The film restoration includes the editorial and technical restoration of a complete film or parts thereof.
Approach and technique
An indispensable preparatory work for the restoration of a film like all historical materials is the documentation of the found condition. The next step is research on the original condition as well as comparative studies with possibly preserved copies or parts thereof in order to guarantee the completeness and the most original condition of the film in image and sound. A concept for restoring the desired condition can now be drawn up and the technical restoration of the original information, the actual restoration, can be started.
As a rule, the object to be obtained, the negative , consists of cellulose nitrate or cellulose diacetate , and in the case of more recent films, cellulose triacetate or polyester . These materials differ in sensitivity and are often mechanically damaged and chemically attacked. In order not to duplicate the damage on the film layer as well as on the carrier, the raw materials are first mechanically cleaned and damage repaired and then scanned. The mechanical processing includes a repair of the perforation , here damaged areas are glued with a self-adhesive, special tape. It is important here that a tape is used that corresponds to the film shrinkage that has been determined . If possible, damaged glued areas must be restored using the wet gluing process.
Since it is a question of film rolls , film scanners (telecine or special film scanners) are used. The digitally obtained images are processed with restoration programs. The disturbances are removed and the now digitally restored images are re-recorded on film using a negative exposure device.
- In 2010, Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) was re-published in an extensively restored and reconstructed version; for the details of the version see Metropolis (Film) #Wiesbaden 2010 .
- Welt am Draht : As part of the Berlinale 2010 , a restored version of Welt am Draht had its world premiere in the Berlinale Special series on February 14, 2010. The artistic direction of the restoration was Michael Ballhaus , cameraman of the original recordings.
- The Godfather : On June 5, 2008, Paramount Pictures released all three parts with fully restored sound and picture and a new German synchronization under the title The Godfather - The Coppola Restoration on a total of five DVDs; for details see The Godfather (film) #DVD and Blu-ray
- Star Wars : In 1997, Episodes IV , V and VI were re-released as a "Special Edition". A number of changes were made by George Lucas for this re-release, in conjunction with extensive restorations of the footage .
- Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau's Nosferatu - A Symphony of Horror (1922) has already been restored and reconstructed several times (compare: Nosferatu - A Symphony of Horror # reconstructions and restorations ).
Companies and organizations
- The German film archive of the Federal Archives has its own, highly specialized film-technical workshops and warehouses in which the German film heritage is preserved, restored and preserved for posterity.
- The German Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Foundation archives, preserves, restores and reconstructs films from a pool of around 6000 films, mainly from the period between 1920 and 1960 as part of the national film heritage.
- The Rainer Werner Fassbinder Foundation (RWFF) receives and restores the films by Rainer Werner Fassbinder .
- The Austrian Film Museum and the Filmarchiv Austria each have analog and jointly operated digital film restoration projects in Krems and Laxenburg.
- Paul Read, Mark-Paul Meyer (Ed.): Restoration of motion picture film . Oxford 2000, ISBN 0-7506-2793-X
- Paul Read: A Short History of Cinema Film Post-Production (1896-2006) . In: Joachim Polzer (Hrsg.): On the history of the film copy work . (On Film Lab History). Cinematography wonder of the world. Contributions to a cultural history of film technology. Volume 8, April 2006, ISBN 3-934535-26-7
- Joachim Polzer (Hrsg.): Weltwunder der Cinematographie - Contributions to a cultural history of film technology . (7th edition 2003) - Eberhard Nuffer: film editing and editing table. Potsdam 2003, ISBN 3-934535-24-0
- Joachim Polzer (Hrsg.): Weltwunder der Cinematographie - Contributions to a cultural history of film technology . (6th edition 2002) - The rise and fall of the sound film. Potsdam 2002, ISBN 3-934535-20-8
- Manfred Rasch, Astrid Dörnemann (eds.) Filmarchivierung: Collect - Save - Sift - See , Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8375-0096-7