Baldwin of Luxembourg

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Cheek cheek from the Carthusian monastery in Trier, depicting Archbishop Balduin of Luxembourg, oak, around 1340. Museum am Dom Trier . Photo: Markus Groß-Morgen
The electors in the election of the king in 1308: from left Peter von Mainz , Balduin and Rudolf I Count Palatine of the Rhine (illustrated chronicle of Elector Balduin von Trier, Trier around 1340. Koblenz State Main Archive, inventory 1 C No. 1 fol. 3b)

Baldwin von Luxemburg or Balduin von Trier (* around 1285 in Luxemburg ; † January 21, 1354 in Trier ) from the Luxembourger dynasty was Archbishop and Elector of Trier from 1307 to 1354 , and from 1328 to 1336 (with interruption) administrator of the Archdiocese of Mainz and from 1331 to 1337 administrator of the dioceses of Worms and Speyer . Baldwin was one of the most influential imperial princes in the first half of the 14th century and is considered the most enterprising Elector of Trier.

The 14th century was for Europe an end to the medieval warm period , the famine (since the second half of the 13th century) and the Black Death , the effects are assessed, however, different in modern research, especially since the late Middle Ages , according to recent research was not a "period of decline". Politically, the first half of the 14th century was also a time of dispute between the princes and the popes over the privilege of being able to choose their own candidate for a throne or bishopric. Baldwin took part in these disputes and was in 1328 by Popes John XXII. and 1336 Benedict XII. excommunicated for violating canon law.

Many of Baldwin's actions show a will to shape politics, which makes the Diocese of Trier appear only as part of its endeavor to secure a leading role for the Luxembourg family in the Holy Roman Empire . He supported his brother Heinrich , his nephew Johann von Böhmen and his great-nephew Karl to achieve and secure their rule. Baldwin represented the right of the electors of the empire to the sole election of a king and thus against the papal license to practice medicine in the disputes between the pope and the king . He is said to have been the determining person who formulated the exclusive right to unhindered election, as finally established in 1356 by the Golden Bull .

In several peace agreements with his ruling neighbors, he created legal certainty and safe roads for trade for his territory. He restricted the arrogant feuds of the landed gentry. His economic power made it possible for him to subordinate cities, castles and knights to his primacy - with money or with the military. Contrary to the reputation of being a secular power politician, his piety and a large number of priestly ordinations are documented. A close connection to the Carthusian monks allowed him to set up his own facilities in Koblenz and Trier for this strict order.


Stations in the life of the Archbishop of Trier and Elector Baldwin
around 1304 Beginning of the curia career as provost (chairman) of
the cathedral chapter in Trier
December 7, 1307 The Trier cathedral chapter elects Baldwin instead of Emich von Sponheim
to succeed Diether von Nassau
March 11, 1308 Election confirmation and consecration by Pope Clement V in Poitiers
January 6, 1309 Brother Heinrich and his wife Margarethe are anointed and crowned in Aachen
September 15, 1310 For the duration of his move to Rome, Baldwin appointed
three vicars general to manage the diocese
July 18, 1313 Transfer of the imperial estates of Oberwesel and
Boppard on the Middle Rhine as pledges of the empire
1320 The Counts of Sponheim became permanent
opponents of the Archbishop
May 1323 In Reims for the coronation of his niece Maria as Queen of France
and Paris for the wedding of his great-nephew Karl and Blanka von Valois
presumably since 1324 Financial management of the diocese by
the Trier Jews Muskin and Jakob Daniel
1328 First takeover of the administration of the Archdiocese of Mainz
November 11, 1328 Excommunication by Pope John XXII.
presumably from 1330 Recording and collecting the privileges and
rights of the diocese (so-called Balduins )
August 18, 1331 Foundation of a Carthusian monastery in Koblenz (ditto in Trier 1332)
from May 1332 Rudolf Losse becomes Balduin's secretary, notary and envoy
September 22, 1333 Establishment of the (imperial) Lauterer land peace
from 1336 Beginning of the persecution of Jews. Around 1348 end of the
Jewish influence on the money economy in the diocese of Trier
1337 Return of the administrations of Mainz, Worms and Speyer
July / August / September 1338 Foundation of the Rhenser Kurverein . Reichstag in Koblenz
May 24, 1346 Final break with Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian
July 11, 1346 Election of the great-nephew Karl as Roman King (from 1355 Emperor )
October 1, 1346 The Count of Westerburg , one of
Baldwin's most reluctant opponents, must hand over Castle Schadeck
Between 1356 and 1367 Balduin's deeds are described and handed down in
the Gesta Baldewini

Origin and youth

Baldwin came from one of the most respected families in the western empire. Their descent is derived from the West Franconian Carolingians. After the death of the father Heinrich VI. (according to another counting method III.) of Luxembourg in 1288 at the Battle of Worringen , the court of King Philip IV influenced the upbringing of Baldwin and his older brother Heinrich . In addition to French, both spoke German, Latin and probably also the languages ​​of the Lower Rhine-Maas-Moselle region. In 1294, with the Treaty of Pontoise , Balduin's older brother Heinrich became a (ligic) vassal of the French king, who would later promote Balduin's church career. Following the culture of chivalry, especially practiced by the French nobility, Baldwin probably also received training in knightly combat. Balduin's other siblings were Walram, who fell in 1311 during the siege of Brescia in Henry's train to Rome . The sisters Margarete and Felicitas (as a widow) were both heads of the monastery .

As is customary in ruling families, the third-born, the youngest son Baldwin, was earmarked for a career as a clergyman. He studied theology and canon law in Paris (with interruptions) from 1299 to 1307 . He received a comprehensive general education through the artes literales , the emerging natural sciences.

Archbishop of Trier

Balduin's church career, which he began at the age of just twenty, was thanks to his education in Paris, papal diplomacy and, above all, his aristocratic origins. In 1304 he became provost of the cathedral in Trier. In 1305 his brother Count Heinrich is said to have tried to obtain the Mainz bishop's seat for Baldwin on the occasion of Clement V's coronation in Lyon. At the age of 22 he was elected archbishop by the Trier cathedral chapter in 1307 - an election that was invalid for reasons of age. In 1308 Baldwin probably sought the support of King Philip the Fair and vowed loyalty to him and his successors. Balduin was thus, in addition to the bishops of Cologne and Mainz, with written oaths according to ligious law, to the "partisans of the King of France." The French Pope Clemens V himself consecrated him in March 1308 in Poitiers as Archbishop of Trier. The Diocese of Trier was already in a serious crisis at the time of its predecessors. Property and income were in debt and pledged. His predecessor Diether von Nassau had been excommunicated and suspended. The regional aristocracy enforced its demands with violence and plundering and invoked verbal promises made by the Trier church. The cathedral chapter and the archbishop were at odds with each other due to the election of the opposing bishop Emich von Sponheim and "... the mass of the clergy were confused by the all too much accumulated hatred".

Baldwin had taken over an economically run-down diocese of Trier and a quarreling clergy from his predecessor Diether von Nassau. From his brother Heinrich he received a loan of 40,000 small turnoses from his brother Heinrich in 1308 - in spite of a “fortune existing from the beginning” - which Baldwin urgently needed in view of the critical financial situation. From 1310, Baldwin paid off the loan in installments to Heinrich's son Johann , who in turn used the money to stabilize his rule in Bohemia, where he had ruled since the end of 1310. Balduin also received from Heinrich 1309 partly limited, partly unlimited income from the profitable Rhine and Moselle tariffs. In addition, Balduin rehabilitated the diocese of Trier with the establishment of an administrative office based on the French model and financial transactions with predominantly Jewish financiers. In Paris, Baldwin had also become acquainted with the advantages of an administration that worked with “written law and written legal titles to increase power”. The introduction of an office administration based on the French model and the written documentation of legal titles as a prerequisite for orderly state financing enabled Baldwin to hold the office of archbishop of Trier and metropolitan of the church province of Trier with the dioceses of Metz , Toul and Verdun and for the office of metropolitan of the church province of Mainz for the time as administrator of the Archdiocese of Mainz (1328-1337), the Hochstifte Speyer (1331-1337) and Worms (1331-1337). In addition, he was one of the seven electors and, as Bishop of Mainz, Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire and since 1346 imperial vicar . After the death of his nephew Johanns, King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg, he took over the administration of the family-owned county.

The Balduin Bridge in Koblenz
Balduinsburg in Boppard - Was expanded as a town castle after the war with Boppard after 1327 .

Baldwin is considered to be the actual founder of the Trier electoral state. This judgment applies with the restriction that he “only” pursued the endeavors of his predecessors. However, he did not succeed in z. B. to make the Reichsgut Kröver Reich a pledge and thus to close the Moselle axis Trier-Koblenz. He also had to come to terms with the Counts of Sponheim in the Hunsrück and the Nahe , and on the Lahn and in the Westerwald he was unable to significantly expand the already existing possession and influence of Trier. Such was the Electorate of Trier no surface state, but a collection of parts of the country from individually owned and influence zones by Lehnsverträge or bilateral Einungen were in a dependent relationship with Baldwin. Perhaps his most important gain for the diocese were the pledges imperial cities of Boppard and Oberwesel and the Gallscheid court through his brother Heinrich, who thus reduced his debts from the Italian move to Baldwin. The pledge shaft on Middle Rhine with her, added later pledged by Emperor Louis Rhein duties was never redeemed more of the kingdom.

It is undisputed that Balduin's merit in setting up an efficient administration. The establishment of offices, at the head of which a - today he would be called civil servant - mostly noble bailiff represented the right of the bishop, secured the right of fortification and the peace in the country to protect the population from the law of fists and feuds of a knighthood in impoverishment and lawlessness . Balduin succeeded in integrating the resistant landed nobility into administrative tasks of the archbishopric without violence, but then with money. The recognition for Baldwin's reign was based on the policy of making castles the center of his offices, to surround himself with generously rewarded staff who were closely connected to him and to pursue an unusually effective financial policy. When Baldwin took office, the bishops of Trier owned around 20 castles of their own in the vicinity of Trier and Koblenz. Baldwin bought, expanded and captured 16 more. Much more extensive was a network of more than 90 castles, whose owners, linked to the archbishopric by a feudal contract , secured Baldwin's sovereignty. An evaluation of the sources at the end of the 19th century put the annual average loan payments at 1,450,000 marks, compared to not even 500,000 which his predecessors spent in the second half of the 13th century.

Baldwin will play an initiative role to pacify his electorate in the formation of protective and escort alliances, e.g. B. for safe trade and peace , here in particular to curb the right to feud as the "legal institution" of the lower nobility.

Balduin was also significantly involved in the development of the city of Trier and the surrounding area. It is very likely that the renovation of the Roman Bridge in Trier was also on his initiative. In Koblenz he began to build the first stone bridge, the Balduin Bridge , and at around the same time he had a moated castle, first mentioned in 1344 and located just under eight kilometers to the northwest, built in Kärlich . As a client, Baldwin is best known for the construction of fortifications. On sacred buildings, the continuation and completion of buildings that have already been started is attributed to him. These include the Liebfrauenkirche in Oberwesel (consecrated in 1331), the Gothicization and completion of the east towers of Trier Cathedral , the Carmelite monastery in Boppard and monastery buildings such as the Carthusian monasteries in Koblenz and Trier.

In 1310, on Baldwin's initiative, the Trier Provincial Synod ordered its churches to decorate their rooms with portraits and sculptures and to expand the inventory of their liturgical implements, the ornamenta ecclesiarum . Balduin's instruction certainly led to a surge in production for handicrafts, which continued into modern times e.g. B. still shows in a Gothic church interior that has been preserved in many places . "Baldwin did not become known as a great patron of the fine arts." (Prof. FJ Ronig 1985) Outstanding examples of book illumination have survived from his time, including the illustrated story of his own and his brother Heinrich with the depictions of the journey to Rome .

The accumulation of offices and the territorial gains for the Archbishopric of Trier would have been less successful without Baldwin's loan dealings with his brother Heinrich and Jewish money dealers. "... his ability to provide capital quickly and in sufficient quantities if certain projects require it to be implemented" played a decisive role in asserting his claim to primacy. There are few indications as to whether Baldwin achieved financial benefits from the Italian move: “[...] The intention to use the fiscal possibilities of Italy” was one of the primary motives for participating in this violent marauding move by the affluent municipalities of Northern Italy defendant companies. It is noteworthy that just two years after the end of the train the empire owed Balduin more than three million marks.

An “unsatisfactory research situation” makes it difficult to describe Balduin's “complex framework of attachment” ( Alfred Haverkamp 1985) to the Jewish communities in his sphere of influence. The economic benefit that he owed to Jews, who administered the finances of the diocese for him from the 1320s, is well-established. Their lawlessness, corresponding to the time, meant high protection money and taxes - and in the event of the annihilation of one of his Jewish families - and after 1349 their transfer of property, plus the municipalities' fines for failure to protect, to the episcopal treasury. The trade in pledges and debts of the churches and the nobility with the Jews brought considerable profits. By assuming this debt, the debtors became dependent on Baldwin. He is said to have secured another income by collecting debts for the Jews, which he had his officials carry out, with almost half of the debts of the Jewish creditors being credited to the episcopal winery coffers. Balduin's economic power was therefore based largely on the power of disposal over “his Jews”, who, persecuted in France since the end of the 13th century, were allowed to settle in limited numbers in the archaeological sites.

The end of his reign was burdened by the economic and social decline of his diocese as a result of a series of bad harvests, the plague and the excessive pogroms , which particularly affected the Jews under his protection in the years from 1348 to 1350. In 1353 Baldwin received a papal fasting donation, presumably because of his poor health . d. i.e., he did not have to eat the usual food, e.g. B. waive on Fridays and before public holidays. He died, presumably 69 years old, in Trier on January 21, 1354.

When the Vatican laid claim to his personal estate after Baldwin's death, almost all of the 300,000 guilders “to support King Charles IV and to defend the archbishopric” were used up, according to the cathedral chapter.

Administrator of the diocese of Mainz

After the death of the Archbishop of Mainz Peter von Aspelt , the Mainz Cathedral Chapter postulated Baldwin as the new Archbishop in 1320. Balduin's rapid success in the financial restructuring of the diocese of Trier was also decisive for his choice. Until a papal confirmation, he immediately took up his office as administrator . However, such a confirmation was given by Pope John XXII. never granted. John XXII. insisted on the right decreed by Pope Boniface VIII in 1300 to commission the Mainz Archbishopric and instead appointed Matthias von Buchegg as the new archbishop on September 4, 1321 . This was due to the fact that Baldwin was a partisan of Ludwig of Bavaria , whom Johannes XXII. fought out of own power interests. Baldwin immediately recognized Matthias von Buchegg as the rightful Archbishop of Mainz, which turned out to be farsighted and wise, because he won the Archbishop of Mainz as a confidante and was able to approximate his own position on the open question of the king.

In Mainz in 1328 for the second time, Baldwin was also appointed administrator of the dioceses of Worms and Speyer , presumably from 1331 , and thus had to rule four dioceses for a time. In Worms he was supposed to mediate in the dispute between the cathedral chapter and the curia about the successor to Bishop Konrad IV von Schöneck , who died in 1329 . Baldwin was unable to use the Pope's favorite, Salman Waltpot, a citizen of Mainz. Nevertheless, he pacified the diocese, took the castles Schadeck and Wielenstein and appointed two co-administrators. In 1336 he gave up the administration of Worms together with Mainz. In Speyer, too, the cathedral chapter and the curia were at odds over the successor to the late Bishop Emich von Leiningen . Walram von Veldenz , who was elected by the chapter, is said to have owed the diocese within two years. He entrusted the administration to Balduin, who brought the economic balance sheet of the Hochstift Speyer back into positive figures.

Mainz schism

As Arch Chancellor of the empire, the Mainz bishop was the highest-ranking person after the king who had to invite the electors to elect a king. The emperor, the pope, the cathedral chapter and in 1328 also the French king tried to influence the election of the archbishop of Mainz. In the dispute over the occupation of the bishop's chair, "the last dispute between the empire and papacy took place immediately before the Rhenser Kurverein of 1338."

The castle in Eltville on the Rhine, rebuilt by Bishop Balduin. 1st half of the 14th century

After the death of the Archbishop of Mainz Matthias von Buchegg in 1328, Baldwin was again unanimously postulated by the Mainz Cathedral Chapter to be Archbishop of Mainz, while Pope Heinrich III. von Virneburg appointed Archbishop of Mainz. Nevertheless, Balduin administered the Mainz Archbishopric and had the full support of the Mainz Cathedral Chapter. As Archbishop of Mainz, Baldwin resided in Eltville , because from July 1329 there had been fighting, destruction of churches and monasteries and a siege of the city between him and the citizens of Mainz. The Electoral Castle was damaged by the Mainz team during these battles, but was rebuilt by Baldwin. Meanwhile, a new Pope, Benedict XII, ruled . , in Avignon, who also insisted on his canonical right to appoint a bishop and did not follow Baldwin's justification for following the will of the cathedral chapter and acting out of concern for the welfare of the diocese of Mainz. He saw Baldwin's insistence in the Mainz bishopric and imperial chancellery as the will to increase power and influence and demanded that Baldwin resign from the administration and excommunicated him in October 1336. Baldwin reluctantly abandoned his claim to a judgment by the curia in Avignon and ended so the Mainz schism . It was not until November 1342 that a new Pope, Clement VI. , Baldwin's absolution . For Baldwin, the Mainz chapter ended unsatisfactorily. He had only been able to carry out the administration for a while with the help of the cathedral chapter, had fallen out with the city of Mainz, the emperor, the curia and the pope and ultimately could not prevent Heinrich von Virneburg as bishop of Mainz. On October 28, 1338, the cathedral chapter asked Baldwin to return his miter and other bishop's insignia from Mainz.

Elector and Arch Chancellor of the Reich for several years

Historians see Baldwin as one of the outstanding personalities in the history of the German Empire in the 14th century. His political will to shape his work, to use his work for the well-being of his own family and consequently for personal and church politics also armed violence, initiated the rise of the Luxembourg family to one of the most important families in Central Europe in the late Middle Ages .

Baldwin had 46 years in which to become one of the most influential politicians of the Holy Roman Empire in the early 14th century. He played a decisive role in the elections for three kings from his family. With the Archbishop of Mainz Peter von Aspelt , who also came from a Luxembourg noble family, he pushed through the election of his brother Heinrich in 1308 against Karl von Valois , "according to origin and upbringing le plus français des Princes du Saint Empire " as Roman-German king . In 1310, through a marriage of Heinrich's son Johann with the daughter of Wenceslaus II (Bohemia), the Luxembourgers succeeded in securing claims to the Bohemian crown, the Moravian margraviate and the electoral dignity and their sphere of influence and power from west to east of the empire to expand.

From 1310 to 1313 Baldwin left his diocese for almost three years to support his brother Heinrich on his Italian expedition and to help him to be crowned emperor in Rome. Heinrich was the first Roman-German king in almost a century to be crowned emperor on June 29, 1312 in the Lateran of Rome . He tried to enforce the imperial claims again in imperial Italy , but came into conflict with anti-imperial forces (the Guelphs , the king of Naples, the French king and ultimately also with the pope). Baldwin took part in the Rome train with his own troops and funds. Heinrich died on August 24, 1313, possibly of malaria near Siena .

With the death of the brothers Heinrich and Walram, Baldwin had become the head of the Luxembourg family. Since he had enabled the family to expand power to Central Europe, support for his nephew, King John of Bohemia , as an advisor, financier and, in 1315, also as an armed fighter against the independence of the Bohemian-Moravian nobility, was required. On the other hand, the Bohemians saw Balduin's and other members of the Luxembourg retinue's activities as interference in internal affairs and demanded that Johann remove the foreign advisors.

Baldwin could not help the son of his brother Heinrich, Johann , to the imperial throne. The proximity to the French royal house and another Luxembourger in a position of power in the empire made the other electors fear that their territorial possibilities would be restricted. In the subsequent king's election in 1314, Baldwin supported Ludwig the Bavarian from Wittelsbach in order to prevent a Habsburg regent. In 1332 Ludwig the Bavarian returned the favor with a confirmation of the possessions and privileges of the Trier church and the pledge of Kaiserslautern. In 1333 he initiated the Kaiserslautern Landfrieden , which stretched south across the borders of the Trier diocese to Alsace. Baldwin tried to bring individual castles and smaller lordships under his influence. This showed that his territorial interests went beyond the Diocese of Trier and that he inevitably got into conflicts with the Palatinate. It was only when Baldwin's great-nephew Karl married the daughter of Count Palatinate Rudolf and thus Luxembourger and Wittelsbachers became relatives that Baldwin's efforts to dispute the Count Palatinate's position on the left bank of the Rhine are no longer recorded.

1338 is probably the most eventful year in Balduin's imperial political activity. After a meeting of the electors near Koblenz, they declared that the election of a German king they had chosen no longer had to be confirmed by the consent of the Pope. The formulations of this Kurverein von Rhense are said to have originated from a significant influence of Baldwin. At the same time, an alliance between Emperor Ludwig and the English King Edward III was formed. from the house of Anjou-Plantagenet against France's King Philip VI. Edward claimed the French crown, citing his Capetian descent. Baldwin was also involved in this alliance and was to receive 100,000 florins in pay and subsidies . The support of Edward by the emperor and the elector is said to have been weak, also because the English king did not honor his agreed payments. To secure his debts, he had to deposit Baldwin's crown in pledge until 1340.

Ongoing conflicts between Emperor Ludwig and the Curia, the Pope's curse and finally his alliance with France's King Philip IV, which was directed against Luxembourg interests, led to a final break with Baldwin and the House of Luxembourg in 1346. A year later he helped his great-nephew Karl , the Margrave of Moravia , to be elected Roman-German (counter) king . Although the mutual relationship was at times quite tense, Baldwin remained a financier until his death and was given a general power of attorney for the county of Luxembourg, the most important pillar of Charles in the west of the empire.

Baldwin's feuds and wars

The image of Bishop Baldwin on horseback and with a sword waved is a reminder that the ruling classes of the Middle Ages were of course all warriors and that public law and all political relationships were “governed by the rules of armed service” ( Georges Duby 1986). The knightly virtues of bravery in controversy and generosity towards followers were considered the most important characteristics of the nobility.

As a cleric, Baldwin did not shy away from military violence or threats of violence when his interests were endangered and could not be settled nonviolently by negotiating demands and consideration. His upbringing at the French court probably also included training in knightly combat. Balduin's dexterity and physical strength, which enabled him to take part in battles, are recorded in the Gesta Treverorum , cap. 228, highlighted. During his participation in his brother Heinrich's three-year campaign in Italy from 1310, he wielded the sword from Milan to Rome and back again.

In Germany he moved to Prague in 1316 to support his nephew Johann von Böhmen , together with Bishop Peter von Aspelt , “with a sizeable army”. In the Trier countries it was above all the ongoing conflicts with the Counts of Sponheim , the Count of Westerburg and the Count of Nassau that the Habsburg government, but not the archbishop from the House of Luxembourg, wanted to recognize as their supreme regent.

Between 1324 and 1326 he took part in the war of the four lords against the free imperial city and city republic of Metz . In 1327 Baldwin had to break the resistance of the citizens of Boppard , who fought against the loss of their imperial freedom, by force of arms. In 1328 Baldwin succeeded in acquiring the Wildgräfliche Schmidtburg . Until 1342 the various branches of the Wildgraves tried to regain the castle. The climax of the dispute was the so-called Dhauner Feud (1337-1342), in which most of the noble families of the Hunsrück-Nahe region were involved. The center of the fighting was the wild count's castle Dhaun .

In his ongoing conflict with the Sponheimers , he had to experience an embarrassing setback in 1328: Trusting an agreed armistice, Baldwin traveled through Sponheim territory in June 1328 and was arrested there on the orders of Countess Loretta von Sponheim . It was provoked by Balduin by building Balduinseck Castle on Sponheim territory and trying to secure the Kröver Reich pledge pledged to the Sponheimers for the Archbishopric. In addition, she blamed Baldwin for the economic damage that she had suffered as a result of the rural exodus of Sponheim residents to Trier cities. Only after the payment of a ransom of 30,000 pounds Heller , the repayment of Loretta's debts and the assurance that nothing more would be done against the interests of the family - among other things in the dispute over the Kröver Reich - was he released again.

In 1331, in the Lower Archbishopric on the Lower Moselle , some imperial ministers did not want to place themselves under the Trier official law. They then had to submit to the Eltz feud through sieges and the building of counter-castles to Balduin's rule in 1337, i. H. Castle opening and assumption of administrative activities. During these years he also waged the "Mainz War" which not only took place against the citizens of the city, but also took place in Hesse and Thuringia. In 1336 he is said to have personally participated in the defensive struggle against the "Judenschlägerrotten" of the arm leather uprising on the Lower Main. In 1338 Baldwin was involved in the beginning of the Hundred Years War through an alliance with the English king . He does not seem to have intervened in major battles because King Edward did not pay the agreed wages. Balduin's troops in Koblenz suffered a serious defeat in the Grenzau feud in 1347 . The losses and costs forced him to give up support for his great-nephew King Karl of Bohemia in the dispute against Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria. In 1351 he demonstrated his power again and had the castle of Jakob von Montclair on the Saar , who had continued to oppose the agreements of the Lorraine Land Peace or the Maas-Rhine State Peace Alliance , besieged and destroyed. Despite the large number of battles listed here, Baldwin is said to have preferred to bind his opponents to himself through negotiations and feudal agreements, since a feud was very costly.



The archbishopric flourished in the administrative area. Since the 1330s he had the documents and titles of the Trier Archbishopric collected and copied as the basis for an orderly administration . These document collections, the so-called Balduins , in which other documents were copied, are now stored in four manuscripts in the Koblenz State Main Archive. He always carried a small, handy format of these document books as a travel copy - as a transportable reference archive - with him on his travels. As a precursor of Balduineen can Liber annalium iurium be seen that already in approaches under Archbishop Albero de Montreuil was available and under Archbishop Johann I. was completed. However, the Balduins are more up- to-date and reflect the legal position of the archdiocese in the first third of the 14th century.

Baldwin's reforms include the “Trier Festival Calendar” of 1338, which reduced the number of church holidays, which were also celebrated with a strict rest period, to the benefit of agriculture and crafts. Also in 1338 he ordered the annual meeting of the clergy to synods, in which current church events were dealt with. The resulting decrees, mostly written in Latin, should be read in the vernacular by the priests in their parish. The establishment of the office of auxiliary bishop, which Baldwin allowed the curia to allow himself because of his frequent imperial duties, was less of a reform than an innovation. In 1344, Pope Baldwin gave the power to have episcopal visitations and pontifical acts carried out by representatives. In fact, Baldwin had previously appointed helpers in the episcopate, but they did not officiate as ruling bishops.

In the part of the Landgraviate of Thuringia belonging to Mainz , he recruited clerks and notaries . This "Thuringian Educational Circle" around the later Mainz cathedral dean Rudolf Losse from Eisenach were also present as high-ranking diplomats on the political stage in Europe and supported the expansive imperial politics of the Luxemburgers. Losse, who had studied in Montpellier in France, was also involved in the formation of the New High German written language, which found its way into the chancellery of the empire with its formulations as German documentary language from the beginning of the 1330s. "The Electoral Trier alliance and unification documents were unquestionable, incontestable in terms of language, formula and content."


At the beginning of Balduin's reign the predominant currency in the Trier-Lorraine currency area was u. a. the silver pfennig of the Imperial Mint Hall, the French Turnosepfennig and the Cologne pfennig. In 1310 Baldwin was granted the right by his brother Heinrich to strike coins at any location in the archbishopric. The privilege was expanded even further by King Charles IV in 1346, when he granted him the right to mint royal and imperial money from gold and silver with general validity, to collect counterfeit coins and to punish forgers and stolen goods. This was also done out of gratitude and reward for his elevation to king at his coronation in Bonn . In 1348 the first Rhenish minting agreement between Trier, Luxembourg, Cologne and the Margraviate of Jülich was concluded for joint minting with the symbol of the empire. Thus Baldwin had already achieved the integration of the royal mint sovereignty into the Trier territorial power before the publication of the Golden Bull of 1356. According to documents, Balduin not only minted in Trier, but also in Koblenz , Boppard and Cochem . However, there is no known information about the shot and grain of the coins or about their mutual value. Trier gold coins were only minted under Balduin's successor Boemund II .


Bishop Balduin “outside of the Middle Rhine-Moselle region is hardly known to non-historians.” His assessment by historians of the 19th and early 20th centuries, who were more German-minded, was sometimes critical as an imperial prince and member of a family that included three German emperors in the late Middle Ages and had established several kings, was obviously influenced by Leopold von Ranke's judgment on the description of Emperor Henry VII, which also applies to Baldwin, of being "a Dutchman by origin and a Frenchman by upbringing".

Baldwin himself created a first memory of himself with the illustrated description of his brother Heinrich's election and his move to Italy. The experiences of this Rome train with its participation are recorded in the illustrated chronicle of Emperor Heinrich's Rome journey . Several castles built by Balduin such as Burg Baldenau , Balduinstein , Baldeneltz (today Trutzeltz), Baldenruesse (today Rauschenburg), Balduinseck , ... he all named them after their name. (TE v. Wolfhagen, Limburg chronicler, 14th century.) Balduin's monumental high grave, completed in 1362 based on French models, is located in the west choir of Trier Cathedral . On May 18, 1897, the Balduin Fountain with a bronze figure of the Elector was erected in front of Trier Central Station, at the intersection of Christophstrasse and Balduinstrasse. The memorial was designed by the Munich sculptor Ferdinand von Miller (1842–1929). In 1975 a Balduin monument made of Eifel basalt was erected on the renewed Balduin Bridge in Koblenz. The sculptor was Rudi Scheuermann (* 1929, † 2016)

Balduin is the namesake of schools within the diocese, since 1926 in Münstermaifeld , 1958 in Kaisersesch , 1969 in Wittlich and since 1969 in Morbach . In local history literature, the memory of Baldwin is often overlaid with legends. The Rhine and Moselle literature of the Romantic period was primarily reminiscent of Balduin's power-oriented side and his “imprisonment” with Countess Loretta von Sponheim.

In 1985, the state of Rhineland-Palatinate commemorated Baldwin's birth 700 years ago in a state exhibition in Trier. The patronage was the Hereditary Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg and Prime Minister Bernhard Vogel . On the occasion of the exhibition, historiographical literature on Baldwin, his family and his time in the 14th century was published.



  • Wolf-Rüdiger Berns: Castle policy and rule of Archbishop Balduin of Trier. (1307-1345). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1980, ISBN 3-7995-6687-2 .
  • Friedhelm Burgard: … bishop and grebe… - bishop and count at the same time. For the education of the Trier electoral state up to the middle of the 14th century. In: Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 63 (1999), pp. 70–89.
  • Friedhelm Burgard: Familia Archiepiscopi. Studies on the spiritual functionaries of Archbishop Baldwin of Luxembourg (1307-1354) (= Trier historical research. Vol. 19). Verlag Trier Historical Research, Trier 1991, ISBN 3-89890-015-0 (At the same time: Trier, University, dissertation, 1987).
  • Alexander Dominicus:  Baldwin of Luxembourg . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, pp. 11-15.
  • Julia Eulenstein: Territorialization with the Sword? The feud of Trier Archbishop Baldwin of Luxembourg (1307 / 08-1354) in the Archbishopric of Trier. (= Publications of the State Archives Administration Rhineland-Palatinate. Vol. 155). State Archives Administration Rhineland-Palatinate, Koblenz 2012 (At the same time: Gießen, University, dissertation, 2009).
  • Maria Elisabeth Franke: Emperor Heinrich in the mirror of historiography. A fact-critical and source-based investigation of selected historians of the first half of the 14th century (= research on the imperial and papal history of the Middle Ages. Vol. 9). Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 1992, ISBN 3-412-10392-6 (Partly at the same time: Saarbrücken, University, dissertation, 1988).
  • Verena Kessel: Balduin von Trier (1285–1354). Art, rule and spirituality in the Middle Ages (= history and culture of the Trier region. Vol. 12). Kliomedia, Trier 2012, ISBN 978-3-89890-144-4 .
  • Sabine Krüger:  Baldwin of Luxembourg. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, ISBN 3-428-00182-6 , pp. 553 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Johannes Mötsch , Franz-Josef Heyen (Hrsg.): Balduin von Luxemburg. Archbishop of Trier - Elector of the Empire. Festschrift on the occasion of the 700th year of birth. (= Sources and treatises on church history in the Middle Rhine . Vol. 53). Verlag der Gesellschaft für Mittelrheinische Kirchengeschichte, Mainz 1985 [basic articles on the life and work of Baldwin and his environment]
  • Johannes Mötsch: The Balduins. Structure, development and content of the collection of documents of Archbishop Balduin von Trier (= publications of the Rhineland-Palatinate State Archives Administration. Vol. 33). Self-published by the Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz, Koblenz 1980, ISBN 3-922018-00-0 (Also: Bonn, University, dissertation, 1978).
  • Reiner Nolden (Ed.): Balduin von Luxemburg. Archbishop and Elector of Trier (1308–1354). Lectures at a colloquium in Trier in June 2008. Trier City Archives and City Library, Trier 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-032031-6 .
  • Martin PerschBaldwin of Luxembourg. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 15, Bautz, Herzberg 1999, ISBN 3-88309-077-8 , Sp. 55-57.
  • Heinrich Koller : The Luxembourg family. In: Kaiser Karl IV. Ed. By Ferdinand Seibt , Prestel Verlag, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-7913-0435-6 , pp. 317–323.
  • Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz (Ed.): Balduin von Luxemburg. Catalog for the state exhibition Trier 1985, Koblenz 1985.

Web links

Commons : Baldwin of Luxembourg  - collection of images


  1. research overview at Ulf Dirlmeier / Gerhard Fouquet / Bernd Fuhrmann: Europe in the late Middle Ages from 1215 to 1378. Munich 2003, p. 164ff.
  2. Johannes Simmert, Solitariam vitam diligens ...., In Festschrift Balduin ..., p. 213 ff.
  3. ^ Jean Schoos , Die Familie der Luxemburger, in Festschrift Balduin v. Luxemburg , Mainz 1985, p. 120 ff.
  4. The mother, Beatrix von Avesnes-Beaumont, came from the French-speaking Hainaut . Their children grew up there after the Worringen disaster.
  5. H. Koller, Die Familie ..., in Kaiser Karl IV., P. 317. Even under her grandfather Heinrich V, the French language, which was spoken by the nobility of Luxembourg as a colloquial language since the middle of the 12th century, was the official language and document language has been introduced alongside Latin. Cf. Carl Dietmar, Luxemburg and the Limburg succession dispute, in Der Tag bei Worringen, June 5, 1288 , North Rhine-Westphalian Main State Archive, Düsseldorf 1988, p. 300 ff.
  6. Kurt-Ulrich Jäschke, Peter Thorau (editor): The Regests of the Empire under Rudolf, Adolf, Albrecht, Heinrich VII. 1273-1313. 4th department: Heinrich VII. 1288 / 1308–1313, 1st delivery: 1288/1308 – August 1309. Vienna 2006, p. 8f.
  7. ^ Jean Schoos, Die Luxemburger, in Festschrift Balduin ..., p. 143
  8. Ernst Schubert, Elector and Electoral King, in Festschrift Balduin ..., p. 106
  9. Heinz Thomas (historian) , '' Das Reich um 1300, '' p. 36 ff. And Carl D. Dietmar, Heinrich VII., Count of Luxembourg ...., In Festschrift Balduin ... , p. 44
  10. Rudolf Holbach, Balduin and the cathedral chapter, in Festschrift Balduin…, p. 189 ff .; J. Mötsch, The Balduineen. Introduction, p. 1 ff.
  11. ^ Henri-Camille Wampach (Ed.): Document and source books on the history of the old Luxembourg territories. Volume 7. Luxembourg 1949, pp. 344-346, no. 1271.
  12. On the interpretation of the source material, see Winfried Reichert: Land rule between Reich and France. Part 1, Trier 1993, pp. 228-230.
  13. Johannes Mötsch, Die Schriftgutverwaltung, in Festschrift Balduin ..., p. 252 ff.
  14. The church historian Ferdinand Pauly refers to descriptions of Baldwin's personal secretary, Rudolf Losse  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically defective marked. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  15. Lamprecht compared this with the silver purchase price of 1885.
  16. M. Nikolay-Panter, Landfriedensschutz ... , in the Festschrift Balduin ... , p. 342 ff.
  17. ^ Grube, Richter, Duchstein: Koblenz . Edited by Buchhandlung Reuffel, Koblenz, ISBN 3-9800158-07 , p. 13.
  18. ^ Winfried Henrichs: City Chronicle Mülheim-Kärlich . Published by the City of Mülheim-Kärlich, 2009.
  19. ^ Franz J. Ronig, Art under Balduin von Luxemburg, in the Festschrift Balduin von Luxemburg ... , p. 489 ff.
  20. ^ ME Franke, Emperor Heinrich VII. In the mirror of historiography. P. 305
  21. Scenes from Balduin's picture chronicle acting in Italy , 34 of 59 pictures show the train participants armed and fighting
  22. Albertino Mussato allows King Heinrich, after the suppression of the Milan uprising in 1311, to justify “not having come to Italy out of lust for glory and greed for earthly goods, but being led by God and the Pope. [...] he would rather die himself than be unfaithful to his convictions ”. He included his brothers Balduin and Walram in this threat of punishment if they acted against his will. Quoted by ME Franke, Kaiser Heinrich VII. In the mirror of historiography. P. 44
  23. Balduin's share of the cost of the Italian train may also be offset in this. W.-R. Berns, Burgenpolitik und Herrschaft ..., p. 108 ff. And 185 ff.
  24. Persecution of the Jews, with complete extermination in many places, during Baldwin's tenure, according to Germania Judaica II, between 1336 and 1338 and 1346 to 1350
  25. ^ Alfred Haverkamp , Archbishop Balduin and the Jews, in Festschrift Balduin ..., p. 437 ff.
  26. A climatic deterioration since the beginning of the 14th century with z. B. the Magdalen flood of 1342 resulted in the impoverishment of the population.
  27. ^ Alfred Haverkamp , Archbishop Balduin and the Jews, in Festschrift Balduin ..., p. 437
  28. ^ Karl Heinz Debus, Balduin as administrator of Mainz, Worms and Speyer, in Festschrift Balduin ... , p. 413 ff.
  29. The cathedral chapter invoked its own rights and wanted to oppose papal interference
  30. At Baldwin's request, Emperor Ludwig granted Eltville city ​​rights in 1332 . State Main Archive Rhineland-Palatinate Koblenz, Best. 700, 30 No. 413
  31. Karl Rolf Seufert : The spiritual currents have never dried up . In: The Hessian Minister for Agriculture and Forests, Freundeskreis Kloster Eberbach e. V. (Ed.): Eberbach in the Rheingau . Cistercian - Culture - Wine. The Hessian Minister for Agriculture and Forests, Wiesbaden / Eltville 1986, p. 9-40 .
  32. ^ Karl Heinz Debus, Balduin as administrator of Mainz, Worms and Speyer, in Festschrift Balduin ... , p. 413 ff.
  33. ^ Jean Schoos, Die Familie der Luxemburger in Festschrift Balduin ..., p. 135
  34. On the train to Rome see William M. Bowsky: Henry VII in Italy. The Conflict of Empire and City-State, 1310-1313. Lincoln, Nebraska 1960.
  35. A detailed treatise of the various sources of death passed down by Maria Elisabeth Franke: Emperor Heinrich VII. In the mirror of historiography. Cologne 1992, here especially the tradition of Ferreto de 'Ferreti, p. 123 ff.
  36. Ivan Hlaváĉek, John the Blind, King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg in Festschrift Balduin…, p. 151 ff.
  37. The handling of this business is only partially handed down in a document (Alfred Haverkamp).
  38. In his illustrated manuscript for Emperor Heinrichs Romfahrt , Balduin inserts a special dedication to the courtly tournament with the depiction of a joust in Pisa (fol. 34).
  39. So in May 1312 he smashed the helmet and skull of a lord of the Orsini in street fighting within Rome. See Kaiser Heinrichs Romfahrt , fol. 22. In the same battle the Bishop of Liège and the abbot of the Weissenburg monastery fell. On November 16, 1312, together with the Count of Flanders, he stormed and sacked the city of Santa Maria Novella and conquered castles in the vicinity of Siena, fol. 31.
  40. ^ I. Hlaváček, John the Blind in Festschrift Balduin ... , p. 156
  41. A. Haverkamp, Balduin and the Jews in Festschrift Balduin ..., p. 475
  42. Hans-Günther Langner, language of the Electorate Chancellery around the middle of the 14th century and the New High German language in Festschrift Balduin ... , p. 264 ff.
  43. Gerd Martin Forneck, coins and money in circulation at the time of Baldwin in Festschrift Balduin von Luxemburg, pp. 485–488
  44. ^ Stadtsparkasse Trier: The coins and seals of the Archbishops of Trier , 1973
  45. Anton Neugebauer, Balduin memory in the 19th and 20th centuries in Festschrift Balduin ... , p. 569
  46. Anton Neugebauer, Balduin memory in the 19th and 20th centuries in Festschrift Balduin ... , p. 570 ff.
predecessor Office successor
Diether von Nassau Elector Archbishop of Trier
Boemund II of Saarbrücken
Matthias von Buchegg Administrator of Mainz
Henry III. from Virneburg
Gerlach von Erbach Administrator of Worms
1331–1343 (with interruptions)
Salmann Cleman
Walram from Veldenz Administrator of Speyer
Gerhard von Ehrenberg