The legend of the Hirschgulden
The Schalksburg saga or - as it is also called in the literary processing by Wilhelm Hauff - the saga of the Hirschgulden is a historical legend or tradition. It is about the sale of the city of Balingen and the rulers that belonged to it for an inappropriately small amount. In the most recent versions, documented for the first time by Gustav Schwab , this amount is represented by the deer guilder .
The historical core of the tradition is the sale of the rule Zollern-Schalksburg to Württemberg in 1403. Already in the Zimmerische Chronik (written 1540 / 1558–1566) there is evidence of how the event was reflected in aristocratic circles at that time. The Zollerian historiography tried to counter this with its version and also used the description as a reminder to future generations to handle family property carefully. Jakob Frischlin described the tradition from two clearly distinguishable perspectives - one time for the Zollern , the other time in a description of the state of Württemberg . The period between the Thirty Years' War and the early 19th century represents a gap in the tradition, in which extensions, such as the aforementioned Hirschgulden, but also another castle found their way into the tradition. In the course of the legend research initiated by the Brothers Grimm , the tradition was spread again by Schwab. Building on this, Wilhelm Hauff created an independent work that was expanded to include typical fairy tale motifs, which he embedded in the frame story Das Wirtshaus im Spessart .
Abbreviated reproduction according to Schwab:
“Once upon a time there were three castles, Schalksberg, Hirschberg and Zollern. Three brothers lived on them. Hirschberg was the prettiest and the brother there the richest. He owned Balingen. He fell seriously ill and rumor had it that he had died. There was no sympathy from the brothers, instead they let out shots of joy. The terminally ill was so annoyed about this that a healing fever overcame him and he recovered. He decided to withhold the inheritance from his brothers and, in the event of his death, sold the castle and town of Balingen to Württemberg for a miserable stag guilder (?). He lived a long time, while his brothers did him nice. When he did die, his brothers came back to the castle: "Weeping with words (d) and happy in our hearts". But the representative of Württemberg showed them the contract and gave them the stag guilder. The next day the brothers decided to at least hit the deer guilder on the head in the inn. But when they wanted to pay with it, the landlord informed them that the deer guilder had been devalued. So instead of the inheritance they still owed a guilder in the end. "
See in detail: Herrschaft Schalksburg
In the 1280s, the noble family of the Zollern was divided into the Zollern-Zollern and Zollern-Schalksburg lines. The 14th century began with a civil war between Frederick the Fair and Ludwig the Bavarian . In Swabia , the Counts of Württemberg expanded their rule - in opposition to the cities and the lower nobility on the one hand, and in contrast to Habsburg on the other. The latter had to struggle with the strengthening of the Confederates in their home countries. Both Zoller families joined these two houses as followers. For the interpretation of the legend it is relevant that the two families did not always fight in the same camp and the support was at least partly on their own account. In 1377 Friedrich IV., Called "the Young Knight" and older brother of the last Count of Zollern-Schalksburg, died on the side of the Württemberg people in the battle of Reutlingen in the fight against the Swabian League of Cities . A funeral procession from Reutlingen to Balingen inevitably passes below Hohenzollern Castle . When the only son of Count Friedrich V, called "Mülli", died in 1403, the father decided to sell his estate to Württemberg for 28,000 guilders. The Zollern's hereditary burial was in the Stetten monastery . A funeral procession from Balingen there would also have passed below Hohenzollern Castle. For a long time Stetten was still the home monastery for Zollern-Schalksburg, but Frederick VI, like his father later, were buried in the St. Nicholas Chapel in Balingen. The next relevant question for the legend is why the rule was not sold to Zollern-Zollern. The answer is that their financial situation was just as desolate as that of their relatives as a result of participating in the warlike actions mentioned above. Count Friedrich Ostertag, called "Tägli", from the Zollern-Zollern line even sealed the two sales documents as a witness. One last open question is when the deer guilder, which was only launched 200 years after the actual sale, became part of the legend.
Reports of later chronicles of the sale
In addition to the purchase agreement of November 3, 1403 and the notarial confirmation before the court in Rottweil, there are other reports about the sale:
The report of the Zimmerische Chronik
In the Zimmer Chronicle from around 1565/66, Froben Christoph von Zimmer describes the consequences of disagreement, envy and mistrust among relatives using the example of the Zollern (he writes "Brothers"). It is one example among several. Froben Christoph von Zimmer tells that when the cousin on Zollern heard that the son of the relative who held half of the Balingen property had died, he whistled and danced for half a night in front of his castle in Balingen , whereupon the Balingen brother bought his property in order to "buy ain gerings, and namlichen umb [...] [to Württemberg] ...".
Froben Christoph did not know the amount, but, as the deliberate omission shows, as a careful chronicler would have liked to reproduce it. It can be assumed that this version corresponded to the general knowledge of the southern German nobility, as it was exchanged over 100 years later when they met each other. The chronicle reports several times about such meetings of the counts and lords in the country of Swabia, and Froben Christoph was, as he reports in his chronicle, from 1559 onwards the count for such meetings.
Two key elements of the later saga can already be found here: the low purchase price and the hostile behavior of the relative at the Zollernburg. Froben Christoph uses the word "brother" as a general term for kinship, but speaks specifically and correctly of "cousin". Dieter Mertens uses the example of various contemporary sales of power to calculate that the purchase price was appropriate for the circumstances at the time.
The house chronicle of the Counts of Zollern
In 1511 the Zollern succeeded again in getting possession of at least the Schalksburg Castle. Count Eitelfriedrich II von Zollern had acquired the pledge for the castle. It was his plan to bring the lost rule back to the House of Zollern. So he proposed to the House of Württemberg that one of his sons could take over the bailiwick over the office of Balingen. According to the Zimmerischer Chronik, he was also ready to take over the Balingen office as pledge. However, the plans were dashed by his death in 1512. In 1520, the Schalksburg Eitelfriedrich III. assigned as a befitting seat. It came to his nephew Jobst Nikolaus II († 1558) after his death in 1525. Württemberg released the pledge from him under Duke Christoph in 1554.
After Jobst Nikolaus II died in 1558, Count Karl I (1516–1576) fell to all Swabian possessions of the Zollern. But he was also confronted with having to divide these possessions again among four sons. The final loss of the Schalksburg rule made it clear to him that such a loss should not be repeated due to disputes between families. He therefore made express reference to the loss of Balingen and the associated rule when he declared on January 24, 1575 in a last will written as a house law:
"On the other hand, this also resulted in even more ybels that a supposed resentment arose between our ancestors, that they also sold it wrongly for that reason or offered the other too laid the price that they would not buy a grave from Zollern, all so that they could buy it frembde acts to bring the others to defiance and laid-back (as then with Balingen and other more goods, so come from useless, want to spoil) ... "
Count Karl I was keen to recommend the common legacy to his descendants. That is why he had a house chronicle drawn up between 1569 and 1576 on the basis of preparatory work by the chronicle writer Johannes Basilius Herold . The house chronicle of the Zollern consists of a regent series of 21 full-page, colored pen drawings with images of regents and an average ten-line legend. Above all, it is very imprecise in the representation of family relationships. Thus, in the 15th picture relevant to the consideration of the Hirschguldensage, which shows Friedrich Ostertag, called "Tägli", the chronicle confuses the grandfather with the grandson and makes him, who was actually only related to the Schalksburger through a common great-great-grandfather, to his brother.
As expected, the Chronicle reverses the sympathy evaluation. The Zollerngraf is a happy, entertaining person who innocently celebrates a festival at his castle when his solitary Balingen brother brings the body of his son below the castle of Balingen to the Stetten monastery , the Zoller house burial, without announcing the death of his brother to have. As explained above, there was no funeral procession from Balingen to Stetten. Rather speculative is Bumiller's assumption that the corpse, to which the proper reverence was not paid, was not Frederick VI. is meant, but Friedrich IV, who died in the battle of Reutlingen, Count Mülli's brother. Since it is not known on which side the von Zollern-Zollern fought, this would be an understandable reason for a rift. Count Friedrich Ostertag, known as Tägli von Zollern-Zollern, was one of the sealers on the sales deed; so he was in favor of the sale.
Two reports by Jakob Frischlin from different perspectives
A commemorative publication on behalf of the Counts of Zollern
One generation after the chronicle, a commission was created for Count Eitelfriedrich von Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1545–1605) in honor of the wedding of his son Johann Georg to the Wild and Rhine Countess Franziska von Salm-Neufville in 1598. Jakob Frischlin, the brother, was commissioned by the poet Nicodemus Frischlin and like him coming from the Balingen area.
The three beautiful and funny books by the Hohen Zollerische Hochzeyt , which Jakob Frischlin created on the basis of the house chronicle, deal with the first origins of the Zollern and thus also with the sale of the Schalksburg estate. Of course, Frischlin had the house chronicle available and followed it. The specified relationships are also incomprehensible. Again it is Count Friedrich Ostertag who is a sociable and sociable person. A new motive emerges that he insists on the summary of the entire Zoller rule. The Schalksburger Friedrich is again an unsociable person who leaves his cousin in the castle uninformed about the death of his son. The drumming and whistling on the watch as the funeral procession passed, he also took it as a disgrace and therefore cunningly sold the city and office of Balingen to Württemberg. At Frischlin, when Balinger may be familiar with knowledge from his official town, the purchase amount of 24,000 pounds Heller now appears. Martin Crusius had named 22,000 fl in his Annales Suevici in 1595/96 . Apart from conversion problems between Heller and Gulden, Frischlin also stated that "Zollern sold a ring of money". Frischlin also explained that the Württemberg office of Balingen consisted of the old Zollerian lordships of Balingen (meaning Schalksburg) and the former Hohenbergian Ebingen , and logically mistook the sale date for 1397, when Eberhard der Greiner received Ebingen as a pledge.
In a description of the state of Württemberg
Jakob Frischlin had hoped for a permanent position with the Zollern, which he did not get. Martin Crusius , no friend of the Frischlins, wrote in his diary: “I hear that Magister Jakob Frischlin did not get a job in Hechingen from the papist count or in his hometown Balingen. Now he is describing a genealogy of the Späth and has received 30 florins for it! ”After several years as a Preceptor in more than ten different places, Frischlin found a job, also as a Preceptor in Balingen.
A second version was created there as part of a description of the state of Württemberg. It is completely attributed to Jakob Frischlin and was probably made in Balingen around 1613. On the one hand, the poetry texts from the Hohenzollern wedding were taken over here, shortened by the listing of the individual places sold, as these had already been mentioned in another place in the description of the country. The additions are more significant. The bad relationship between the two cousins is shown in more detail, but the sympathies are reversed. The desire to restore the unity of the country, as mentioned in the Zolleric version, now appears as a malicious and land-grabbing, publicly expressed wish for the death of the Schalksburg cousin's only son: “And broke out openly says // When my cousin will soon die like this who I // A gentleman from Schalcksburg and Balingen // Oh thet somebody bring me the Bottenbrodt // That his son Gottfried died // That who was good to me new more ”. When the Schalksburger finds out about it, he seeks revenge. The descriptions of the funeral procession are similar, but the anger over the unmuffled drums now turns into vengeance: "Gantz avengingly takes a council // How he may repay the deed". So there are two versions that can be clearly distinguished. Once as a court clerk for the Catholic Hohenzollern, the other time as a Lutheran-Württemberg historian.
The break in the storytelling tradition
The "saga of the three brothers" according to Schwab
In the years 1816/18 the German sagas of the brothers Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm appeared. Although they took the sagas they had collected mainly from medieval chronicles and saints' legends as well as modern collections of saints, the texts were worked up in such a way that they corresponded to a “folk poetry” created by a “folk spirit”. Gustav Schwab's travel guide to the Swabian Alb, published in 1823 - The Neckar Side of the Swabian Alb, follows this tradition . In the preface to this work, Schwab explains, the purpose of which is "... to all friends of the beloved fatherland ... the enjoyment that we have the view of nature, the admiration of the Creator, whom we sense in it, the memory of the strange people who once lived in it and acted on it… ”to grant. He lists the former classics of Württemberg historiography as a source - he himself only contributed the “view of nature” and “poetry”. In addition, he also refers to "some brave landlords at the foot of the Alb". And such a landlord from Dürrwangen told him the legend of the three brothers in a rather confused way and obviously brought it forward to his youth by making " Karl Herzog " the main hero of the story. Schwab commented: "Apparently it is an older legend that I finally got out of his confused speeches and want to reproduce faithfully."
The older depictions assume two relatives (brothers or cousins) whose quarrel with one another leads to a defiant reaction to sell the rulership for a small amount to Württemberg. In his description of the place of Balingen, Schwab correctly reproduces the historical context: Balingen is the center of the Schalksburg rule, which was sold to Württemberg in 1403. In his portrayal of the legend, however, three brothers appear for the first time with their associated castles. In this depiction, Balingen does not belong to Schalksburg, but to Hirschberg Castle. Schwab also puts a question mark behind the deer guilder, which he is seeing for the first time. It remains open whether he wanted to express that he was unfamiliar with such a coin, or whether he was aware of the chronological order of the Hirschgulden and wanted to highlight this anachronism as well as the aforementioned "Karl Herzog". This coin was minted only in the years 1622 and 1623 in the Württemberg mints of Christophstal , Stuttgart and Tübingen. It was a typical coin of the tipper and wipper era . The Hirschgulden had a face value of 60 kreuzers. He was "rated" very soon ; the trading centers in Ulm and Augsburg no longer accepted it at all. In Württemberg, too, it was devalued by 80 percent in 1623.
The third castle is Hirschberg Castle . For Mertens, with the departure of Schalksburg Castle and the end of the rule of Zoller, with the name rule or office Balingen instead of rule Schalksburg, the link between the Schalksburg and Balingen was lost. The castle that is closest to Balingen is closer in the truest sense of the word.
Schwab's Albführer hit the nerve of the times - civil travel . It was followed in 1827 by Lake Constance along with the Rheinthale from St. Luciensteig to Rheinsteg , to which the manuscript collector Joseph von Laßberg also contributed, and in 1837 by Swabia , which opened as volume 1 of the series The picturesque and romantic Germany .
The "Sage of the Hirschgulden" by Wilhelm Hauff
The very self-confident Wilhelm Hauff (* November 29, 1802, † November 18, 1827) - "I was ... twenty-four years old, without seeing the world much, without having studied people for a long time, three in the short time of 10 months, published in themselves very heterogeneous works, one of which, given the current poor state of literature, would have been enough to give me significant attention ”- cannot be clearly assigned to any literary style. With the novel Lichtenstein (1826), based on Walter Scott, he founded the historical novel in Germany. He established his fame, which extends beyond Württemberg, with the fairy tale almanac for sons and daughters of educated classes , which appeared in three volumes between 1825 and 1828 . The third volume , published after his death, includes the saga of the Hirschgulden alongside The Cold Heart , Saids Fates and The Cave of Steenfoll . As with the fairy tales from Thousand and One Nights and the Decameron , the frame narrative in which they are embedded - The Wirtshaus im Spessart - takes up the motif of life-saving narration. A group of travelers, including two craft boys, tell each other stories out of fear of robbers in order not to fall asleep.
The manuscript was submitted to his publisher by Hauff after returning from a trip through France, Holland and Northern Germany that ended in November 1826. In the words of the compass smith, whom he lets say at the end of his story, “This is the legend of the deer guilder ... and it should be true. The landlord in Dürrwangen, which is not far from the three castles, told my good friend, who often went as a signpost across the Swabian Alb and always stopped in Dürrwangen, ”Hauff clearly refers to Schwab's version in his hiking guide. He had acquired it on November 13, 1825.
The legend has grown to sixteen times the size of Schwab. The elements of selling for a worthless amount and the intolerance of the brothers are retained. Hauff now mixes typical fairy tale motifs into the story. The story is expanded by a whole generation, and in addition to the three brothers, a generation of parents and other characters are added who are given names that have no relation to Zoller and Württemberg history: a grouchy father and a loving mother who, however, grieves over them Loveless treatment of her son by her husband dies. She is replaced by a stepmother who is only concerned about her own sons. In addition, there is a wise old woman, the Feldheimerin, who saves the life of the good brother, here called Kuno, as a child when he falls off his horse during the first ride with his misanthropic father. When the old count denied the old woman a stag guilder in recognition of the boy's rescue, she prophesied that he would see again what a stag guilder was worth of his inheritance. This deer guilder is of central importance. The kindness and gratitude of the young Kuno is shown on the Feldheimerin and another person involved, a Father Joseph.
The popularity of both Schwab's travel literature and Hauff's fairy tales meant that the tradition as the deer gulden saga became widespread. This was reinforced by the role that legends in the patriotic historiography of the 19th century and in school lessons, especially in the subject of local history, had until recently.
The representations of the Württemberg pastor Schwab and the donor Hauff depict the story from the perspective of the Württemberg official city of Balingen, which can be happy that it did not come under the rule of the bad Zollern. The Württemberg-Protestant self- image is reflected here.
The older depictions of the Zimmerische and Zollerische Chronik are not the poetic folk spirit that the Brothers Grimm portrayed as the ideal source of folk tales. Rather, they represent examples of the aristocratic narrative culture, the purpose of which was to convey origin, rank and honor and the inner structure of a noble society to one's own family and fellow class members. With Jakob Frischlin and the printing press, these representations were also found in later country books and history books.
It remains to be seen, however, how the punch line of the ridiculous stag guilder - Mertens suspected in the first half of the 17th century - found its way into tradition. Mertens still sees the customs perspective represented here. With the equally open question of when the two-way relationship developed into the three-way relationship and the separation of Schalksburg Castle from the rule of Balingen, Mertens sees a change to the Balingen perspective.
Schwab's reference to the stories of the Dürrwanger landlord seem to be an oral tradition from the 17th / 18th centuries. Century, although, as explained above, the saga researchers of the early 19th century mostly drew their material from written traditions.
Dieter Mertens suspects a no longer known version of the narrative created after 1623, which contains the elements of the stag guilder and the extension to three actors. Mertens connects this with the elevation to the imperial prince status of Count Johann Georg (the groom of the Frischlin prince wedding) by Emperor Ferdinand II . With this new honor, the loss of a significant part of the country had to be felt as particularly painful. He traces the triple element back to the division of the Swabian Zollern estate at the time of their greatest territorial expansion under Count Karl (* 1516, † 1576) in the lines Hohenzollern-Hechingen , Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Haigerloch .
Mertens does not mention the fact that the office of Balingen was given free of charge to Count Heinrich von Schlick between 1634 and 1648 by the imperial garrison after the lost battle of Nördlingen . Württemberg was occupied by imperial Habsburg troops, Duke Eberhard III. fled to Strasbourg. The government of the country was transferred by the conquerors to a college of imperial councils. Some offices were given away to the House of Austria and to imperial favorites. The offices of Balingen, Ebingen, Rosenfeld and Tuttlingen, which were subordinate to the Obervogt von Balingen, came to the court war president, Count Heinrich von Schlick. Even after Eberhard's return in 1638, the offices that had been given away remained in non-Württemberg hands until the Westphalian peace treaty in 1648.
We do not know the missing link .
- The historian Klaus Graf pleads for the replacement of the concept of the historical saga by the concept of the historical tradition  (PDF; 3.2 MB) theses for the adoption of the concept of the "historical saga". In: Fabula 29 (1988), pp. 21-47
- Dieter Mertens: The Schalksburgsage . On page 30 it is calculated that 18,500 pounds Heller were paid for the castle and town of Vaihingen, ie 18,500–27,750 gulden, depending on the conversion rate, and between 20,000–30,000 gulden for the castle and town of Tübingen. The legendary Hirschgulden worth 60 kreuzers was minted in the Duchy of Württemberg only in the two years 1622 and 1623. It was a typical Kipper and Wipper coin .
- A process that is still described 200 years later in Protestant Württemberg as follows: “By the end of 1635 the emperor had the whole country and all fortresses, with the exception of Hohentwiel, under his control and was now dealing with it like one Robber captain with a stolen apple pie, from which he cuts off one piece at a time with his dagger and gives it to his accomplices. "(Christian Gottlob Barth: History of Württemberg: retold for the citizen and farmer . Vereinbuchh. D. Calwer Verl.- Verein, 1843, p. 206)
- See here: Wilhelm Hauff: Fairy tale almanac for the year 1828 - The inn in Spessart - The saga of the Hirschgulden
- The Neckar side of the Swabian Alb, with references to the Danube side, interspersed romances and other additions. Guide and travel description by Gustav Schwab together with a natural-historical appendix by Professor D. Schübler and a special map of the Alb. J. B. Metzler'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart 1823. Reprint of the first edition with an introduction by Hans Widmann, Tübingen 1960
- Sales the Schalksburg lordship . In: Main State Archives Stuttgart . Signature A 602, No. 6617 , November 3, 1403 ( illustration ).
Court judge's confirmation of the sale of the Schalksburg estate . In: Main State Archives Stuttgart . A 602, no. 6618 , November 15, 1403 ( illustration ).
- Transcription here: Court judge's confirmation of the sale of the Schalksburg estate . In: Rudolf Stillfried, Traugott Maercker (ed.): Monumenta Zollerana. Document book on the history of the House of Hohenzollern . 1: Documents of the Swabian Line 1095–1418. Berlin 1852, p. 380-383 (Figure: p. 380 , p. 381 , p. 382 , p. 383 ).
- Zimmerische Chronik, Volume 2, p. 284
- Zimmerische Chronik, Volume 2, p. 419
- Otto H.Becker: The rule of Schalksburg: Continuation of a tradition in the 19th and 20th centuries . In: Andreas Zekorn, Peter Thaddäus Lang, Hans Schimpf-Reinhardt (eds.): The rule of Schalksburg between Zollern and Württemberg . Epfendorf 2005, ISBN 3-928471-56-2 , pp. 187-207
- Casimir Bumiller: The "Schalksburg Century" in Hohenzollern history . In: Andreas Zekorn, Peter Thaddäus Lang, Hans Schimpf-Reinhardt (eds.): The rule of Schalksburg between Zollern and Württemberg . Epfendorf 2005, ISBN 3-928471-56-2 , pp. 69-104
- As a digital copy from the British Library
- Reinhold Stahlecker, Eugen Staiger (ed.): Diarium Martini Crusii 1600–1605 . Tübingen 1958, p. 773
- Wilhelm Heyd: The historical manuscripts of the Royal Public Library in Stuttgart. Volume 1: The manuscripts in folio 1889–1890 . P. 59f.
- Werner Krauss: The Reutlinger Frischlin Chronicle. In: Reutlinger Geschichtsblätter NF 9 . 1971, pp. 69-199, especially pp. 177-185. References according to Dieter Mertens: Die Schalksburgsage, p. 37.
- Andreas Zekorn, Peter Thaddäus Lang, Hans Schimpf-Reinhardt (ed.): The rule of Schalksburg between Zollern and Württemberg . Epfendorf 2005, ISBN 3-928471-56-2 , appendix
- The Schalksburg legend in: Andreas Zekorn, Peter Thaddäus Lang, Hans Schimpf-Reinhardt (Ed.): The rule of Schalksburg between Zollern and Württemberg . Epfendorf 2005, ISBN 3-928471-56-2 , p. 20
- The Neckar side of the Swabian Alb, with references to the Danube side, interspersed romances and other additions. Guide and travel description by Gustav Schwab together with a natural-historical appendix by Professor D. Schübler and a special map of the Alb. J. B. Metzler'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart 1823. Reprint of the first edition with an introduction by Hans Widmann, Tübingen 1960, p. 28. See also http://archiv.twoday.net/stories/5984813/
- Schwab version (without introductory note on Dürrwanger Wirt): Old Stories ( Memento from June 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Hauff in a letter dated September 7, 1826 to his college friend Moritz Pfaff, quoted from: Helmut Hornbogen: Tübinger Dichter-Häuser literary stories from Swabia . Verlag Schwäbisches Tagblatt, Tübingen 1989. , p. 93
- Mertens: Die Schalksburgsage, p. 21
- Friedrich Pfäfflin: Wilhelm Hauff and the Lichtenstein . In: Bernhard Zeller (Ed.): Marbacher Magazin . No. 18 , 1981, p. 20.67 .
- Klaus Graf: Schwabensagen. On dealing with sagas in the 19th and 20th centuries, p. 36. Revised and expanded version (as of October 2007), original article originally published udT On the glorification of Swabia: dealing with legends in the 19th and 20th centuries in: Manfred Bosch u. a. (Ed.): Schwabenspiegel: Literature from Neckar to Lake Constance 1800–1950, Vol. 2.1: Articles. Oberschwäbische Elektrizitätswerke, Biberach 2006, pp. 279–309 ( online )
- Mertens: The Schalksburgsage, p. 28
- Mertens: Die Schalksburgsage, p. 40
- Mertens: The Schalksburgsage, p. 41
- Entry “Balingen” in the “ Topographia Suevia ” by Matthaeus Merian : reference to Count Heinrich Schlick, who owned Balingen at that time.
- Fritz Scheerer: Around Balingen. Articles about local history, published by the city of Balingen, 1962, p. 178
- Wilhelm Hauff: The legend of the Hirschgulden . In: The inn in the Spessart . Fairy tale almanac for the year 1828, 1828 ( online at zeno.org ).
- Andreas Zekorn, Peter Thaddäus Lang, Hans Schimpf-Reinhardt (eds.): The rule of Schalksburg between Zollern and Württemberg . Epfendorf 2005, ISBN 3-928471-56-2 .