviet zone of occupation founded successor companies in Fulda, including the companies Juchheim, Wagner & Co Fahrzeugteile, Reform Maschinenfabrik and Rabenseifner. In 1948 the Magdeburg fire insurance company relocated to Fulda.
The increasing economic growth in post-war Germany also led to the founding of several companies in Fulda. Mention should be made of Dura Tufting GmbH in 1955, where 861 people worked in 1967, and the Adolf Jass paper mill , which began producing here in 1970 at a second location. The small car Fuldamobil was also developed and partially produced in Fulda . The effects of the growth phase on the labor market were that of practical full employment. In 1968 there were 427 unemployed among 928 registered vacancies in the city, including the district of Fulda .
The 1973 oil price crisis with the accompanying economic crisis led to the discontinuation of many traditional companies in Fulda, especially in the textile sector. During the 1970s and 1980s, the switch to new production processes or the change to new products led to the closure of many medium-sized, mostly equity-poor companies that could not keep up with the ever-accelerating pressure to adapt.
After reunification , Fulda is back in the middle of Germany with excellent transport links. This offered the opportunity for new markets and the risks of greater competition, especially from the comparatively close Eastern European countries. The structural change for the manufacturing industry is reflected in the decrease in the number of employees from 21,700 in 1971 to only 19,044 (2003), although the number of companies rose from 166 to 171 in the same period. In the same period, the textile industry only employed 1,900 people instead of the previous 9,000.
The number of employees in the mechanical engineering, food industry (e.g. Milupa ), chemical industry, vehicle construction (e.g. Edag ) and electrical engineering (e.g. R + S solutions Holding ) sector increased . The increasing importance of both the service sector and especially that of Fulda as a conference venue should also be mentioned.
The proximity to the Rhine-Main area favors Fulda. The connection by the ICE trains and regional trains shows the importance of the Rhine-Main area for Fulda. Commuters from Fulda work in significant numbers in the Rhine-Main area, but also in the Franconian Würzburg, although there is less orientation towards Kassel.
Various companies in the textile industry are based in Fulda, including Mehler AG and the Wirth Group , which includes the Fulda felt factory as a felt manufacturer and Dura Tufting as a carpet manufacturer.
Another important employer in the region and a nationally known manufacturing company is Fulda Reifen (formerly Gummiwerke Fulda). Furthermore, Fulda is the headquarters of the food trading company Tegut and the paper mill Adolf Jass GmbH & Co. KG; JUMO GmbH & Co. KG is active in measurement and control technology, Edag GmbH & Co. KGaA develops automobile bodies and production lines (e.g. development of the smart ).
In the health sector, the for was Fresenius SE & Co. KGaA belonging Helios Kliniken GmbH represented. It had its corporate headquarters in Fulda, but moved it to Berlin at the beginning of 2007 . The German headquarters of the personnel service provider Adecco was also relocated from Fulda to Düsseldorf in December 2006 .
Hospitals / clinics
The Fulda Clinic in its current form was put into operation on February 23, 1976, although in 1805 the first secular ruler of Fulda, Friedrich Wilhelm von Oranien-Nassau , gave the go-ahead for the construction of a modern hospital by signing the deed of foundation. It is one of the academic teaching hospitals of the Philipps University of Marburg and the University of Fulda . Today the clinic comprises 28 institutes and clinics in a catchment area with around 500,000 people and 2,500 employees. Since January 2004 the Fulda Clinic has been run as a non-profit stock corporation (gAG) of the city of Fulda. In addition, the helicopter "Christoph 28" of the ADAC air rescue in Fulda started its service in 1984 .
- Herz-Jesu-Krankenhaus Fulda , the largest general hospital, north of Fulda city center
- Neuro-Spine Center Dr. Al-Hami , special clinic for neck and spine operations
- St. Elisabethenklinik
- Dalberg Clinic
Swimming pools and ice rinks
- Outdoor swimming pools: In the Fulda meadows there is the Sportbad Rosenau (also known locally as the “Rosenbad” ), as well as the outdoor swimming pool in the Petersberg community.
- Indoor pools: There are public indoor pools. a. in the Sportbad Ziehers, in the Stadtbad at the Hotel Esperanto and in the Seven Worlds (formerly Rhön Therme) in the community of Künzell.
Due to its central location in Germany, Fulda is conveniently located on several large, Germany-wide connecting routes both by road and by rail. The city has a direct connection to the north-south highway Bundesautobahn 7 (Würzburg – Kassel) with a total of three exits towards the city center. In addition, south of Fulda it has a motorway connection to the federal motorway 66 with the Neuhof tunnel to Frankfurt am Main and the Rhine-Main area . In terms of rail traffic, the Fulda station, as the central German rail hub and ICE station, belongs to the second-highest German station category .
→ Main article: Local transport in Fulda
The city of Fulda is the starting point for bus routes to the surrounding area. a. in the Rhön and in the direction of Vogelsberg . The central bus station (ZOB) at Fulda train station is the central transfer bus station for local and regional bus routes. There is also an option to change to city buses.
The city bus traffic has its starting point at the bus station "Stadtschloss", which is located on Heertorplatz at the Fulda city palace that gives it its name . The regional bus route 591, which connects Fulda with the neighboring town of Schlitz in the Vogelsberg district , also runs there. The city bus routes have been operated by ÜWAG for decades , which merged with GWV to form RhönEnergie Fulda in 2013 . Since then, RhönEnergie Fulda has been running city buses. The city bus routes also lead to districts of neighboring communities that do not belong to the city of Fulda. These are u. a. some Künzeller and Petersberg districts, but also the district of Bimbach of the community of Großenlüder and the district of Giesel of the community of Neuhof . Fulda is in the tariff area of the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund .
The Fulda train station is an ICE train station and an important traffic junction on the high-speed line Hanover – Würzburg , the Kinzig valley railway and the Fulda – Bebra railway line between Frankfurt am Main , Kassel , Erfurt and Würzburg . The branch lines Vogelsbergbahn and Rhönbahn lead over the Vogelsberg to Gießen and to Gersfeld in the Rhön .
The length of the road network in the city of Fulda is: 330,700 km:
- City roads 277,679 km
- District roads 12.276 km
- Country roads 32.909 km
- Federal roads 7.836 km
Fulda is at the crossroads of the following historical streets:
- Via Regia , the old royal road from Frankfurt am Main to Leipzig , there was also a Way of St. James
- Antsanvia , trade route from Mainz to Thuringia
- Ortweg , connection from Wetterau towards Hammelburg
- historical: unfinished route 46
- A 7 : Füssen - Ulm - Würzburg - Fulda - Kassel - Hamburg
- A 66 : Wiesbaden –Frankfurt am Main– Hanau –Fulda
- Fulda motorway triangle : connection between A 7 and A 66
- Motorway junctions on the A 7: 91 (Fulda-Nord) , 92 (Fulda-Mitte)
- Motorway junctions on the A 66: 53 (Fulda-Süd)
- B 27 : Göttingen - Fulda - Würzburg - Stuttgart
- B 458 : Fulda - Dipperz - Hilders - Tann
- B 254 : Fulda - Alsfeld - Schwalmstadt - Kassel
Today, the third largest pedestrian zone in Hesse is located in Fulda. In 2008, the 23 million euro western bypass was built, which is intended to relieve the city center and, above all, Frankfurter Strasse and which flows directly into it.
A number of cycle paths lead through the city :
- The Hessen Railway Cycle Path leads from Hanau on former railway lines for around 250 km through the Vogelsberg and the Rhön.
- The D-Route 9 (Weser-Romantic Road) leads from the North Sea via Bremen, Kassel, Fulda and the Taubertal to Füssen in Allgäu (1197 km).
- The Hessian Radfernweg R1 (Fulda-Radweg) leads over 250 km from the heights of the Rhön along the Fulda to Bad Karlshafen on the Weser .
- The Hessian long-distance cycle route R2 (the four rivers tour) starts in Biedenkopf and leads over 202 km through the river valleys from Lahn , Lauter , Lüder and Fulda to Sinntal in the Spessart .
- The Hessian long -distance cycle route R3 runs as the Rhein-Main-Kinzig cycle route from Rüdesheim to Tann in the Rhön .
- The regional themed route summit tour connects the Wasserkuppe in the Rhön with the Hoherodskopf in the Vogelsberg.
Fulda is the seat of a local court , also the seat of a regional court district with a public prosecutor's office.
On the Hummelskopf, a foothill of the approximately Mühlberg near Dietershan in the north of Fulda , stands the 133 m high Hummelskopf telecommunications tower (transmitter Fulda / Hummelskopf ) of Deutsche Telekom .high
|#||type of school||Pupils / students|
|15th||Elementary and secondary schools||2790|
|1||Elementary, secondary and secondary school||894|
|Upper secondary school||343|
|1||Faculty of Theology||39|
Fulda has had a long tradition as a school and university town since the monastery was founded. Particular mention should be made of Rabanus Maurus (building the monastery library, monastery school, encyclopedia De universo ) and Heinrich von Bibra with the school reform in the Fulda monastery . In 1734, Adolph von Dalberg founded the University of Fulda , which existed until 1805.
In 1880 there were educational institutions: a grammar school, a Realprogymnasium, a Catholic and a Protestant secondary school for girls , a Catholic school teachers ' college and the Hessian state library with around 50,000 volumes (founded in 1778).
Today there are in Fulda, the school center of the region, several high schools: the Freiherr-vom-Stein-Schule , which Winfried school that Domgymnasium that Marie school and upper secondary school Marianum (Fulda). In addition, the Eduard-Stieler-Schule, Ferdinand-Braun-Schule and Richard-Müller-Schule also have a vocational high school in addition to other types of school . There are also four other secondary schools, numerous elementary and secondary schools, universities and technical colleges and special schools. The closest comprehensive schools are in Neuhof ( cooperative comprehensive school ) and in Schlitz ( integrated comprehensive school ). The next Waldorf school is located in the community of Künzell.
Since 2001, the Fulda University and State Library , which was also assigned the tasks of a city library in October 2011, has been represented at two locations: at Heinrich-von-Bibra-Platz and at the university in Marquardstrasse. Together they have an inventory of over 520,000 volumes.
The Fulda City Archives are located on Bonifatiusplatz. A church archive is located in the Episcopal Seminary on Eduard-Schick-Platz.
The Bonifatiushaus (House of Continuing Education of the Diocese of Fulda) is a Catholic academy and supports extracurricular education. The diocesan education center with its seat in the Bonifatiushaus is a member of the Catholic adult education - Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Hessen .
The football club SC Borussia Fulda played in the 2017/18 season in the Lotto Hesse League, one of the ten German top leagues that make up the fifth-highest division in the football league system in Germany . The greatest success in the club's history was the championship of North Hesse / Hanover in 1932. In the championship playoffs against Göttingen 05 , the sports club won 3-0 and 4-1 and then moved into the West German final against Schalke 04 . In the 1997/98 season they almost managed to get promoted to the 2nd Bundesliga with 3rd place in the Regionalliga-Süd.
The stadium of the city of Fulda, the sports park Johannisau , has 20,000 seats; 742 of the total of 1978 seats are covered. The stadium was inaugurated in 1957 without the current grandstand. The 1963 attendance record was the game between Fulda and Hessen Kassel in the Regionalliga Süd in front of 26,000 visitors. For safety reasons, the number of visitors was reduced to 25,000 in the early 1970s and to 22,000 in the early 1980s. In 1997, 20,000 visitors attended a friendly between Fulda and FC Bayern Munich . Everyday football at Borussia Fulda takes place in front of significantly fewer spectators.
The most famous former players of Borussia Fulda are the German national soccer player Sebastian Kehl , formerly in the service of Borussia Dortmund , Altin Lala , former captain of Hannover 96 , César Thier , current goalkeeping coach of TSG 1899 Hoffenheim and Olivier Djappa .
Fulda is home to the largest Hessian box run (took place for the fifth time in 2006 with around 300 participants).
The TTC Rhön-Sprudel Fulda-Maberzell plays in the 1st table tennis Bundesliga . The club was runner-up in 2014, 2015 and 2017, and vice-cup winner from 2013 to 2016. In the seasons 1954/55 and 1955/56 FT 48 Fulda entered the men's upper league, the highest German table tennis class at the time.
The Canoe Club Fulda, which is represented at many national and international competitions, is also well known.
The Fulda Saints have their home in the Fulda-Johannesberg district. The American football team has existed since 2005. In 2014 the Saints won the championship title in the Central Football Association League, and in the 2019 season the championship in the Central Regional League was celebrated. In 2020 the Fulda Saints will compete in the major league.
The former DTM driver Markus Oestreich has been running an indoor kart track in Fulda since 1996. The Porsche works racing driver Dirk Werner spent his childhood in Fulda and completed his first kart races in Markus Oestreich's Nolimit racing team.
Famous personalities from Fulda include the Protestant theologian Justus Menius , the physicist and Nobel Prize winner Ferdinand Braun , the officer Wilhelm Heye and the Federal Minister of Labor Anton Storch , as well as the Jesuit and philosopher Godehard Brüntrup .
(in chronological order)
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- Karl Maurer: 1200 years of Fulda 744 - 1944. Kulturamt d. City, Fulda 1944.
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- History of the city of Fulda - A website by Jörg Pytlik
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- Fritz Usinger : Residence of Heaven . In: Die Rhön (= Merian , vol. 17 (1964), issue 4), pp. 29–37, here p. 32.
- Names of the victims of the witch trials / witch persecution in the Hochstift Fulda (PDF; 243 kB), accessed on May 9, 2016.
- See Milada Vilímková, Johannes Brucker: Dientzenhofer. A Bavarian master builder family in the baroque era. Rosenheimer Verlagshaus, Rosenheim 1989, p. 46.
- See Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning: Publications of the Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning. Research and meeting reports. Volume 52, Curt R. Vincenz Verlag, Hannover 1988, p. 298.
- Lara Calderari: Andrea Galassini. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . August 22, 2005 , accessed April 7, 2011 .
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- 70 years ago today, 700 people died in the Grezzbach bunker . Fuldaer Zeitung, December 27, 2014
- 75 years ago today: The Grezzbach bunker becomes a deadly trap for 707 people . Fuldaer Zeitung, December 27, 2019
- Online find: Fulda after the war - video of a landscape of ruins . Fuldaer Zeitung, June 22, 2014
- Law on the reorganization of the districts of Fulda and Hünfeld and the city of Fulda (GVBl. II 330-14) of July 11, 1972 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Hesse . 1972 No. 17 , p. 220 , § 1 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 1,2 MB ]).
- hr-online: Bells ringing - Praying for the head of the church ( Memento from September 28, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) - Status: April 2, 2005.
- Fulda is the first German city of stars , accessed on January 4, 2020.
- Result of the municipal election on March 6, 2016. Hessian State Statistical Office, accessed in April 2016 .
- Local elections 2006 in Hessen. Retrieved May 25, 2017 .
- Franz Georg Trabert: Political Public - The Origin and Development of Political Parties in Wolfgang Hamberger, Thomas Heiler, Werner Kirchhoff: History of the City of Fulda (Volume 2) , Parzellers Buchverlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-7900-0398-7 , P. 365
- in the first elections as LDP
- The voter self-help (WSH) was a spin-off from the CDU after internal party disputes as to whether the local candidate Joseph Schmitt or the later mayor Alfred Dregger should be nominated as successor to Cuno Raabe. After von Dregger's supporters had prevailed, a group led by Joseph Schmitt founded the WSH, which, however, did not run for a second election after one legislative period.
- Who in whose place , Der Spiegel 1/1954.
- https://www.fulda.de/rathaus-politik/stadtpolitik/magistrat/ , accessed on May 14, 2020
- Joseph Schneider: Buchonia: a journal for patriotic history, antiquity, geography, statistics and topography. C. Mullersche Buchhandlung, Fulda 1828, p. 8.
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- Festschrift "200 Years of the Evangelical Community in Fulda". Fulda 2003.
- SerPon: Orthodox Church. Retrieved May 25, 2017 .
- OsthessenNews: Act of Acceptance: New Muslim burial ground inaugurated at Westfriedhof ( Memento from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
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- Germany - Land of Ideas: Selected Place of the Day ( Memento from September 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) - Status: May 13, 2010.
- Website of the Children's Academy Fulda - as of May 13, 2010.
- Fulda Mosque officially opened - "Spiritual moment" - photos. Retrieved April 24, 2020 (English).
- Gregor Karl Stasch: Maximilian von Welsch and the Fulda Orangery . Fulda 1988.
- Michael Kiel: Around the orangery - a baroque garden dream . In: Susanne Bohl and others (ed.): Fulda. 50 treasures and specialties . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7319-0425-0 , pp. 98-102.
- Martin Matl: Formative influence: Sep Ruf in Fulda , Bauwelt 33/2011
- Michael Kiel: Fulda's National Monument - in memory of the "Apostle of the Germans" . In: Susanne Bohl and others (ed.): Fulda. 50 treasures and specialties . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7319-0425-0 , pp. 135-138.
- Where the river supplies energy for naturally cloudy beer. ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: Fuldaer Zeitung. September 6, 2010.
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- Thomas Heiler : Basics of the Fulda industrial history in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: Gregor Stasch (ed.), Thomas Heiler: Mechanical engineering in Fulda - Klein & Stiefel (1905–1979). (Book accompanying the exhibition in the Vonderau Museum from January 20 to April 2, 2006), Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2006, ISBN 3-86568-067-4 , p. 6.
- Thomas Heiler: Basics of Fulda industrial history in the 19th and 20th centuries. ISBN 3-86568-067-4 , p. 7.
- Thomas Heiler: Basics of the Fulda industrial history in the 19th and 20th centuries. ISBN 3-86568-067-4 , pp. 6/7.
- Thomas Heiler: Basics of the Fulda industrial history in the 19th and 20th centuries. ISBN 3-86568-067-4 , pp. 8/9.
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- Thomas Heiler: Basic lines of the Fulda industrial history in the 19th and 20th centuries. ISBN 3-86568-067-4 , pp. 12/13.
- Thomas Heiler: Basics of Fulda industrial history in the 19th and 20th centuries. ISBN 3-86568-067-4 , pp. 14/15.
- Thomas Heiler: Basics of the Fulda industrial history in the 19th and 20th centuries. ISBN 3-86568-067-4 , p. 15.
- Bonifatiushaus - educational center and academy in the diocese of Fulda - home page. Retrieved May 25, 2017 .
- Victory in the last home game: Saints in the championship goal. July 21, 2019, accessed September 3, 2019 .