Overview map of Spessart
Spessart means "woodpecker forest"
|Highest peak||Geiersberg ( )|
|location||Bavaria , Hesse|
|part of||Southwest German layer level country|
|Type||Low mountain range|
|rock||mainly red sandstone|
The Spessart is a low mountain range between Vogelsberg , Rhön and Odenwald in Bavaria and Hesse . It comprises the largest contiguous area of mixed deciduous forests in Germany and is located north of the Main , which forms the border with the Odenwald - about 55 km east-southeast of Frankfurt and 40 km west-northwest of Würzburg . The highest point is at the Geiersberg in the High Spessart .
The name is derived from Specht and Hardt ("mountain forest"), which means Spechtswald . In the year 839 it is recorded as an Spehteshart , around 1000 as an Speshart . The name also occurs in the spelling Spechteshart . In addition, a Roman name origin can also be assumed. According to this, Spessart would be a contraction of the Latin words spissa et ardua silva , which could be translated as dense and arduous forest .
The Spessart is essentially bordered by three rivers: from the Main between Gemünden and Hanau , from the Kinzig in the north and from the Sinn in the northeast. Motto: "Kinzig, Sinn and Main enclose the Spessart all around." It appears as a wooded mountain range with rounded peaks that rise only a little above the total height. The lower slopes are populated or used for agriculture, on the heights oak and beech forests cover the Spessart.
The main ridge stretches from Miltenberg in the south for 75 km to the north to the Schlüchtern area . The heights of the peaks are between 450 and , and the highest point is the Geiersberg with the Breitsol transmitter near Rohrbrunn .
The Geishöhe , officially Oberwintersbach (district of Dammbach ), is Höhe the highest settlement in the Spessart. The village of Heinrichsthal in the North Spessart is Höhe the highest independent municipality in the Spessart.
The subsoil of the Spessart consists, especially in its western part (Vorspessart) to the east of Aschaffenburg, of diorite , various types of gneiss and mica schist . There are also vein-like deposits of Spessartite around Aschaffenburg , but these were usually already mined in small quarries and today no longer supply any material. Usually, however, the subsoil consists of red sandstone , which overlays the crystalline rocks . In the far south-east there are still shell calcareous relics. In the north, under the red sandstone, there are also deposits from the Permian ( Rotliegende and Zechstein ). Zechstein lime and dolomite used to be extracted from Altenmittlau and Feldkahl , for example .
Also in the north of the Spessart, smaller iron ( Bieber , until 1925) and manganese deposits (during the First World War) were mined in Zechstein . For a long time (especially in the 18th century until 1806) Bieber also extracted the thin copper slate, which represents copper slate and which carries small amounts of copper , lead and silver . Faults mineralized with siderite , barite and occasionally Co-Ni arsenides (e.g. skutterudite , even native bismuth ) were mined in Bieberer Lochborn until around 1867 to produce blue ceramic colors. Ore guidance was only widespread below and above the Kupferlettens. A small declining copper deposit ( bornite etc.) near Sommerkahl probably also derives its copper content from the Kupferletten. Vein-shaped barite deposits (barite), which also occur in red sandstone (e.g. Partenstein , in the west e.g. at Waldaschaff) were more common.
See also: List of mines in the Spessart
Its outermost branches extend to Hanau , Schlüchtern and into the Sinntal . It extends over 2440 km², of which 1710 km² belong to Bavaria and 730 km² to Hesse . The Mainviereck denotes the southern part of the Spessart with the four corner points Lohr , Wertheim , Miltenberg and Aschaffenburg .
The Main separates the Spessart in the east from the Franconian plate and in the south and west from the Odenwald . The Spessart is divided in the northwest by the Kinzig from the Büdinger Wald, which borders the Vogelsberg , and in the northeast by the Sinn from the south of the Rhön and the southern Rhön . The Odenwald, Büdinger Wald and Südrhön are landscapes similar to the Spessart and together with them they form the large natural region of Odenwald, Spessart and Südrhön .
The orographically defined mountain landscape between the Kinzig in the north, the Main in the west and south and the Sinn in the east is commonly regarded as the Spessart . As a further subdivision, the text from Meyer's Konversations-Lexikon , which is over 120 years old, is often quoted:
“The outer edge along the Main, especially in the west, is called the Vorspessart , the inner forest mountains consisting of densely connected mountains, which have no broad mountain range, are called the Hochspessart and the plateau-like depression towards the Kinzig and Kahl , which also so-called. Orber brushwood , comprising several hills covered with oak bushes up to the town of Bad Orb , called Hinterspessart . "
The landscape described here as "Hinterspessart", however, encompasses geologically quite different areas. It is also not used in specialist literature or on maps.
Geologically, the Spessart forms a unit with the Odenwald , which adjoins it to the southwest , the Büdinger Forest adjoining to the northwest at the foot of the Vogelsberg and the southern Rhön branching off to the northeast , the southwestern slope of the Rhön . It is divided into the Sandstone Spessart , which occupies the majority of the area, and the Vorderen Spessart in the west, immediately east of the Main between Aschaffenburg and Hanau , which, however, is bordered by the Sandstone Spessart near Hanau. In front Spessart is older basement rocks to, on sandstone Spessart red sandstone .
The main valley is not exactly seen as the natural southern boundary of the Sandstone Spessart to the sandstone forest. Rather, in the eastern south, the Wertheim plateau , a smaller part south of the Main separated by the lower reaches of the Erf from the mouth upstream to the west of Külsheim and from there by a west-east line to the Tauber , is also included, which according to that definition also Baden-Wuerttemberg had a small share of the Spessart. There is also another small part of the Sandstone Spessart , not connected to the Odenwald, the Massenbucher Spessartvorland south of Gemünden , to the left of the Main.
On the western flank of the orographic Spessart, a small part of the landscape between Kahl , Rodenbach and Gelnhausen , the northwestern Spessart foreland , is already counted as part of the main unit group of the Upper Rhine Rift.
The Spessart is naturally structured as follows:
(to 14 Odenwald, Spessart and Südrhön )
- 141 Sandstone Spessart (1416 km²)
- 141.0 Lower Main Valley
- 141.00 Wörth-Klingenberger Maintal
- 141.01 Wertheim-Miltenberger Maintal
- 141.02 Marktheidenfeld-Wertheimer Maintal
- 141.03 Lohr-Rothenfelser Maintal
- 141.04 Lower Taubertal
- 141.1 Wertheim plateau (left Main river )
- 141.2 Oberwittbacher Spessartvorland
- 141.3 Southeastern Sandstone Spessart
- 141.4 Southwestern Sandstone Spessart
- 141.5 Northern Sandstone Spessart
- 141.6 Schlüchtern basin
- 141.7 Mass booking Spessartvorland (left Main )
- 141.0 Lower Main Valley
- 142 Front Spessart
- 141 Sandstone Spessart (1416 km²)
- (to 23 Rhine-Main-Lowlands )
The following districts and urban districts have a share in the Spessart:
- Bavaria ( Lower Franconia )
- Hesse ( Darmstadt District )
- Baden-Württemberg ( Stuttgart District )
The Spessart has an eventful history. Initially, as the Reichswald, it was a royal forest and served the Roman-German electoral kings as a hunting ground, in the vicinity of which they established their royal palaces Gelnhausen and Seligenstadt . As a result, the Mainz Electoral Archbishops were the sovereigns for many centuries . Only from the 12th and 13th centuries did they tolerate the settlement of the Spessart. Some settlements such as Grubingen gained regional importance, but later disappeared again.
The Spessart was always ruled from outside. It was ruled by the Archdiocese of Mainz , the Bishopric of Würzburg and some smaller lordships, such as the Counts of Rieneck . The political fragmentation without cross-border prosecution favored the emergence of bands of robbers. There is evidence of the Spessart robbers at the beginning of the 19th century, to whom Wilhelm Hauff created a memorial in 1827 with the story Das Wirtshaus im Spessart and Kurt Hoffmann in 1958 with the film of the same name .
In the time of upheaval around the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire , the robber (un) being in the Spessart experienced a final climax. After the reorganization of the territories and more effective administration, the robber problem was resolved in a very short time.
With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss the electorate of Mainz ended in 1803, the Spessart came to the principality of Aschaffenburg , and later to the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt . Finally, large parts of the Kingdom of Bavaria were added. But even today the Spessart is divided into four districts in two federal states.
In addition to poor agriculture, the Spessart had resources such as wood, water power, salt, ores and minerals. These factors formed the basis for charcoal burners , potters , iron hammers and mines . In 1795 Georg Ludwig Rexroth bought the Höllenhammer in the Elsava Valley and produced iron articles for agriculture and handicrafts. After moving to Lohr, this developed into a global company for hydraulics that has merged into today's Bosch Rexroth .
The glass products and mirrors from Spessarter glassworks were sold throughout Europe. A glassworks is still in operation in Lohr today.
The Spessart was criss-crossed by a wide variety of trade routes, on which the sovereigns earned customs revenue. The many churches and monasteries, castles and palaces testify to prosperous times.
Frammersbach carters traveled from here all over Europe. With the railroad and improved river navigation, the wagoners went down economically.
Over the centuries, the Spessart was also forested to varying degrees. Systematic reforestation has been carried out since the 18th century.
With the industrial revolution, most of the low mountain ranges fell behind economically. Improved and cheaper transport routes made it possible to sell cheaper goods from the big centers to the most remote corners. The Spessart became impoverished. In 1852, the physician Rudolf Virchow , who was then teaching at the University of Würzburg , reported in his study Die Noth im Spessart: A medical-geographical-historical sketch of the often disastrous supply situation for people in the Spessart.
The triad of forest, poverty and Spessart robbers has stuck in people's minds, although this was only a short phase in the ups and downs of development.
Culture and sights
- The most famous building in the Spessart is the Mespelbrunn Castle , a moated castle . It was the residence of the Echter family who were entrusted with administrative tasks for the Archdiocese of Mainz in nearby Aschaffenburg. Mespelbrunn is so remote that it was never damaged or destroyed during the war. Today the castle is owned by the Counts of Ingelheim and is partly inhabited, partly as a museum.
- The three-part Gothic pilgrimage church in Hessenthal contains an important crucifixion group by Hans Backoffen , a Lamentation of Christ attributed to Tilman Riemenschneider and a family epitaph of the real von Mespelbrunn in the old pilgrimage chapel that serves as a burial place.
- The Carolingian crossing church in Neustadt am Main . Built by Megingaud and inaugurated in 781 by Charlemagne, Bishop Willibald from Eichstätt and Archbishop Lullus from Mainz.
- The Luitpold height Castle was founded in 1889 by the Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria in Rohrbrunner Forest built as a home for his hunting parties in the Spessart. Later it was the seat of the Rohrbrunn Forestry Office. It has been idle since 1996 and its future is unclear.
- In Sommerkahl can pit Wilhelmine , a former copper mine open to visitors.
- The Bad Orb graduation house serves as an open-air inhalation area .
- The Spessart Museum is housed in the castle in Lohr am Main . History and products from the Spessart, in particular glass and mirrors , as well as forged and foundry products are presented.
- The previously outstanding importance of glass production in the Spessart is specially honored in Wertheim in a glass museum .
- The lapidarium in Neustadt am Main above the former chapter house of the abbey church bears witness to the Carolingian past of the Neustadt monastery. Probably the most important piece is the so-called grief mantle. Opening on request in the monastery or in the parish office.
- A representative representation of the mineralogy and geology of the Spessart can be found in the natural history museum Schönborner Hof in Aschaffenburg .
- The Biebergrund Museum in Biebergemünd shows not only traditional costumes from the region, but also exhibits on mining in the Spessart. Other focal points are the effects of the Spessart Railway as well as agriculture and forestry.
- The "Pedalwelt" in Heimbuchenthal is a bicycle museum .
- In 2012, the local history museum opened in Altenbuch in the newly renovated "House of Poor School Sisters". Guided tours on request.
- Local history museum in Weibersbrunn in the old sister house. Glass from the Weibersbrunn glassworks and other Spessartorte. Guided tours on request.
- The Wächtersbach – Bad Orb railway, a small steam train, operates as a museum train on Sundays and public holidays.
The Spessart has been made accessible to hiking tourists by marked hiking trails for many decades . The Eselsweg , a so-called old road that leads over the main ridge of the Spessart and probably got its name from the donkey caravans of the Middle Ages, is extraordinarily old and probably already in use for over 2,000 years . Today the Eselsweg is a long-distance hiking trail marked with a black “E” on a white background , which crosses the Spessart in a north-south direction with almost no local contact (similar to the Rennsteig in the Thuringian Forest ).
Almost as well known is the Birkenhainer Straße , a medieval military and trade route between Rhine Franconia and Eastern Franconia. It connects Hanau with Gemünden am Main over a length of 71 km . Today the Birkenhainer Straße is a long-distance hiking trail, which is marked with a black “B” on a white background.
The Spessart is also framed on three sides by the Maintalhöhenringweg , ("R").
The Franconian red wine hiking trail , which was laid out in 1990, is particularly interesting for wine drinkers and is intensively advertised. It runs on the western edge of the Spessart along the main valley.
Numerous cultural routes run by the Archaeological Spessart Project e. V. They dedicate themselves to various key issues relating to the landscape and its use by people and want to bring the Spessart closer as a cultural landscape . The paths have been developed since 1998 as part of the European Cultural Paths and European Pathways to Cultural Landscapes programs. The logo of the cultural hiking trails, based on the European flag, is a yellow wreath of stars with a yellow boat in the middle on a blue background.
Aschaffenburg is the headquarters of the Spessartbund e. V., which unites 18,000 members in 91 local groups. This association is in turn a member of the Association of German Mountain and Hiking Associations and its regional associations in Bavaria and Hesse .
The history of the Spessart Association begins with the founding of the “Freigerichter Bund” by the student Karl Kihn in 1876. After numerous branch associations were founded, a working group was formed in 1912 that formed the core of the Spessart Association founded in 1913 in Hanau . In 1927 the federal government was entered in the register of associations .
Today the Spessartbund and its local groups have the following goals and tasks:
- Nature conservation and landscape management
- Promotion of hiking for everyone
- Promotion, maintenance and preservation of cultural values
- Youth work
- Creation and maintenance of hiking trails , huts , hiking maps
Protected areas have been designated in parts of the Spessart : nature parks, protected landscape areas and nature reserves. The establishment of a national park is currently being discussed because of the special need for protection as the largest contiguous mixed forest area in Germany .
- The Spessart Nature Park (also Bayerischer Spessart , founded in 1960) in north-west Bavaria is 1710 km² and is located in the southern Spessart ( Mainviereck ).
- The Hessischer Spessart Nature Park (also Hessischer Spessart , founded in 1963) in southeast Hesse is 740 km² in size and is located in the northern Spessart.
Landscape protection areas
Landscape protection areas in the Spessart are:
- Ground and mountain meadows in the catchment area of Jossa and Sinn (2435004)
- Lindigwald in the district of Karlstein (00293.02)
- LSG in the districts of Kahl am Main and Alzenau in Ufr. (00293.01)
- LSG within the Spessart Nature Park (formerly protection zone) (00561.01)
- Mainwiesen (00594.01)
The following nature reserves (sorted alphabetically; with NSG numbers) are located in the Bavarian Spessart:
Most of the nature reserves in the Main-Kinzig district are located in the Hessian Spessart:
For the area of the Bavarian Hochspessart as the core of the largest German mixed deciduous forest, it was planned to designate the Spessart National Park . However, the Spessart was not the only region that could be considered for the third national park. The national park should occupy around 109 km². This corresponds to less than 4.5% of the area of the nature park. In addition to the regional peculiarity of the law on firewood , a right to collect wood from the state part of the forest guaranteed in land registers, companies in particular benefit from logging; they tried to prevent the establishment of the national park. The plans were dropped in July 2017, probably due to fierce opposition.
Economy and Infrastructure
The Spessart, especially the Spessart Nature Park , lives to a large extent from tourism. As a (local) recreation area, the forest offers many opportunities for recreational activities. The picturesque half-timbered towns along the Main such as Gemünden , Lohr , Marktheidenfeld , Wertheim , Miltenberg , Klingenberg or the residential town of Aschaffenburg are attractive excursion destinations.
The federal motorway 3 (A 3; Frankfurt am Main – Würzburg) and the federal highways 26 and 276 cross the Spessart. The German Alps – Baltic Sea Holiday Route and the Spessart High Road lead through the Bavarian and Hessian Spessart.
The Main-Spessart-Bahn Würzburg – Aschaffenburg (–Frankfurt am Main) ( course book route 800) leaves the Main Valley in Lohr and ran through the Spessart via Partenstein , Wiesthal , Heigenbrücken , Laufach and Hösbach to Aschaffenburg. Since June 2017, between Wiesthal and Laufach, a route with less incline has been used, which has been expanded for freight traffic and high-speed traffic from Würzburg to Frankfurt . A stretch through the Spessart that has been discussed for a long time but has not yet been implemented is the ( Mottgers-Spange ).
The Spessart in literature
Horror stories, legends and fairy tales from the Spessart are well known beyond the region. The Grimm fairy tale of Snow White has already been located in the Spessart town of Lohr am Main, and other well-known legendary characters such as Frau Holle appear again and again in regional sagas. The Aaleborgfraale is one of the most famous legendary figures of the Spessart to this day. The stories describe it as a being in the form of a woman who guards an ancient treasure in the ruins of the legendary Altenburg all year round. Treasure hunters can only outsmart them on Midsummer Eve, but only if they do not utter a word of death when recovering the chest. If this does not succeed, no treasure appears when the chest is opened; instead, the gruesome figure of the Aaleborgfraale in white robe emerges from the box . Folklorists still come across reports from locals of encounters with the legendary figure, who is culturally deeply rooted in the Spessart.
The Aschaffenburg teacher and folklorist Valentin Pfeifer (1886–1964) has rendered outstanding services to the preservation of legends, mostly horror stories, but also occasional ironic moral stories . His book "Spessart-Sagen" has had 17 editions so far. In addition, Pfeifer conducted research and published works on legends, fairy tales, stories and customs of the Spessart. Further legends and horror stories from the region can be found in the volume Von Aufhockern, Schöne Frauen und other demons, edited by Wolfgang Weismantel : Spessart sagas on the trail . In his book "Spessartvolk" (1929) he not only reports on the customs and traditions in the Spessart, but also the superstition, which was very widespread in folk medicine, finds its place here.
The inn in the Spessart
The Wirtshaus im Spessart is the framework story of the third volume of Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale almanac, first published as the “fairy tale almanac for sons and daughters of educated estates for the year 1828” in Stuttgart. Hauff wrote the story on the basis of older, trivial robber novels . Embedded in the story are the stories Die Sage vom Hirschgulden , The Cold Heart (in two sections), "Said's Fates" and "The Cave of Steenfoll".
The director Kurt Hoffmann shot the feature film Das Wirtshaus im Spessart (1958) based on Hauff's story in 1957 , which premiered on January 15, 1958 and became one of the most successful German films of the 1950s. With Liselotte Pulver in the female lead, the film was a sensational success. It was followed with similar titles by the films Das Spukschloß im Spessart from 1960 and Herrliche Zeiten im Spessart from 1967. These films were no longer based on Wilhelm Hauff's motifs.
Performances of an adaptation for the theater take place at irregular intervals on the open-air stage at the Wasserschloss Mespelbrunn near the original playground. The “Zur Post” inn in Mespelbrunn-Hessenthal is assumed to be the “original” inn, where Wilhelm Hauff very likely stopped off on his journey from Nördlingen to Frankfurt in 1826. The description as an elongated, single-storey building also fits. The inn in Rohrbrunn, which may also come into question, had not been a post office since 1820.
The literary and cinematic implementation of the old legends still contributes significantly to the formation of the identity of the Spessart region.
Based on Das Wirtshaus , author Jason Dark wrote his novel Das Horror-Schloss im Spessart as part of the Geisterjäger John Sinclair series , published by Bastei-Lübbe-Verlag, Bergisch Gladbach (now Cologne ).
The fight in the Spessart
The novel Der Kampf im Spessart by Levin Schücking , published by Reclam, tells of the Spessart forester Wilderich Buchrodt . Buchrodt formed an uprising against the French, who were on their retreat through the Spessart after the lost battle for Würzburg in 1796 . The story ends with the liberation of Frankfurt. Schücking probably got his inspiration for the novella from the inscription on a memorial stone in Central Spessart, on which it says:
"In 1796, the Kurmainzische Oberforster Heinrich Sternheimer in Heigenbrücken and his loyal helper Jakob shot four Frenchmen and an officer who had plundered the whole village with his department and hunted their prey on the march to Aschaffenburg."
- Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (1545–1617), Prince-Bishop of Würzburg and Duke of Franconia .
- Maria Happel (* 1962), actress
The highest mountains and peaks of the Spessart are (sorted by height):
- Geiersberg (586 m), border district Aschaffenburg-District Main-Spessart, Bavaria
- Lärchhöhe (573 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria
- Hohe Warte (572 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria
- Hermannskoppe (567 m), Bavaria-Hesse border
- Querberg (567 m), border district Aschaffenburg-Miltenberg, Bavaria
- Monastery dome (552.1 m), Neustadt am Main, Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Kropfschnabel (550 m), Altenbuch, Miltenberg district, Bavaria
- Geierskopf (549 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria
- Heiligenküppel (546 m), Main-Kinzig district, Hesse
- Weickertshöhe (546 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Eichenberg (544 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Steckenlaubshöhe (542 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Horst (540 m), Main-Kinzig district, Hesse
- Hoher Knuck (539 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Heideberg (538 m), Miltenberg district, Bavaria
- Hirschhöhe (537 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Hirschberg (Bavarian Spessart) (535 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Hirschberg (Hessischer Spessart) (535 m), Main-Kinzig-Kreis, Hesse
- Construction height (533 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Bottom height (530 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Flörsbacher Höhe (529 m), Main-Kinzig district, Hesse
- Schindershöh (522 m; telecommunications tower), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria
- Upper Waldspitze (521 m), Bavaria-Hesse border
- Geishöhe (521 m; with observation tower), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria
- Schwarzer Berg (521 m), Main-Kinzig-Kreis, Hesse
- Gaulskopf (519 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Hanauer Berg (519 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Erkelshöhe (517 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria
- Markberg (516 m), Main-Kinzig district, Hesse
- Roßkopf (516 m), Bavaria-Hesse border
- Großer Goldberg (515 m), Bavaria-Hesse border
- Agneshöhe (513 m), Miltenberg district, Bavaria
- Hengstkopf (506 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria
- Pfirschhöhe (502 m), Main-Spessart district, Bavaria
- Steigkoppe (502 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria, Hain im Spessart
- Beilstein (499.5 m; with castle ruins), Main-Kinzig district, Hesse
- Spitzstein (484 m), Miltenberg district, Bavaria
- Wellersberg (479 m), Main-Kinzig district, Hesse
- Schwarzkopf (460 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria, Hain im Spessart
- Borberg (454 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria, Hain im Spessart
- Ospis (439 m; with summit cross), Miltenberg district, Bavaria
- Hahnenkamm (437 m; with observation tower), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria
- Eckardskopf (433 m), Bavaria-Hesse border
- Pfaffenberg (432 m; with transmitter), Aschaffenburg and Miltenberg district, Bavaria
- Rottenberg (408 m) district of Aschaffenburg, Bavaria
- Lindenberg (402 m) district of Aschaffenburg, Bavaria, Hain im Spessart
- Bischling (374 m), Aschaffenburg district, Bavaria, Laufach
Small mountain ranges in the Spessart are:
- Orber brushwood (up to 540 m), between Bad Orb and Jossgrund .
- Eselshöhe (up to 522 m), between meadows and Wintersbach .
- Sailhöhe (up to 517 m), between Wiesen and Frammersbach .
- Hahnenkamm (up to 436 m), between Michelbach and Rückersbach .
- Sölzert (up to 371 m), between Michelbach and Horbach .
- Irene Reif : In the beginning there was the forest. Memoirs of the Spessart. In: Franconia - my love , Oberfränkische Verlagsanstalt, Hof 1989, p. 83 f, ISBN 3-921615-91-7
- Gisbert Diederich, Manfred Laemmlen, Ralf Villwock: The upper Biebertal in the North Spessart. Restructuring of the Lower Buntsandstein, excursion guide and geological map. Hessian State Office for Soil Research, Wiesbaden 1964, table of contents
- Hans Murawski : "Just a stone": Introduction to the geological development and the geological history of exploration of the Spessart. Museums of the City, Aschaffenburg 1992, ISBN 3-924436-03-7 , table of contents
- Joachim Lorenz : Spessart stones: Spessartine, Spessartite and red sandstone - a comprehensive geology and mineralogy of the Spessart; geographical, geological, petrographic, mineralogical and mining insights into a German low mountain range , with 134 tables. Helga Lorenz Verlag, Karlstein a. Main 2010. ISBN 978-3-00-031788-0 , table of contents
- Martin Okrusch , Gerd Geyer , Joachim Lorenz: Spessart: geological development and structure, rocks and minerals. Borntraeger, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-443-15093-8 , table of contents
- Dietz, Ad .: Signposts through the Spessart, with tourist route map in a colored version of the main and secondary routes through the Spessart; In addition to an appendix with notes for cyclists regarding the elevation and reduction of the road network and the local distances among themselves, individually and as a whole, as well as the connecting routes through the Odenwald on a scale of 1: 150,000 , Würzburg. Digital copies of the BSB Munich: issues 1893 and 1898 .
- Franz Ludwig von Cancrin : History and systematic description of the mines in the county of Hanau Munzenberg, in the Amte Bieber and other offices of this county, including the countries neighboring this county. With a copper plate. Christian Gottlieb Hertel, Leipzig 1787 (reprinted with a biography of the author, a bibliography of his writings and a glossary of mining terms, published by Ernst Ludwig Hofmann, Verlag Orbensien, Bad Orb 1979, 2nd edition as a special print for the anniversary "500 years of mining in Bieber "published) Digitized version of the Bavarian State Library
- Klaus Freymann: Metal ore mining in the Spessart: a contribution to the mining history of the Spessart. Geschichts- und Kunstverein, Aschaffenburg 1991, ISBN 3-87965-054-3 , table of contents
Forest and nature
- Hans Weber: The history of the Spessarter forest organization. A contribution to German forest history . Bayerischer Landwirtschaftsverlag, Munich 1954, table of contents
- Johann Ludwig Klauprecht: Forest statistics of the Spessarts. Daniel Knode, Aschaffenburg 1826, digitized version of the Bavarian State Library
- 10 years Biber in the Hessian Spessart . Hessian State Authority for forest management, forest research and forest ecology, Giessen 1998
- Stefan Zerbe: The forest and forest associations of the Spessart with suggestions for their future [future] development. Natural Science Association, Aschaffenburg 1999, literature catalog. Pp. 311-338
- Horst Günther (Ed.): Spessart: Balance of a cultural landscape; Documentation of the Bavarian-Hessian Spessart project 1995. Orbensien publishing house, Bad Orb 1996, ISBN 3-927176-06-0
- Hellmuth Wolff: The Spessart. His economic life; with tables and a Spessart map. , Krebs, Aschaffenburg 1905, (reprint with a short biography of Carsten Pollnick: Verlag Orbensien, Bad Orb 1989, ISBN 3-927176-01-X ), digitized version of the library of the seminar for economic and social history at the University of Cologne , table of contents
- Rudolf Virchow : The distress in the Spessart: a medical-geographical-historical sketch; Presented in the Physical-Medicinal Society in Würzburg on March 6th and 13th, 1852. Separate print from the negotiations of the Physical-Medical Society, Volume Three, Stahel'sche Buchhandlung, Würzburg 1852, digitized version of the Bavarian State Library
- Josef Braun: The district of Main-Spessart around 1860: Medical officers report from the district courts of Arnstein, Gemünden, Karlstadt, Lohr, Marktheidenfeld, Rothenfels and Stadtprozelten. University, Würzburg 2000, literature catalog. Pp. 355-364
- Julia Hecht, Klaus Reder: The district courts of Aschaffenburg and Rothenbuch around 1860: medical officers report. University, Würzburg 2002
- Spessart Nature Park , on naturpark-spessart.de
- Spessartbund , on spessartbund.de
- Spessartprojekt ( Archäologisches Spessartprojekt ; ASP), on spessartprojekt.de
- Spessartite (information on geology, mineralogy, mining, stones, ores, etc.), on spessartit.de
- Spessart sagas collected by Valentin Pfeifer
References and comments
- Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
- Konrad Kunze : dtv-Atlas onenology . German paperback publisher. Munich, 1998. p. 101. ISBN 3-423-03234-0
- Hermann Müller: About Moenus, Moguntia, Spechteshart and Wirziburg. Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg, Thein: Würzburg 1858 ( digitized version ).
- Hugo Eberhart Heim: Historical-numismatic treatise on the old coins found in the Kurmaynzischen Obererzstifte from the year 1783 to 86 , Erfurt 1789
- Literature: FL von Cancrin 1787 (Reprint 1979), G. Diederich u. M Laemmlen (1964), S. Matthes and M. Okrusch (1965), K. Freymann (1991), H. Murawski (1992)
- Landscape profile of the Wertheim plateau of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN)
Several natural space sheets by different authors:
- Brigitte Schwenzer: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 139 Frankfurt a. M. Bundesanstalt für Landeskunde, Bad Godesberg 1967. → Online map (PDF; 4.9 MB)
- Brigitte Schwenzer: Geographical survey: the natural units on sheet 140 Schweinfurt. Bundesanstalt für Landeskunde, Bad Godesberg 1968. → Online map (PDF; 4.3 MB)
- Otto Klausing: Geographical land survey: The natural spatial units on sheet 151 Darmstadt. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1967. → Online map (PDF; 4.3 MB)
- Horst Mernsching, Günter Wagner: Geographical survey of the country: The natural units on sheet 152 Würzburg. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1963. → Online map (PDF; 5.3 MB)
- Map and legend of the natural areas of Hesse (online copy of Die Naturraum Hessens , Otto Klausing 1988) in the Hessen Environmental Atlas of the Hessian State Office for Environment and Geology
- Originally the main unit was called Ronneburger Hügelland , which is now only the name for the sub-unit 233.0.
- The Spessart portion of BW / TBB is limited to the Wertheimer plateau in the triangle Wertheim - Freudenberg - Külsheim , which is naturally assigned to the Spessart, but according to popular definition already belongs to the Odenwald, as it lies to the left of the Main - see # Natural structure
- Kulturwege - A Profile , Spessart Project, accessed on July 5, 2012
- Protected areas in the Spessart , on bfn.de
- 3rd National Park - Concept for the definition ( Memento from March 7, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), in: A 3rd National Park for Bavaria , on np3.bayern.de
- Third national park in Bavaria: Spessart is a favorite , February 9, 2017, accessed on March 21, 2017, on nordbayern.de
- Video on YouTube , information event on March 2, 2017 in Weibersbrunn im Spessart
- C. Morhart: The Spessart as a world cultural heritage - is that the way out? , Main-Echo , March 3, 2017, accessed on March 7, 2017, from main-echo.de
- No national park in the Spessart, new plans in the Rhön . In: mainpost.de . July 14, 2017 ( mainpost.de [accessed November 28, 2018]).
- Snow White - a Lohrerin? , Examination of Snow White's possible identity as Maria Sophia Margaretha Catharina von Erthal (1729 – before 1812), on spessartmuseum.de
- The Altenburg legends: From Aleborgfraale and from boy robbers. In: Spessart project. Retrieved December 22, 2019 .
- The Aleborgfraale lived in the Bronze Age , article by Main-Echo to research the origin of the legendary figure, September 13, 2008, on main-echo.de
- Catalog books: Spessart I'm still there. Give me a call ( memento from March 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (small list of literature about the Spessart), on orbensien.de
- Official journal / standard data sheet: FFH area 6022-371 Hochspessart , on lfu.bayern.de (PDF; 58.3 kB)
- Official Journal / standard data sheet: Vogelschutzgebiet 6022-471 Spessart , on lfu.bayern.de (PDF; 57.8 kB)