|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||201 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||67.52 km 2|
|Residents:||55,980 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||829 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||03581, 035822|
|License plate :||GR, LÖB, NOL, NY, WSW, ZI|
|Community key :||14 6 26 110|
|City structure:||9 city and 5 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Octavian Ursu ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Görlitz in the district of Görlitz|
Görlitz ( Upper Lusatian : Gerlz, Gerltz or Gerltsch , Polish Zgorzelec , Upper Sorbian ) is the easternmost city in Germany , district town of the district of Görlitz in the Free State of Saxony , from 1919 to 1945 province of Lower Silesia and largest city in Upper Lusatia . It lies on the Lusatian Neisse , which has been the border with Poland since 1945 . The border separated the eastern districts on the other side of the river. These districts now form an independent Polish city called Zgorzelec .,
Görlitz was almost completely spared from destruction during the Second World War. The historic old town has been preserved: all the main phases of the Central European architectural styles ( late Gothic , Renaissance and baroque bourgeois houses) can be recognized by their houses . The old town is surrounded by extensive Wilhelminian-style quarters . With over 4,000 mostly restored cultural and architectural monuments , Görlitz is often referred to as the largest contiguous monument area in Germany. This special cityscape made Görlitz a popular film location, which is why it is also called "Görliwood".
Görlitz is located in the former Prussian-Lower Silesian part of Upper Lusatia on the western bank of the Lusatian Neisse, which breaks through the eastern edge of the Lusatian granite massif with the foothills of the Bohemian- Lusatian border mountains. It forms the transition between the northern Upper Lusatian heath and pond area and the southern Lusatian highlands . The former districts on the eastern bank of the river have formed the Polish city of Zgorzelec since 1945. Görlitz and its sister city Zgorzelec call themselves together as a European city .
The center of the village is at an altitude of Landeskrone - is . The lowest point in the city at is on the Neisse. The mean value for the urban area is . The water level of the Berzdorf lake in the south of the city is . The lake is 72 m deep at its deepest point.. The highest elevation in the Görlitz city area - the
The meridian of the geographical longitude 15 ° east of Greenwich, on which the time zone of Central European Time is based, crosses the city. As a result, Central European Time coincides with the mean solar time of Görlitz. The city is located at 51 ° 09 ′ north latitude. In honor of Yuri Gagarin , the first man in space, a Meridian monument was erected in 1961 to the southwest of the city hall, directly on the road bridge to Poland. However, according to today's measurement methods, the location of the stone is no longer exact. The 15th meridian then runs about 137 m away to the Neisse meadows below the town hall.
The urban area extends 19.4 km from north to south and 7.3 km from east to west. The next larger cities are the Czech Liberec (Reichenberg) about 50 km south, Cottbus about 80 km northwest, the Silesian Legnica (Liegnitz) about 80 km east and Dresden about 90 km west of Görlitz. It is about 50 km to Bautzen.
During the Tertiary , bog forests formed in valleys without drainage. Floods, the death of plants and the resulting deposits led to the formation of lignite basins like in the former Berzdorf open-cast mine . The basalt and phonolite peaks like the crown of the country are of volcanic origin.
The geological subsurface in the Görlitz area consists of Lausitzer Grauwacke in the north . It is made up of biotite , gray quartz and light feldspar with layers of fine-grained greywacke and dense greywacke slate. East Lusatian granodiorite determines the south of the urban area . The boundary between the different types of underground runs roughly along the line Ochsenbastei , Neißstraße, Peterstraße, Heiliges Grab and beyond Girbigsdorf. The narrowing of the Neisse valley caused by the hard granodiorite ends at the Obermühle .
Four areas according to the Fauna-Flora-Habitat Directive (FFH area) and a bird sanctuary partially extend over the city area. The bird sanctuary Neißetal and the FFH area Neisse area overlap to a large extent. They extend from the Obermühle in the north, through the Neißetal, the Neißeauen to the southern borders of the city in the district of Hagenwerder. They include u. a. the vineyard area with its wooded valley slopes, the Weinlache as well as the Neisse meadows and the arable land between the Weinhübel district and the Hagenwerder district. In the bird sanctuary, 26 species of birds according to categories 1 and 2 of the Saxon Red List have been identified. These include u. a. the kingfisher , sandpiper , middle woodpecker and ortolan . The bird sanctuary is one of the most important breeding areas for these four bird species in the Free State of Saxony. The area is bordered by the FFH Pließnitz area in the districts of Hagenwerder and Tauchritz. It includes the floodplains of the Pließnitz - a tributary of the Lusatian Neisse.
The Landeskrone (see also section The Landeskrone ) belongs to the FFH area basalt and phonolite peaks of eastern Upper Lusatia . The city is also part of the FFH area of separate bat roosts and habitats in Lusatia . The nurseries , roosts and feeding habitats of the pug bat and the great mouse- eared bat and numerous other endangered bat species are to be protected.
With the ordinance on the establishment of natural monuments in the urban area from 1997 and the amended ordinances from 2001 and 2005, the city named 27 natural monuments .
The urban area of Görlitz is divided into nine urban and five districts . The districts have grown historically, emerged through the settlement of the displaced after 1945 or were incorporated as previously independent municipalities or districts until 1952. The five districts were added to the city during the latest municipal reform in the 1990s and are spatially removed from the core city area.
The urban area also includes the following formerly independent localities: Deutsch Ossig , Hagenwerder (until 1936 Nikrisch), Klein Neundorf , Kunnerwitz , Ludwigsdorf , Ober-Neundorf , Schlauroth and Tauchritz . The following formerly independent places each form a common district: Hagenwerder and Tauchritz, Kunnerwitz and Deutsch-Ossig with Klein Neundorf as well as Ludwigsdorf and Ober-Neundorf. The town of Deutsch-Ossig is uninhabited due to the expansion of the Berzdorf opencast mine after the residents were relocated. Most of them moved to the new home development south of Kunnerwitz.
The surrounding area of Görlitz is mainly rural, the next larger cities are Weißwasser in the north , Bautzen and Löbau in the west, Zittau in the south and Lubań (Lauban) and Bolesławiec (Bunzlau) in the east . Of the five cities, Löbau is the closest city, around 20 km away.
The community Schöpstal with the community parts Girbigsdorf , Ebersbach and Kunnersdorf as well as the community Neißeaue with the community part Zodel border the city area to the north and Markersdorf to the west. East of the Neisse is the Polish city of Zgorzelec (Görlitz) and the rural community of the same name with the villages starting in the north and heading south with Żarka nad Nysą (Sercha) , Jędrzychowice (Hennersdorf) , Koźlice (Köslitz) , Osiek Łużycki (Wendisch-Ossig) and Radomierzyce (Radmeritz) . The community of Schönau-Berzdorf on the Eigen is located in the southwest , and the rural town of Ostritz with the district Leuba in the south . To the northwest of Görlitz are the small towns of Niesky and Rothenburg , but they do not directly border the urban area.
With the exception of the sister city of Zgorzelec, all neighboring municipalities and cities belong to the Görlitz district. The Görlitzer Heide adjoins today's Polish territory to the northeast of the neighboring Polish town . Until April 30, 1929, it was a separate manor district , the Görlitzer Kommunalheide . The majority of the Görlitzer Heide is now in the Polish powiat Zgorzelecki (Zgorzelec district). The next larger country towns Pieńsk (Penzig) and Węgliniec (Kohlfurt) in the northeast belong to it .
The Görlitz city area consists of over 60% green spaces. 1484.6 hectares are available as building area, which is divided into several types of use or development . In the city center the development is very dense. The old town and the Nikolaivorstadt in particular are characterized by narrow streets and tall old buildings. Some of the buildings extend directly to the banks of the Neisse. In the districts of Königshufen , Rauschwalde and Weinhübel , on the other hand, blocks of communal and cooperative housing dominate the picture, with the typical WBS 70 prefabricated building predominantly in Königshufen. These districts enclose the city center in the north, west and south. In Biesnitz there are more and more private homes that condense the suburbs that originally consisted of villas. The structure of the recently incorporated districts is rural. The largest industrial and commercial area in the city is located on the former power station site in Hagenwerder in the extreme south. Another industrial park is located between Königshufen and the 4 federal motorway . Water bodies make up about 11%. The flooded Berzdorf opencast mine is located south of Weinhübel and extends as far as the localities of Hagenwerder and Tauchritz.
|Type of use||Area in ha||Percentage|
|Special residential area||14.7||0.22%|
|Mixed construction areas||215.7||3.21%|
|Commercial building space||428.3||6.37%|
|Special build area||165.3||2.46%|
|Areas for common use||105.4||1.57%|
|Supply and disposal||35.3||0.53%|
|Traffic areas with a special purpose||33.6||0.50%|
|Areas for railway systems||115.7||1.72%|
|Green and open spaces (including forest)||4062.1||60.43%|
|Bodies of water||741.5||11.03%|
The average daily maximum temperature in the summer months is over 20 ° C, the average nighttime minimum temperature in the winter months is 0 to −5 ° C. The average air temperature in Görlitz is 8.2 ° C, the annual precipitation 657 mm. On average, the highest amount of precipitation results in August with 74 mm, while February is the driest month with around 37 mm.
July has the longest duration of sunshine with around 7 hours a day. December, on the other hand, only has an average of 1 hour and 30 minutes per day.
The urban climate of the city is particularly influenced by the dense development of the city center. This is the reason for a higher air temperature and less air circulation than in the surrounding area. During the warmer seasons, the heat load and humidity increase . The exchange of air in the city center is severely restricted. A heat island can form during the night . Compared to the cold air areas in the surrounding area, this heat island can show a difference of 10 ° C. However, these effects are typical for cities. Görlitz has open spaces that are effective in terms of climate, ecology and air hygiene , which intensify the exchange of air with the built-up areas and thus improve the urban climate.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Görlitz
The history of weather observation in Görlitz goes back to 1848 when Josef Theodor Hertel began with meteorological measurements and observations at Demianiplatz . In 1887 the weather station moved to Hospitalstrasse 20-21 and in 1891 it was relocated to the hospital opposite. In 1930 a climate hut was built in its park, while the weather station was relocated to Girbigsdorfer Straße at the airfield around 1936. After the Second World War, observations in Görlitz by the Saxon State Weather Service were resumed at the same location on July 1, 1946. In 1990 the automatic recording of weather data began. In October 1991 radioactivity monitoring was also set up. Because of the construction of a bypass road, the weather station had to be relocated 400 meters to the west in 1994 and a container complex was set up. In 2007 the weather station then moved into the new building at the same location. In 2008, the Görlitz weather station was inaugurated as the first climate reference station for the German Meteorological Service.
Original settlement and city foundation
Archaeological finds in the urban area prove a settlement since the late Neolithic ( Cord Ceramic Culture ). Finds of cremations come from the time of the Lausitz culture . Furthermore, copper and bronze coins from the late Roman Empire were recovered. After the Germanic population had left the area of eastern Upper Lusatia during the migration period in the 4th and 5th centuries , the region was only repopulated by Slavic groups in the late 7th and 8th centuries , which is evident from the numerous place and field names to this day Sorbian origin can be read, including "Görlitz" itself. It is uncertain whether these were Besunzane , of whom nothing is otherwise known. Ceramics found in today's Nikolaivorstadt and the eastern old town date from this period.
At the beginning of the 960s, the Margrave of the Saxon Eastern Marks, Gero , subjugated the Slavic tribes in Lower Lusatia. It was not until 990 that Margrave Ekkehard I of Meissen was also able to subjugate the Milzener in Upper Lusatia. For a long time, however, Lusatia remained a source of conflict between Bohemia , Poland and the Holy Roman Empire. Görlitz was first mentioned in 1071 in a document from King Heinrich IV . In it, the Bishop of Meissen received the Slavic village of Goreliz as a gift. The area of today's Upper and Lower Lusatia came under the rule of the Bohemian dukes and later kings , who were, with interruptions , the lords of Görlitz until 1635 as a pledge and in 1089 as an imperial fief.
Yzcorelik Castle , which was presumably located in the area of St. Peter's Church, was expanded by Duke Soběslav I in 1126 and 1131 together with other castles on the border with Bohemia .
Based on the village settlement or the castle, a settlement of merchants with the Nikolaikirche at its core developed probably in the middle of the 12th century on the Via Regia . Around 1200 a planned urban layout was built around the Untermarkt in the area of today's old town. A representative of the Bohemian king, who came from the circle of leading families from which the large landowners and long-distance traders emerged, resided in the city in 1234 and 1238. These broke away from the city rulers by 1282 at the latest.
Under the rule of the Ascanians , who received the eastern part of the state of Bautzen with the city of Görlitz as pledge from the Bohemian king in 1253, the city was expanded to the west and a city fortification was built, which now also included the Franciscan monastery founded in 1234 .
In 1268, an old mint of Bautzen was officially named under the Brandenburg margraves , which was supplemented in the same year by a newly founded Görlitz mint with which it was to be minted alternately every year.
Ascent to the medieval trading center
For the period shortly before 1300 there is a city council with a mayor, twelve councilors and four lay judges. In 1303, Görlitz was the first city in the region to be granted independence from the lordly Vogteigericht and received higher jurisdiction, which is considered the date of urban independence. A little later a Jewish community developed . After the city fell back to Bohemia in 1329, King John of Luxembourg confirmed the evolving settlement of the Jews and gave Görlitz numerous rights, in particular the coin shelf .
In 1339, the city also received the staple right for a dye plant that was in demand throughout Europe, the woad , for the color blue in the fabric dyeing. The city became the most important trading city between Erfurt and Wroclaw thanks to its up-and-coming trade as well as its monopoly position for the woad trade in the Bohemian countries and a flourishing cloth production . In the middle of the 14th century the council had the city court in its hands. Since then, a double wall ring has been documented that enclosed an area of 24 hectares.
Based on their economic power and the royal privilege founded on August 21, 1346 Bautzen, Görlitz, Kamenz , Luban, Löbau and Zittau the Lusatian League to on behalf of the sovereign, the King of Bohemia and later German Emperor Charles IV. , The To maintain peace in the country. Legally, Görlitz was hardly inferior to the Free Imperial Cities . With the economic boom, the guilds became local power factors. They rejected the foreign policy of the council and revolted in vain against the councilors in 1369, 1390 and 1405.
From 1377 to 1396 the city was the center of the Duchy of Görlitz, which Charles IV had founded for his seven-year-old son Johann . In 1389 this allowed the expulsion of the Jews from Görlitz. After his death in 1396 the duchy was dissolved again.
During the Hussite Wars in 1429 the southern and eastern suburbs were burned down, but the walled city was not besieged. After numerous feuds, which led the city in the 14th and 15th centuries to maintain the peace and its extensive privileges, in the 15th century it was also involved in the clashes between the church and the nobility with the King of Bohemia , Georg von , who was hostile to the Kalixtine Podiebrad involved, which resulted in the Görlitz powder conspiracy in 1466/68 . Görlitz was also involved in the dispute over the Bohemian throne between Georg von Podiebrad and Matthias Corvinus . For this reason, the suburbs were surrounded by a moat and palisade until 1477, and the city fortifications were modernized and reinforced.
The tensions between Görlitz and Zittau, which had already started after the end of the Hussite Wars, erupted in a beer war in 1491 , in which the Zittau residents had the right to import and sell beer duty-free in Görlitz. However, Görlitz refused to import and sell foreign beer and confiscated it. Zittau responded with attacks on localities in the vicinity of Görlitz. The feud between the two cities could only be ended by an arbitration ruling by the governor, who forbade both cities to attack each other and obliged Zittau to repair the damage caused.
Under the rule of the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus , the city flourished in the late 15th century, which lasted well into the 16th century. Numerous town houses and church buildings from the late Gothic and Renaissance periods date from this period. At the same time, Görlitz citizens acquired extensive land holdings from the 1440s. Around 1500 the city had around 10,000 inhabitants.
The tensions between guilds and the council continued into the 16th century and culminated in the dispute over the Reformation . Evangelical preaching began in Görlitz from 1521, even if the council resisted for a long time. An evangelical church order was introduced in 1539. As a result of the Schmalkaldic War , the town was affected by the Upper Lusatian Pönfall in 1547 , as the Six Towns were very reluctant to provide troops for the war, which also left the imperial camp before the battle of Mühlberg . The city was obliged to pay a heavy fine and lost numerous rights and all land ownership. Although many possessions and privileges were bought back in the following years, the power of the cities in the Upper Lusatian Estates Republic was broken in favor of the sovereign and the great noble families.
Görlitz in the Electorate of Saxony
In April 1636, Görlitz and Upper Lusatia, whose estates had joined the rebellious Bohemia, were awarded to the Electorate of Saxony to compensate for the emperor's war debts . In 1637 the emperor confirmed the confessional relationships with the traditional recession , whereupon he accepted the homage in Görlitz. In the further course of the Thirty Years War , Görlitz, which was occupied by Sweden, was successfully besieged in 1641. It suffered severe damage in the process. During the Seven Years' War , the city was again the scene of military conflicts at the Battle of Moys .
In 1779 the Upper Lusatian Society of Sciences was founded there, which later grew into the largest civil society of its kind in Germany.
When Napoleon's army returned from the Russian campaign, army units moved through the Görlitz area and plundered the surrounding villages, regardless of whether they were allies or opponents. Within a year more than 30 troops marched past Görlitz; the allied French had to be quartered and fed. Mayor Samuel August Sohr reported above all about the rapidly spreading epidemics. After Napoleon's defeat, the Saxon army defected to the Allies, but Saxony was treated as an enemy. Therefore, Saxony was not represented at the Congress of Vienna . There, in 1815, Upper Lusatia was divided and Görlitz was added to the Prussian province of Silesia and at the same time the seat of the Görlitz district of the same name within the Liegnitz administrative district.
Second bloom in the Prussian state
Belonging to Prussia had a significant influence on the political and social development of the city. The Prussian city law was introduced in 1833, and the city flourished again under the first mayor Gottlob Ludwig Demiani . In 1847 it was connected to Dresden by rail and at the same time was connected to Berlin and Breslau via a branch line . In 1867 the Berlin-Görlitzer Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft opened its railway line from Berlin to Görlitz from the Görlitzer Bahnhof in Berlin. In 1873 a separate city district was formed for Görlitz .
This was linked to rapid industrialization . Numerous large public buildings, industrial plants and housing estates from the Wilhelminian era still characterize the cityscape south of the old town. With the division of Silesia into the provinces of Upper and Lower Silesia, Görlitz came to the western province of Lower Silesia in 1919 .
National Socialism and World War II
During the time of National Socialism , as everywhere in the German Reich, the Jewish population was systematically disenfranchised and deported to concentration camps. However, the Görlitz fire brigade thwarted the attempt to set the Görlitz synagogue on fire during the Reichspogromnacht in 1938 , so that it remained largely unscathed as one of the few synagogues in today's Saxony. The Görlitz satellite camp was established in 1944 . There is evidence that over 400 Jewish prisoners from Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and Russia were murdered or died of disease and exhaustion. During the war and especially towards the end of it, a total of 37 houses were destroyed and, depending on the source, between 78 and 89, some severely damaged. All seven Neisse bridges were blown up on May 7, 1945 - the last day of the war - around 7 p.m. by retreating Wehrmacht troops. These blasts also affected numerous adjacent buildings, including the windows of the Church of St. Peter and Paul near the old town bridge. The city was occupied by the Red Army and thus part of the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ) and, from 1949, the GDR.
Socialism and GDR
After the Second World War , Görlitz was divided by the Oder-Neisse border . The part of the city east of the Neisse came under Polish administration and has been called Zgorzelec ever since . The resident population was expelled from June 21, 1945 . 650 people who were born in Görlitz or who last lived there were arrested by the Soviet secret police of the NKVD . About 250 of them died in the special camps . Due to the refugees and displaced persons from the areas east of Oder and Neisse, the urban population in the western part of the city briefly increased to over 100,000. The greater part of the city that remained with Germany became part of the state of Saxony, which was dissolved in 1952. After that the city belonged to the Dresden district .
With the signing of the Görlitz Agreement on July 6, 1950, the German Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of Poland recognized the Oder-Neisse border as a state border. The border was recognized under international law by the reunified Germany with the Two-Plus-Four Treaty and the bilateral German-Polish Border Treaty between Germany and Poland in 1990.
On June 17, 1953 , after a rally with 30,000 people, the initially successful "uprising" took place in Görlitz, which was suppressed by units of the Ministry of State Security and the barracked people's police after the state of emergency was imposed by the Soviet occupying forces .
From 1975 the new development areas Königshufen and Rauschwalde emerged , while the building fabric of the old and inner city fell into disrepair. Extensive demolitions were planned at the end of the 1980s, but this did not happen due to the political change in 1989. There are only very few cities in Germany comparable to Görlitz in terms of their population that can boast such a density of well-preserved architectural monuments. The city center in particular benefited from the building and renovation boom after reunification , which was largely borne by funding measures from the state and the European Union. However, the ongoing decline in population in the eastern federal states is also noticeable in this region.
Görlitz in the Free State of Saxony
In the re-established Free State of Saxony , the urban district of Görlitz became an independent city in the newly formed administrative district of Dresden . In the course of the district reform in 1994 , the district of Görlitz surrounding the city was incorporated into the new Lower Silesian Upper Lusatia district . Görlitz was initially a district seat, but soon lost this function to Niesky. In the course of the Saxon district reform in 2008 , the Lower Silesian Upper Lusatia District , the independent city of Görlitz and the district of Löbau-Zittau merged on August 1, 2008 to form the district of Görlitz. Görlitz became the district seat. The status of a district-free city no longer existed . Görlitz received the title of large district town .
Since 1991, the city has been a member of the Historical Cities Working Group , which also includes the cities of Bamberg , Lübeck , Meißen , Regensburg and Stralsund . Goals are u. a. the mutual exchange of experiences, the definition of joint positions vis-à-vis political leaders and decision-makers on issues of urban development in Germany and urban development with a focus on sustainable concepts for historical urban structures and their building fabric. With the establishment of the Zittau / Görlitz University of Applied Sciences on July 13, 1992, Görlitz becomes one of the two university locations of the University of Applied Sciences . From September 3rd to 5th, 1993, the city hosted the second day of the Saxons under the motto We in Saxony . About 270,000 visitors were guests. The 925th anniversary celebration took place in 1996. The celebration was opened with a parade and in the middle of the Obermarkt a scaffolding in the basic shape of the former salt house was built and covered with tarpaulin. At the beginning of the 1990s there were considerations to rebuild the building, but this was rejected on the grounds that the function of the square as a link between the old town and the Wilhelminian era would be destroyed.
After the political change, there were serious changes, especially in the economic field. The once state- owned enterprises (VEB) in the city should be privatized according to the principles of the social market economy. On May 1, 1990, for example, VEB Waggonbau Görlitz became the DWA subsidiary Waggonbau Görlitz GmbH . The VEB Görlitzer Maschinenbau was as Siemens turbine manufacturing GmbH by Siemens worldwide by the THA accepted. The privatization of the former VEB capacitors factory in Görlitz failed and the company had to file for bankruptcy in 1992. The Feinoptische Werk Görlitz was also separated from the VEB Carl Zeiss and converted into a GmbH. For a short period of time it again delivered lenses with the brand name Meyer-Optik . Due to a lack of investors, the Treuhandanstalt liquidated the Feinoptische Werk Görlitz on June 30, 1991.
Between January 1991 and December 28, 1997, parts I to III of the Hagenwerder lignite power station were shut down because a. The demand for electricity fell, more economical new power plants made the retrofitting of dedusting and desulphurisation systems unprofitable and the supply of lignite from the neighboring open-cast lignite mine in Berzdorf was only guaranteed for a maximum of 15 years. The open pit mine was also closed on December 28, 1997 after more than 170 years of lignite mining. In the following years, extensive renovation work for the subsequent flooding of the former opencast mine took place. Most of the structures in the decommissioned power plant were demolished or blown up and the site was rededicated as an industrial park. With the closure of the power plant and opencast mine, a total of around 6,000 employees lost their jobs.
In 2001, Görlitz and Zgorzelec applied together for the title of “ European Capital of Culture 2010 ”. In the final decision of the jury, the twin cities of the city of Essen , which had applied on behalf of the Ruhr area.
During the August flood of the Lusatian Neisse in 2010, the dam of the Witka reservoir broke . The Witka is a tributary of the Neisse and flows into it south of the Görlitz district of Hagenwerder. The tidal wave inundated large parts of Hagenwerder in a short time. These were mitigated by washing under the tracks of the Görlitz – Hagenwerder railway line and thus the breaking of the floods in the nearby Berzdorfer See. However, the water level reached a height of 7.07 m and thus one of the highest values since it was recorded. The mean water level is 1.75 m. There was considerable damage, particularly in the lower-lying districts to the south and north of the city center, but also to the buildings close to the river in the inner and old town, in the Neisse valley south of the Obermühle and the Zgorzelec Neisse suburb.
On the night of March 14-15 , 2020, Poland closed its border crossings with Germany as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and thus also the border crossings in the Görlitz city area. The old town bridge was completely cordoned off with construction fences and guarded by machine guns armed by Polish border guards from Straż Graniczna . The border crossing at the city bridge and the motorway border crossing in Ludwigsdorf remained open for Polish returnees who had to go into quarantine for 14 days. During the border closure, there were kilometers of backlogs through the entire Görlitz city area and up to 63 kilometers of traffic jams on the Autobahn 4 to Burkau, especially before the Easter and Whitsun holidays and before Ascension. The borders were reopened on the night of June 12th to 13th, 2020. The mayor of Zgorzelec, Rafał Gronicz, and his colleague from Görlitz, Octavian Ursu, opened the border fence on the old town bridge in the presence of several hundred people.
Before the Second World War, Rauschwalde was incorporated into Görlitz in 1925 and Moys (Polish: Zgorzelec-Ujazd) in 1929 . The district of Moys and the urban area east of the Neisse came under Polish administration after the end of the Second World War in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement . After the war, Weinhübel and Klingewalde came to Görlitz on January 1, 1949, and Groß and Klein Biesnitz on October 1, 1951. Deutsch-Ossig followed on January 1, 1994, and Hagenwerder / Tauchritz and Schlauroth on March 1 of the same year. Most recently, on January 1, 1999, Kunnerwitz with Klein Neundorf, Ludwigsdorf with Ober-Neundorf and parts of the industrial areas of the community of Schöpstal (Girbigsdorf and Ebersbach) were added.
Görlitz had just under 10,000 inhabitants before the industrial revolution , but between 1825 and 1905 the number of inhabitants increased eightfold in just eight decades from 10,724 to 83,766. With the strong increase in population since the founding of the German Empire and in the following founding years , the city broke its medieval borders and grew beyond the city walls. Even after the end of the First World War, the population continued to grow. In 1939, around 94,000 people finally lived in the city.
The population of the city of Görlitz exceeded the mark of 100,000 in 1949 on the city area west of the Neisse, mainly due to the influx of numerous refugees and displaced persons from the former German eastern regions, which briefly turned the city into a major city . At that time, the city's population also reached its historical high of 101,742. By 1988 there was a decrease to 77,609 inhabitants. Since the fall of the Wall in the GDR , the city has lost almost a third of its population, based on its territory at the time, due to emigration and a decline in the birth rate.
On December 31, 2011, the official population of Görlitz was only 54,691 (only main residences ). Compared to the last pre-war population census in May 1939 with 93,823 inhabitants, this corresponds to a decrease of around 40 percent, although the loss of the living space east of the Neisse was compensated for by three new development areas built after 1945 west of the Neisse. Before the war, around 8,800 people lived in the eastern part of the city. In comparison, there were around 20,000 residents in the three new development areas in July 2011. This shows that the lost living space east of the Neisse was more than compensated for after the war until 1990.
A further decline in the population was expected, so the State Statistical Office forecast a population of 46,400 for Görlitz in 2020. This would correspond to about half of the pre-war population. The prognosis of the state office is, however, controversial, because since 2006 Görlitz has again recorded more immigrants than emigrants and in November 2017 it reached the level of 57,228 inhabitants, whereby every tenth of the 2000 new citizens is over 60 years old. By 2007, over 1,000 senior citizens had already moved to the city. For them, the city is a popular retreat due to its ambience, its culture, the quiet location and the up to 20% lower cost of living, also due to the low rents. Görlitz was given the nickname “ Pensionopolis ” as early as the 19th century . It was especially popular with Prussian officials as a retirement home. This development is noticeable again now, retirees are moving their residence to the old town of Görlitz. Most of them come from the old federal states.
Görlitz and its neighboring Polish town of Zgorzelec have a combined population of around 86,600, of which 31,359 live in Zgorzelec (as of 2015). This roughly corresponds to the population of the entire city in the early 1920s.
Görlitz is the seat of the Catholic diocese of Görlitz and a Protestant regional bishop for the Görlitz district of the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia .
The Reformation gained a foothold in 1521 and the first Protestant mass was held in Görlitz in 1525. Since the last third of the 16th century Görlitz was a purely Lutheran city. Like all Lusatian Lutherans, the Görlitz parish did not belong to any regional church , but rather the city administered its church affairs itself, although the Catholic dean of the Bautzen cathedral monastery retained important rights as head of an apostolic administration . The Evangelical Lutheran piety in Görlitz was strongly influenced by Pietism at the end of the 17th century . From 1815 the city belonged to Prussia and its ecclesiastical system was incorporated into the United Evangelical Church in Prussia .
The old Lutheran Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia was created as a reaction to the union between the Lutheran Church and the Reformed tradition, which was compulsorily prescribed by the Prussian state . The Evangelical Lutheran Heilig-Geist-Kirchengemeinde was founded in Görlitz, which today belongs to the Lusatia church district of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church . With the election of the parish priest Gert Kelter as provost of the Sprengels Ost of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK) on January 27, 2007, Görlitz became the seat of the Eastern Lutheran priesthood .
Otherwise the city was part of the Silesian Provincial Church of the Evangelical Church, whose seat was in Wroclaw at the time. As a result of the demarcation after the Second World War (Oder-Neisse border), only a small part of the area of the Silesian Provincial Church remained with Germany and became part of the Soviet occupation zone. The former Görlitz urban area east of the Neisse was combined to form the town of Zgorzelec. The resident, mostly Protestant German population was forcibly evacuated from 1945–1947. Most of the townspeople resettled in their place were Roman Catholics, so the majority of the population of the former Görlitz urban area, which has become the town of Zgorzelec, has been Catholic since around 1947.
The church leadership under Bishop Ernst Hornig had to leave Breslau in 1946 and move to Görlitz. In 1947 the town became the seat of a regional church, which initially kept the name Evangelical Church of Silesia , but had to change its name to Evangelical Church of the Görlitz Church Area in 1968 and was given its current name in 1992, the Evangelical Church of Silesian Upper Lusatia . On January 1, 2004, this regional church was incorporated into the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg-Schlesische Oberlausitz. Since then, Görlitz has been the seat of the (third) district of this new regional church. Within this diocese belonging parishes of the city Görlitz to Kirchenkreis Oberlausitz.
At the beginning of the 19th century, more and more Roman Catholic believers moved into the city and from 1853 onwards they founded their own parishes. They belonged to the Archdiocese of Breslau . When its territory was divided after the Second World War as a result of the demarcation of the border, the part of the Diocese of Breslau that remained west of the Lusatian Neisse near Germany initially formed the Archbishopric of Görlitz . From this, the Apostolic Administration of Görlitz, established in 1972 , became today's diocese of Görlitz within the newly established ecclesiastical province of Berlin on July 8, 1994 , whose cathedral was the St. Jakobuskirche , built in 1898 . Within the diocese of Görlitz, the parishes of the city of Görlitz, St. Hedwig and Hl. Kreuz , belong to the deanery of the same name .
In Görlitz there are also free church congregations of the Apostolic Community , the Baptists , the Seventh-day Adventists , the Pentecostals , the United Methodist Church and the Federation of Free Evangelical Congregations in Germany .
Other religious communities include the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ( Mormons ), Jehovah's Witnesses , the New Apostolic Church, and a congregation of the Apostle ministry of Jesus Christ .
Since 2005 there has been a Jewish community in Görlitz again. The community was recognized by the Central Council of Jews in Germany and the Saxon state rabbi Salomon Almekias-Siegl and negotiated (status: 2010) with the city administration about the transfer of the synagogue on Otto-Müller-Strasse.
In 2018, the Assalam (German Peace ) association opened an intercultural center as a meeting place in Bahnhofsstraße. The premises are intended to be used, for example, for Muslim Friday prayers, but according to the association they are also open to cultural events of various kinds, including those of other denominations and origins.
A mayor has been attested at the top of the city since 1282. Later there was also a council. The mayor changed annually. After the transition to Prussia, the Prussian town order was introduced. The council and mayor remained. The office of Lord Mayor was introduced in the middle of the 19th century.
During the period of National Socialism, the mayor was appointed by the NSDAP and after the Second World War there was a city council or city council, which was elected according to the regulations in force in the GDR.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the accession of the GDR to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1989/1990, the body, initially known as the City Council, now called the City Council, was freely elected again. The city council also initially elected the mayor. Since 1994, however, the mayor has been directly elected by the citizens for seven years. He is both the chairman of the city council and the chief superior of all city officials, employees and workers.
The city council consists of 38 members. Five parties and two local electoral associations are currently represented on the city council. The 38 seats in the city council have been distributed as follows since the local elections on May 26, 2019 :
|Party / list||Seats||Share of votes|
|Citizens for Görlitz e. V.||7th||17.5%|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||3||7.6%|
|Free list Motor Görlitz||2||5.7%|
In March 2015, the city council passed a statute on civic participation . This came into force when it was announced in the Official Gazette on July 21 of the same year. The urban area was divided into eight so-called public participation rooms. The districts of Klingewalde, the historic old town and Nikolaivorstadt form a common area for participation. Biesnitz, Königshufen, Rauschwalde, Südstadt and Weinhübel, on the other hand, each received an independent participation area. The inner city was divided into two participation areas: inner city east and inner city west. Krölstraße, Otto-Buchwitz-Platz, Luisenstraße and Demianiplatz form the border between the two inner city areas.
A district budget is assigned to each district. The elected district council decides on the use of the district budget. The citizens' councils consist of three to seven people and are elected for two years by the district assembly. The district assemblies should take place once a year, and all residents aged 16 and over in the respective district are invited. A district budget was made available for the first time in the 2016 financial year. One euro per inhabitant per year is allocated to each participation area. According to the statutes, residents should be able to “make decisions about their immediate living environment [...]. Be it the acquisition of a bank or a play equipment, the support of a street festival, a district newspaper, a desired planting or similar .. "
The districts have been represented by elected local councils since their respective incorporations since the early 1990s. The election of the local councils takes place together with the city council elections.
Mayor and Lord Mayor
The office of Lord Mayor was first awarded to Gottlob Ludwig Demiani by King Wilhelm IV in 1844. Demiani had been mayor since 1833 and held the office until 1846. He ensured an economic upswing and helped Görlitz to gain a place in the ranks of the major Prussian cities. A statue commemorates him today on the square of June 17th on the Kaisertrutz.
After the war, on May 10, 1945, Alfred Fehler was appointed mayor by the Soviet city commandant. After his death, Walter Oehme took over the post that same year . In November 1945, Oehme fell victim to an intrigue and had to resign. He was accused of corruption and nepotism in the city administration as well as espionage and sabotage. He was arrested by the Soviet secret service and was imprisoned in the Bautzen correctional facility from 1950 to 1956 .
The first mayor freely elected after reunification was Matthias Lechner (CDU). After eight years in office, he was voted out early in 1998 in a vote. He was followed in May 1998 by the former professor Rolf Karbaum (independent) until 2005 and Joachim Paulick (on the matter!) Until 2012.
In the mayor election on April 22, 2012 Paulick could not assert himself against his challenger Siegfried Deinege (independent). Deinege took office on July 16, 2012. In the city council, Deinege is supported by its campaign alliance consisting of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen, Bürger für Görlitz, CDU and FDP.
On June 16, 2019, the CDU politician Octavian Ursu won the second ballot with 55.2 percent of the votes against his opponent from the AfD ( Sebastian Wippel ), who received 44.8 percent of the votes. The turnout was 56 percent. In the first ballot, Wippel had obtained a relative majority with 36.4 percent of the votes. Franziska Schubert , a green member of the state parliament, placed just behind Ursu, had decided not to take part in the second ballot.
The city's ordinary income in the 2017 financial year was EUR 100.030 million.
The ordinary income was offset by ordinary expenses of 94.592 million euros in the same financial year 2017. The following table gives an overview of the development of the debt level of the municipal budget between 2006 and 2015.
|Debt level of the municipal budget
on December 31.
|year||in 1000 €||per inhabitant|
At the end of 2011, the municipal debt was 624 euros per inhabitant. In the same year, the city budget recorded a surplus of around 4.6 million euros. The surplus turned out to be very high compared to previous years due to higher income from trade and income tax . In 2009 the surplus was around 600,000 euros and in 2010 around 900,000 euros.
coat of arms
Blazon : The coat of arms of the city of Görlitz is split; in front a double-headed black eagle in gold, behind in red on a silver shield base a double-tailed silver lion with a gold crown, gold claws and blue tongue. The lion holds a golden imperial crown on the gap with the right front paw and the eagle's head turned left with its beak.
The shield wears a silver helmet with a red eagle flight and red and white helmet covers, the eagle flight is again the white / silver, crowned lion on the left half of the shield. Eagle flight and helmet covers are sprinkled with golden linden leaves. The city flag is white-red with a coat of arms.
The use of the city arms / decorative arms is reserved for the mayor and the city council. All authorities and departments of the administration of the city carry the coat of arms. Furthermore, the city of Görlitz has a city signet consisting of the coat of arms of the coat of arms from 1433.
The coat of arms was awarded on August 29, 1433 by Emperor Sigismund as a token of his recognition of the services of the city of Görlitz in the Hussite War. The award of a coat of arms was associated with unusual costs at the time. The eagle stands for the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and indicates the city's recognition by the emperor, the Bohemian lion stands for belonging to Bohemia before Görlitz fell to the Electorate of Saxony in 1635 and to Prussia after the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
On October 2, 1536, Emperor Charles V gave a coat of arms, the shield of which was divided into four. The imperial eagle stood in the first and fourth fields, the Bohemian lion in the second and third fields. This coat of arms, which could not prevail against the variant from 1433 due to Charles' role in the Upper Lusatian Pönfall in 1547 , is documented by a shield of the House of Austria with the imperial crown, divided twice by red and silver. However, it was in use parallel to the current one until 1945.
Flag of the city of Görlitz (until 1945)
The old flag of the city of Görlitz was a red and white bicolor with the city's coat of arms in the middle.
Flag of the city of Goerlitz
The flag shows the colors white and red in a ratio of 1: 1, in the middle of the city's coat of arms . The relation of the height of the flag cloth to the length is like 3: 5.
Since 1971 Görlitz has been twinned with Amiens in France and Molfetta in Italy. In 1980 Zgorzelec in Poland and in 1981 Nový Jičín (Neutitschein) in the Czech Republic were added. The most recent partnership has existed since 1990 with the Hessian state capital Wiesbaden . The Hessian state capital helped during and after the fall of the Wall with financial support totaling 4.4 million DM in the restructuring of the city administration and with numerous donations in kind. For example, the Dr. Horst Schmidt clinics in Wiesbaden organized aid transports to the Görlitz clinic. The bus fleet of the Görlitzer Verkehrsbetriebe was also strengthened by several older Mercedes-Benz O 305s from Wiesbaden.
Together with the municipalities of Selfkant , Oberstdorf and List on Sylt , Görlitz forms the Zipfelbund . This federation is not a political organization, but primarily an intra-German partnership to stimulate tourism. The first meeting of all mayors of this town twinning - on May 9 and 10, 1998 in Selfkant - was initiated and organized by the journalist Hartmut Urban. After this meeting, the Zipfelbund was concluded on the occasion of the central celebrations for the Day of German Unity in 1999 in Wiesbaden . Anyone who manages to travel to all of these places within four years will be honored with a gift basket. This contains specialties from all participating regions.
European city of Görlitz / Zgorzelec
In 1998 the city, together with the Polish city of Zgorzelec, which was formerly part of Görlitz, declared itself a European city and named it European city of Görlitz / Zgorzelec . The designation European City is not an official award. Cities that feel connected to Europe are assigned the unprotected name of Europastadt . The name has been marketed since 2007 by the Europastadt GörlitzZgorzelec GmbH (without separators), a 100% company of the city.
Görlitz has one of the best preserved old towns in Central Europe.
For 2010, Görlitz and Zgorzelec jointly applied for European Capital of Culture . In addition, one of the main projects was the development of a new center, the so-called “bridge park”. Along the Lusatian Neisse, objects such as B. the town hall , the synagogue, the university and on the eastern bank of the Neisse, the Upper Lusatian Hall of Fame, architecturally developed together with other ideas into an overall design. Students from both countries have already thought about this in several summer projects. A kind of “laboratory” is to be created in which European thinking and acting can be tested.
The culture and management course at the Zittau / Görlitz University of Applied Sciences and many committed citizens and companies in the region supported the unifying idea of Görlitz's 2010 Capital of Culture application. A visible sign of this support are the five flags waving on the national crown. Essen was chosen as the cultural capital of 2010 , with Görlitz taking second place. Jury members emphasized that the decision was extremely close. In Essen, the inclusion of some Görlitz projects in the Capital of Culture project was publicly proposed. Thanks to their application and the underlying concept, Görlitz and Zgorzelec nevertheless achieved a considerable increase in their level of awareness at home and abroad. In April 2009 it became known that Görlitz was applying for the title of UNESCO World Heritage Site . With this, Lord Mayor Joachim Paulick wanted to close the gap that arose after the Dresden Elbe Valley lost its title.
Urban development, renovation and monument protection
With its approx. 4000 monuments, Görlitz is the largest area monument in Germany, but strictly according to monument law, it is about the extensive distribution of individual monuments. The monuments include both secular and sacred buildings from all style epochs between late Gothic and Art Nouveau.
Due to the high protection status of the many individual monuments, there are occasional conflicts with the requirements of modern urban development, for example on Zeppelinstrasse at the corner of Heilige-Grab-Strasse. Here the monument protection was subordinated to the housing industry and the row of houses was demolished.
In the mid-1990s, the city passed a conservation statute according to the building code for the districts of Old Town, Inner City, Nikolaivorstadt and Südstadt. In these areas, the structure of both the individual buildings and the urban ensemble is protected. In the case of planned new buildings in this area, the design and its symbiosis with the surrounding development as well as the function and economic efficiency of the building are checked beforehand . However, this does not mean that the monuments outside this conservation area can be dispensed with. In these cases, the overall urban character is also checked before demolition or new construction.
Together with ten other East German cities, Görlitz became a model city for urban redevelopment between 1990 and 1994 due to the critical condition of the building fabric and the old town center, which is worthy of protection. Subsequently, urban renewal and redevelopment areas were gradually established. Most of these still exist today. The aim of these partially overlapping areas is the revitalization and further development of the inner-city and core-city areas. The following five redevelopment areas exist:
The inner city north is the first redevelopment area and was established in 1991. It is considered to be largely renovated. The second redevelopment area is the historic old town . It was decided in 1994 and has been developing positively since then. Signs of the attractiveness of this area are the number of inhabitants, which has been increasing against the trend since 1997, the youngest inhabitants on average in all parts of the city and the growing number of guests. In this redevelopment area, it is difficult to forecast the duration of the redevelopment, as there are numerous striking and structurally complex cases there, such as B. the hall houses there.
Also in 1994 the redevelopment area Nikolaivorstadt was established. The redevelopment process has not yet been completed in this area, as the dominant industrial wasteland of the former gas works has not yet been revitalized. Despite everything, large areas of the once industrial district have already developed into a sought-after inner-city residential area. In addition to the modernized building fabric, the complementary new buildings also fit in moderately with the urban image.
In 1997 the western edge of the Wilhelminian city center, which was dominated by industrial wasteland, was included in the funding framework. This redevelopment area is officially called the Wilhelminian-style district downtown west . In the mid-1990s, there was an increased social, demographic and structural devaluation of this area. This trend could largely be prevented by numerous renovated buildings and streets as well as the funding of public facilities. Nevertheless, the development of this area still requires patience and perseverance.
The last redevelopment area Inner City East / Bridge Park comprises the central inner city and the development along the Neisse to the twin town Zgorzelec.
The necessary adaptation of urban development structures to demographic change is the aim of the urban redevelopment east funding program , which is divided into the parts of dismantling and upgrading. The entire city area was declared as a dismantling area in 2003. One of the reasons for this was the idea of making the demolition of backyard buildings in the city center eligible for funding to improve the living environment. The Integrated Urban Development Concept (InSEK) declares the new development areas Königshufen, Rauschwalde and Weinhübel to be priority areas for deconstruction.
The use of urban development funds between 1990 and 2004 shows a trend reversal in the allocation of funds to districts. In the period from 1990 to 1996, 70.4% of the funding went to the old town; in the current funding period, it is only 19.3%. The Gründerzeit area, on the other hand, accounts for 78.9% of the funding. Based on these figures, one could conclude that the old town was in a particularly poor condition at the beginning of the 1990s, but this is not true. The numbers are an expression of a strategy to renew the urban structure from within.
In the meantime, 70% of the residential buildings in the core city are considered to be renovated and the focus is now shifting to the upgrading of the residential area of the individual quarters, the design of the public space as well as the settlement and expansion of public service facilities, such as B. Kindergartens. This has already happened in part with the conversion of squares (see e.g. Marienplatz ) and streets (conversion of Berliner Straße that has already started) and, for example, the new extension to the city library on Jochmannstraße or the new day-care center on Mittelstraße.
The city and its conservationists have an unknown patron who has had exactly 1,000,000 DM transferred every year since 1995 via a Munich lawyer (from 2002 511,500 €, 2016 finally 340,000 €). Over the years the term Altstadtmillion emerged in the city . The old town foundation administers the money and the board of trustees for monument preservation measures it to builders and institutions. The objects funded in this way have been marked with a sticker since 2004.
In an open letter to the then Lord Mayor Paulick, the managing director of the German Foundation for Monument Protection , Wolfgang Illert, criticized the city of Görlitz's plans for a new shopping center on the area between Salomonstrasse and Berliner Strasse on behalf of the Foundation's Scientific Commission. The statements of the investor, Florana KG in Weimar, indicated “a lack of respect for the preservation of the architectural heritage”. Florana KG planned a total demolition on the affected property in the immediate vicinity of the train station, to which eleven listed buildings should also fall victim. According to its managing director, the German Foundation for Monument Protection had refused to participate in a design advisory board because it wanted to "critically accompany the developments from an independent position".
As early as January 2012, the chairman of the Scientific Commission of the German Foundation for Monument Protection, Horst von Bassewitz , had warned in the Sächsische Zeitung about this “radical approach to the building fabric”. Just like the foundation, the State Office for the Preservation of Monuments of the Free State of Saxony and the monument protection authority of the city of Görlitz rejected the plans for the new construction of the shopping center.
As the main axis from the train station to the city center, Berliner Strasse was a busy shopping street. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, “controversial real estate sharks secured the land on the former boulevard and thus prevented any development.” The Görlitz District Office is planning to build an administration campus on the former Florana land. Modern workspaces are to be created behind the historical facades and new shops are to be given space on the ground floor.
Görlitz survived the Second World War almost without destruction and has one of the best preserved old towns in Europe with numerous historical, partly listed buildings. The old town and the Nikolaivorstadt are predominantly characterized by buildings from the late Gothic period as well as from the Renaissance and Baroque periods .
The executioner's house with the dark gate is located in the Nikolaivorstadt outside the old city walls . It is the only completely preserved half-timbered house in the city. The house is dated to 1666 and has been completely renovated. The window surrounds the courtyard door are connected sgraffitos provided, as well as the Eckquaderung on the outer wall of the ground floor. A sandstone plaque commemorates Lorenz Straßburger, the executioner from Görlitz, who lived in this house. The house is used by the Görlitz youth building works of the German Foundation for Monument Protection .
The oldest secular building in the city is the Waidhaus , also known as the Renthaus. It was built in 1131 and in the 15th century was the storage and storage place for the cloth dyeing plant woad . Until 1426 the building still had a tower. From 1447 to 1530 the house was used as a school. The inscription "Nil actum creades, cum quid restabit agendum 1479", which can still be read today, was attached to the gable, reminding of a heavy fire in 1479. Today it is the seat of the Training Center for Crafts and Monument Preservation e. V.
Neißstraße runs south of the Waidhaus, it is part of the old Via Regia and the eastern gate to the old town. Next to the Biblical House , the sandstone facade of which shows illustrations from the Old and New Testament , is the baroque house at Neißstraße 30 , the former society house of the Upper Lusatian Society of Sciences (OLGdW) with the historical hall of the Upper Lusatian Library of Sciences (OLB). The house from the baroque period was the most important residential and trading house in Görlitz and Upper Lusatia . It was completely renovated in 2011.
At the western end of Neißstrasse, the Untermarkt opens up , which is characterized by its renaissance facades. It is lined with a city-specific type of house, the hall house , in front of closed arcades . The most famous representative of this type is the Schönhof , built in 1525 by Wendel Roskopf . It is considered the oldest civil Renaissance building in Germany. The striking Ratsapotheke with the two sundials by Zacharias Scultetus is also located on the Lower Market . The Gothic core of the building was remodeled in the Renaissance style in 1558. The hands cast their shadows on differently colored lines that illustrate different time scales, the so-called civil , Italian and Babylonian hours .
In the center of the sub-market is the so-called line . This was structurally changed over and over again over the centuries and today consists of a single block of houses. At that time it housed traders and shopkeepers and provided space under the arcades to offer goods. The once half-timbered part on the northern side of the line was replaced in 1706 by a new administration building, the so-called stock exchange . Merchants held their weekly meetings there. The building is now used as a hotel.
The town hall is located on the entire western front of the Untermarkt . It was put into operation in 1369 as a place of municipal administration and still serves this purpose today. The clock in the town hall tower has two dials, the lower one being a twelve-hour clock with a man's head, the jaw of which drops down every minute on the minute. The upper clock shows the day, hour and moon phase . In 1903, the northern part of the town hall, the New Town Hall , was completed in the neo-renaissance style . The new building was also provided with arcades. The facade is adorned with the six coats of arms of the cities of the Upper Lusatian Six-City Association .
Heading west from Untermarkt you can get to Obermarkt via Brüderstraße . There are also Renaissance and Baroque facades. All houses on the north side are characterized by the baroque. Originally, the upper market was used as a trading area for spices, especially salt. It was stored in the salt house , which was first mentioned around 1424. It stood in the center of the market and reached from the confluence of Steinstrasse to Brüderstrasse. In 1851 the salt house was demolished . The French general Napoleon Bonaparte lived in Baroque house 29 in 1813 and attended a military parade on the square from the balcony . Since then it has also been popularly called the Napoleon House.
On the west side, the Obermarkt borders the Platz des 17. Juni , on which the Kaisertrutz stands. In 1427 this facility was built as part of the Reichenbacher Tor. It was integrated into the fortification wall and thus connected to the Reichenbacher tower . The walls were not removed until 1848. The Kaisertrutz then served as the main guard of the Prussian garrison. Today it is part of the Görlitz Cultural History Museum . In addition to the Reichenbacher Turm, the Nikolaiturm and the Frauenturm, also known colloquially as the Dicker Turm , are among the three surviving of the four defensive towers . The Ochsenbastei and the Nikolaizwinger are the only two remaining parts of the double Görlitz city wall ring . The Hotherbastei is the last corner bastion of the city wall.
From Obermarkt, following Steinstrasse southwards, you get to the Wilhelminian style and Art Nouveau district of the city center. Over the centuries the center shifted further south to Berliner Straße. At the beginning of the 20th century, many streets were adapted to this trend. In 1913, the Görlitz department store on Demianiplatz was opened as the Grand Bazaar zum Strauss based on plans by the architect Carl Schumanns. It was based on the model of the Wertheim department store in Berlin. In 1984 the restoration work began on the exterior facade. Inside, the department store has free-hanging stairs and handrails carved from real wood. The decorated glass roof is also one of the special features of this building. Together with the atrium, it allows a large amount of light to enter the entire building. There are Art Nouveau ornaments on the supporting pillars. Huge, richly decorated chandeliers hang from the ceiling. The department store has been largely empty since 2005.
As early as 1887, Otto Strasbourg founded the Strasbourg Passage on Berliner Strasse, which is now named after him . It was initially called a specialty shop for linen and cotton goods, curtains, Geraer clothing fabrics and dowry items of all kinds . In 1908 the passage was expanded as a passage. It was now possible for the visitors to switch between the Berliner Strasse and the parallel Jakobstrasse. If you follow Berliner Straße further south, you get to Görlitz train station . The first two-track railway station in Görlitz was opened on September 1, 1847. The east-facing tracks lead to the Neisse Viaduct, opened in 1847 . From 1906 to 1917 the station was completely rebuilt. During the GDR era, the building was placed under monument protection in 1984. The station concourse has ten large windows, five each on the north and south sides. Together with the imposing ceiling chandelier, they supply the hall with light. The three-aisled station hall spans platforms II – IV with tracks 7 to 12. Only platform I with tracks 3 and 4 is outside the platform hall and has a separate platform roof. Only tracks 7 to 12 are still used for passenger traffic.
The construction of a music hall for the Silesian Music Festival began in 1906 on the western edge of the old town . It was opened on October 27, 1910, two years later than originally planned, as a town hall with a large concert hall, the banquet hall, the concert garden and a restaurant. Around 2200 guests attended the celebrations. The large hall offers space for 1400 guests. The city hall is the largest concert hall between Berlin, Prague , Dresden and Wroclaw. It has been closed since January 1, 2005 due to necessary renovation.
In addition to the Upper Lusatian Science Library located on Neißstraße in the old town , there are other libraries in Görlitz. In 1876, the Görlitz City Library was set up in the orphanage on Annengasse with the aim of educating the people and spreading the knowledge they had gathered. As early as 1902 there were over 475 registered members, who had 4700 books available. From 1905 the library building was built in Art Nouveau style on Jochmannstrasse. The then Lord Mayor Georg Snay opened the new building in 1907 as a municipal public library and reading room . In the first year it offered 150 places to the 1311 registered readers.
Outside the city center, in today's Biesnitz district , is the Scultetus observatory . Bartholomäus Scultetus , mayor, astronomer and teacher at the Augustum grammar school, gave the institution its name. Originally an observatory tower was inaugurated on October 15, 1856 at the Augustum located on Klosterplatz. From the 1960s onwards, it was decided to move out of the city with the expanded area of responsibility of the observatory and the increasing illumination of the inner city. A new observatory was built between 1967 and 1989. In the planetarium located inside, 40 to 60 visitors can observe an artificial starry sky under a dome with a diameter of eight meters. The approximately 3000 m² area has two observation stations with retractable roofs. Two telescopes with mirror diameters of 40 and 15 cm are housed in the domes of the main building.
One of the most recent new buildings is the old town bridge, which opened on October 20, 2004 . It was built slightly offset from the bridge that was blown up by the Wehrmacht in retreat during World War II . Construction began on April 28, 2003. The total construction costs amounted to 2,659,100 euros. It serves as a pedestrian crossing to Poland.
The Nikolaikirche , the foundation walls of which can be dated to the year 1100, is the oldest church in the city. It was outside the medieval wall ring, as was the neighboring Nikolaivorstadt, which is regarded as the oldest settlement center in Görlitz because of this church. The construction of the current building began in 1452, but was initially slow, as the completion of the Church of St. Peter and Paul had priority. The construction of the Nikolaikirche was completed by the Görlitz master builder Wendel Roskopf as his last late Gothic building. It was consecrated in 1520. However, it was probably never used as a parish church because of the proximity of St. Peter and Paul. The church was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War in 1642 and rebuilt shortly after the end of the war in 1649. After a fire in 1717, the church was rebuilt and a flat ceiling was placed in the nave. This was not removed until the early 20th century and in 1925/26 Martin Elsaesser furnished it with an expressionist vaulted ceiling. The Nikolaifriedhof is right next to the Nikolaikirche . The graves and tombs date from the 17th to 19th centuries. They can be stylistically assigned to Mannerism , Baroque and Rococo as well as Classicism .
In the north of the walled old town, south of the Vogtshof only , is the parish church of St. Peter and Paul , colloquially called Peterskirche , a five-aisled late Gothic church that was built between 1425 and 1497. It is the largest late Gothic hall church in Saxony. Its towers shape the image of the old town, which is why it is one of the landmarks of Görlitz.
Already in the years between 1234 and 1245 the Trinity Church was built in front of the city gates, on today's Obermarkt . The monks of the Franciscan order initially used it as a monastery church. In 1715 it was dedicated to the Holy Trinity and serves as a Protestant church. Today the building serves as part of the Augustum-Annen-Gymnasium.
Towards the southwest, where the old town merges into the Wilhelminian-style district, the Atonement Church of Our Lady was built in 1349 . When it was destroyed in the Hussite Wars in 1429, the Frauenkirche was built as a three-aisled hall church with an elongated choir and a late Gothic vault. Until 1831 this late Gothic building was surrounded by a cemetery, the graves of which are still partially preserved today.
South of the train station, the St. James' Cathedral was consecrated on October 6, 1900 . The neo-Gothic construction lasted from 1898 to 1900 and was made entirely of brick . The church was badly damaged in World War II. By 2012 the four small side towers, the roof structures and the frieze made of yellow and red roof tiles should have been reconstructed. It is the main church of the Diocese of Görlitz . It was finally completed in spring 2016.
The Luther Church , consecrated in 1901, is also located in the city center . It is the first new Protestant church that was consecrated in Görlitz after the Reformation . The foundation stone was laid on November 10, 1898, on Martin Luther's birthday . In terms of style, the building refers to the Imperial Cathedral on the Rhine and is in the neo-Romanesque style. The facade consists of red bricks with different colored inlays made of glazed stones. Their richly decorated windows are particularly striking.
The synagogue near the city park gives an impression of the importance of the Jewish community before 1933 . It was built from 1909 to 1911 and is the only one in present-day Saxony that survived the 1938 pogrom night undamaged. Today it is a place of encounter and learning.
The replica of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem from 1504 is of considerable art historical importance. Together with the replica of the Stations of the Cross, it is a popular place of pilgrimage. It is located on the northwestern edge of the old town.
In 1988 a memorial plaque was attached to the Synagogue Otto-Müller-Straße 3 to commemorate the Jewish victims of the Shoah and the devastation of the house of God during the November pogroms in 1938. A memorial in the Jewish cemetery on the road Biesnitzer reminiscent of 323 concentration camp prisoners from the satellite camps Görlitz of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp . A memorial stone was erected in the municipal cemetery for the Italian military internees who became victims of forced labor during the Second World War . The memorial plaque on the left wing of the court on Postplatz commemorates the victims of the popular uprising on June 17, 1953 . The memorial from 1948 on Wilhelmsplatz (Karl-Marx-Platz in GDR times) is dedicated to all victims of fascism. Another plaque reminds of the former Hossner cloth factory on the Neisse in the Weinhübel district (until 1936 Leschwitz) of the victims of a protective custody camp set up there in 1933 for almost 1,300 prisoners. For the artist Johannes Wüsten , who died in prison in Brandenburg-Görden in 1943 , there are memorial plaques on the houses at Johannes-Wüsten-Straße 7 and 23 as well as portrait busts in the permanent exhibition of the art collections and on the corner of Johannes-Wüsten-Straße and Curie-Straße has been attached. The memorial plaque on Bismarckstraße 32 commemorates the social democratic politician Rudolf Breitscheid , who died in Buchenwald concentration camp in 1944 . At the house where he was born at Konsulstrasse 1 , a plaque was put up for the anti-fascist trade unionist Kurt Steffelbauer , who was murdered in Berlin-Plötzensee in 1942 . Another memorial plaque commemorates the communist resistance fighter Herbert Balzer , who was murdered by SS men in 1945. It is located at James-von-Moltke-Straße 7.
Vintage park railway
The Görlitz old-timer park railway was built in 1976 as the eleventh pioneer railway in the GDR. Your train, which runs on a 600 mm gauge, is a replica of the first German railway from 1835, along with its Adler locomotive . At the opening, around 70 Görlitz students took up work in the new working group of the Pioneer House . The Deutsche Reichsbahn repeatedly released employees to provide technical support , until 1990 the train drivers were provided by the Görlitz depot .
The Görlitz Nature Conservation Zoo is a sophisticated, natural ensemble. Over 500 animals such as small pandas , otters and yaks live in enclosures, some of which are accessible by visitors . With its five hectare area, it is one of the smaller zoos in Germany. In 2007 the park celebrated its 50th birthday and for the first time in ten years had more than 100,000 visitors.
In the vicinity of the city hall is the city park , whose particular attractions are a large wooden playground and the meridian stone for the 15th degree east longitude. In addition to the city park, there are numerous other green spaces in the old town and city center, e.g. B. the vineyard area, which stretches along the Neisse from the Obermühle in the north past the Neißeviadukt to the Weinlache in the south, the Ölberggarten at the Holy Sepulcher and the green areas in the Nikolai and Ochsenzwinger. There are also larger green spaces in the surrounding districts, B. the birch grove between Rauschwalde and Südstadt, the Kreuzkirchenpark in the Südstadt, the Kidron valley in Königshufen and the Loenschen Park between Biesnitz, Kunnerwitz and Weinhübel.
Approx. The cultural island of Einsiedel is 17 km north of Görlitz . It is a combination of art, culture and nature. The adventure playground, which is designed in detail, has tunnels, climbing frames and a large pirate ship. In 2005 a hotel was opened on the culture island. It consists of several tree houses eight to ten meters high.
The national crown
The landmark of Görlitz, the Landeskrone , is a 420 m high basalt cone of volcanic origin. It is the only well-known elevation in the area around Görlitz. From the Landeskrone a wide view opens up over the Lusatian highlands up to the Zittau mountains and with good visibility up to the Giant Mountains with the Schneekoppe . The first development dates back to the Bronze Age , followed by an early medieval and a high medieval castle complex with a settlement. Craftsmen and traders of the Slavs settled behind up to eight meters thick stone walls of a rampart. The Bohemian Duke Othelrich conquered this main castle in 1015 and captured a thousand of the defenders.
The 13 m high Bismarckian column in honor of Prince Otto von Bismarck , who is an honorary citizen of the city of Görlitz, has stood on the southern summit since 1901 . The first small inn opened on the mountain in 1844. The larger successor building from 1863 burned down in 1946. The current summit development was not built until 1951, and after the last renovation in 1994, a restaurant and the castle hotel moved into it.
The city acquired the state crown in 1440 from noble previous owners and cut down almost all of the trees on the mountain. It was not until 1840 that today's lime tree avenue was laid out, which begins at the foot of the Landeskrone. Lindenallee leads up 178 steps to the driveway, which in turn leads to the summit. The rest of the mountain base was planted with red beech in 1883. The dense deciduous forest on the mountain that developed over time was declared a nature reserve in 1953. It belongs to the FFH area basalt and phonolite peaks of eastern Upper Lusatia .
In the field of culture, the DenkmalAkademie e. V. to call. The Görlitz Training Center for Crafts and Monument Preservation e. V., which is based in the former Waidhaus, is dedicated to the care and maintenance of the old town. The Upper Lusatian Society of Sciences in Görlitz e. V. collects and stores the knowledge of Upper Lusatia. The Berzdorf – Oberlausitz e. V. was founded in October 2001 in Görlitz. The aim of the association is to preserve the history of the Berzdorf opencast mine for posterity.
In the twenties of the 19th century, theater performances took place in a private event room on Neißstrasse, which was rebuilt by a citizen in 1838 and closed by the police in 1846 due to inadequate fire protection for theater purposes. On March 1, 1850, the city council decided to build a public theater. The Görlitz Theater was built on Demianiplatz in 1851 and expanded in 1927. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946) was a frequent guest in Görlitz and until 1988 namesake of the theater. On January 1, 2011, the Görlitz Theater merged with the Zittau Theater. The joint company is called Gerhart-Hauptmann-Theater Görlitz-Zittau GmbH . In 2002 the auditorium was reconstructed and equipped with modern technology that also allows simultaneous translations. Since September 2002 the north facade originally facing the old town has also been restored. In the theater, premieres take place that were specially written, for example the opera Death of a Banker , the musical Radio Babylon and the Moritz Eggert opera Linkerhand . Works of all genres ( opera , operetta , musical , dance , drama ) are performed together with the New Lusatian Philharmonic .
In addition to the Philharmonic concerts, the house offers a complete three-part program with music theater, dance and drama.
In addition to the large house, which is also known as the Kleine Semperoper , the theater has had a smaller studio stage, the Apollo, since 1999 .
Various museums have exhibits on history, art and nature. The Görlitz Collections for History and Culture , consisting of the Upper Lusatian Library of Sciences and the Görlitz Cultural History Museum, are the largest urban cultural institution. They include several listed buildings (Barockhaus Neißstraße 30, Kaisertrutz, Reichenbacher Turm) and present works of art and cultural treasures from the region as well as art and science history collections in permanent and special exhibitions.
The Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde emerged from the Ornithological Society of Görlitz , which was founded in 1811 . The focus of his exhibition is the natural area of Upper Lusatia . This includes general introductions, such as geological formations or life forms of African savannahs, similar to regional communities with typical plants and animals, which are presented in dioramas. There is also a live animal area. A model of a floor column, enlarged thirty times, extends through the stairwell, offering a glimpse into this living space. There is also an exhibition on the history of evolutionary research. An audio guide system in German, English and Polish is available for the permanent exhibitions.
In the Silesian Museum , a permanent exhibition on the thousand years of Silesian history is shown since of 2006.
With the open pit bucket wheel excavator No. 1452 and the exhibition on the history of lignite mining in the Berzdorf opencast mine from 1835 to 2000 in the Hagenwerder station, a technical monument was set up.
The Museum of Photography under the direction of the Society for the Museum of Photography Görlitz e. V. gives an insight into the history and art of photography.
Organ concerts are held in Upper Lusatia in cooperation with the University of Church Music, including in Görlitz churches where the restored organs are used. The orchestra of the New Lusatian Philharmonic is one of the most important institutions in the Upper Lusatia / Lower Silesia region. It offers chamber and symphony concerts and is part of all productions of the Görlitz Theater. A special focus is the music of the Sorbs . The Landskron Heralds were created in 1996 for the 925th anniversary of the city of Görlitz. They form a procession with Görlitz fanfare music on festive occasions. The regimental miners' march was founded in 1969 and plays minstrel music and modern pieces of music on festive occasions and major events.
Of the numerous sports clubs, the sports and soccer club NFV Gelb-Weiß Görlitz 09 , which plays in the Landesliga Sachsen , and the handball club SV Koweg Görlitz e. V. mentioned, whose 1st women's team plays in the Oberliga Mitteldeutschland and the 1st men's team in the Sachsenliga. The latter had its greatest success so far in the 2009/2010 season, as all three men's teams and the second women's team were able to post promotion to higher leagues. The sports club in town with the largest number of members is Post SV Görlitz .
Since 2004, the European marathon has taken place at the end of May as a run through two countries with the marathon , half marathon for inline skaters , runners and wheelchair users / handbikers, since 2008 also for scooter riders and ten kilometers and five kilometers for runners. In 2009 the cycling race around the Landeskrone took place for the 74th time . The autumn run in the Berzdorfer Halden is a cross-country run that has been held since 1997. Since 1978, the Görlitz New Year's Eve run has taken place on the Eiswiese sports field on December 31st . The Lusatian Dart League is based in Görlitz. The game is played in several restaurants.
Before the First World War there were three bathing establishments in the city : the Hoffmann'sche Badeanstalt on Lindenweg, the Zentralbad on Hospitalstraße and the Freisebad on today's Dr.-Kahlbaum-Allee. In 1972, opened people swimming pool at the Spruce Street. The free pool and the people's swimming pool were the only public bathing establishments after reunification. The free pool closed in 1996. Operation in the public swimming pool was discontinued in 2007. In the same year, however, a new swimming pool building was opened with the Neißebad not far from the old swimming pool. Until 2002, the Helenenbad still existed north of the city center . The area around the basin of the former outdoor pool has been used as an air bath since 2007.
With around 100,000 visitors, the Old Town Festival is the largest cultural event in the city. The old town festival was initiated after the second day of the Saxons in Görlitz in 1993 as an annual city festival and has been held annually on the last weekend in August since 1994. It is common for the visitors to appear in medieval clothing alongside the performers and jugglers. A large part of the old town will be closed to traffic for this purpose.
The summer theater took place annually on the Untermarkt. From 2011 it will be held in the courtyard of the Landskron brewery. In 2004 the first history game was The Treacherous Rotte Tor. The clothmaker's revolt in Görlitz in 1527 , thus establishing the summer theater on the Lower Market. In 2005 and 2006 The Powder Conspiracy and the Holy Grave in Görlitz were performed. This history game by Hermann Rueth deals with the legend of the patron of the Holy Sepulcher, Georg Emmerich. The piece Jakob Böhme and the Plague in Görlitz was performed in 2007 and 2008. The play by Herrmann Rueth with the music by CM Wagner focuses on the shoemaker and mystic Jakob Böhme.
The film days and the Opera Ball kick off the event year in February. In March, the music night and the spring festival of the nature reserve zoo with the traditional dung cart race take place. In spring, there is International Monuments Day on April 19 . The Dreiland Short Film Festival takes place in April with contributions from Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic, followed in May by the Jazz Days , the Muschelminna Festival , the Stork Festival in the Nature Conservation Zoo and the Görlitz Organ Night . In summer there is next to the old-timer railway in June the Campus Open Air , on June 21 the Fête de la musique , on the 3rd Sunday in June the open day of the renovation , the brewing festival of the Landskron brewery , the Silesian music festival (every two years ), the international miners' meeting (every two years), the Collegium PONTES Görlitz-Zgorzelec-Zhorelec and the adventure day at Lake Berzdorf . The Silesian Tippelmarkt and the music event 15 ° -Rock follow in July . The summer events will end with the ViaThea International Street Theater Festival and the aforementioned Old Town Festival . In September there are the Lower Silesian Culture Days , the Open Monument Day , the Long Night of Museums and the International Summer School of the Arts . The Görlitzer Rocknacht and the presentation of the International Bridge Prize follow in November . The event year ends with the Silesian Christmas Market .
As part of the European Capital of Culture 2016 event in Wroclaw, an exhibition was held in Görlitz under the name Görlitzer ART . It was a temporary project of the cities of Breslau and Görlitz under the artistic direction of the Eugeniusz Geppert Academy of Fine Arts in Wrocław and coordinated by the Görlitzer Kulturservicegesellschaft. The works of young Wroclaw and Lower Silesian artists were exhibited in the old town and city center between April 1, 2016 and April 9, 2017.
International bridge price
The Society for the Awarding of the International Bridge Prize of the European City of Görlitz / Zgorzelec (Bridge Prize Society ) awards the International Bridge Prize, endowed with € 2500, in a ceremony every year . Since 1993 it has been honoring personalities who have achieved service to international understanding in Europe with their life's work. Prize winners include Marion Countess Dönhoff and the former Saxon Prime Minister Kurt Biedenkopf . Günter Grass was nominated for the award by the jury in 2006. However, he withdrew his promise to “discredit neither Görlitz nor the price”, after criticism of his confession to his past in the Waffen SS, especially by the Görlitz CDU parliamentary group leader Michael Hannich and other supraregional CDU members. Politician. Despite Grass's withdrawal, the jury saw no reason to question the awarding of the prize to Günter Grass and regretted a one-sided presentation in the media.
Last year's winners were the British historian Norman Davies (2009), the former Polish Prime Minister. D. Tadeusz Mazowiecki (2010) and the former President of the European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) Gesine Schwan (2011). On October 5th, 2012 the prize was to be awarded to the Ukrainian professional boxer and politician Vitali Klitschko for his "personal [...] advocacy [...] for humanity and democracy [...] as well as his commitment to children and young people", but the award had to be made in Gerhart -Hauptmann-Theater Görlitz Klitschkos will be postponed for personal reasons. The award ceremony took place on February 3, 2013, and Klitschko personally accepted the bridge award. The 2013 award went to cabaret artist Steffen Möller . He was followed in 2014 by the former Luxembourg Prime Minister and, from November 2014, the EU Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker . In 2015 and 2016, one writer each received the award - in 2015 the Polish woman Olga Tokarczuk for her literary bridges between people, cultures and generations and in 2016 Timothy Garton Ash for his examination of authoritarian and totalitarian structures, their effects and their overcoming in Central and Eastern Europe. In 2017, the bishop emeritus of Opole, Alfons Nossol, received the award for his mediating work between people of different origins, nationalities and different beliefs - especially between Poles and Germans.
Film city of Görlitz
Because of its intact old town and the closed Wilhelminian style development, Görlitz is a popular location for films with a historical backdrop, which has earned the city the nickname "Görliwood". The tourism company Europastadt GörlitzZgorzelec GmbH has held the trademark rights since the end of 2013 .
As early as 1954/55, outdoor shots of Ernst Thälmann - son of his class and Ernst Thälmann - leader of his class by Kurt Maetzig were taken there . In 1980 Der Gevatter Tod , a fairy tale film based on the original of the same name, was shot in Görlitz. The love drama Rosen-Emil was directed in 1993 by Radu Gabrea . In 1998, director Fred Kelemen shot some of the scenes for his film Abendland there . The recently restored facade of the Görlitz department store also gave a historical impression. In 2002 Görlitz became the Paris of the 19th century in the film Around the World in 80 Days . The historic brick building of the Landskron Brewery served as the New York harbor building.
The Babelsberg film studios also chose the city as the location for the film adaptation of the novel Der Vorleser , in which Kate Winslet plays the leading role. Several streets were closed for this film and the entire tram schedule was adjusted.
For Quentin Tarantino's war film Inglourious Basterds , shooting took place in November 2008 on the Untermarkt, among other places. Brad Pitt played the role of Lieutenant Aldo Raine, a scalping Nazi hunter.
The film Measuring the World, based on the novel of the same name, was filmed in 2011 in the old town.
The director Wes Anderson had scenes for Grand Budapest Hotel recorded in the Art Nouveau department store on Demianiplatz and in the town hall in winter 2012/2013 . In 2013, the scenes on the Untermarkt and in the platform hall were flagged with swastika flags for scenes for the film adaptation of the book “ Die Bücherdiebin ”.
A villa in Görlitz served as the backdrop for the film Werk ohne Autor in 2016 . The world premiere took place as part of the competition at the 75th Venice International Film Festival . In it, Florian Henkel von Donnersmark (script and direction) tells the story of the artist Kurt Barnert, who was able to flee the German Democratic Republic . Living in the Federal Republic of Germany, he remembers his childhood during the Nazi and SED times .
Since the city has a strong identity in Lower Silesia, numerous regional specialties are reminiscent of the hearty Silesian cuisine . A typical dish is the Silesian Kingdom of Heaven - a meat dish with baked fruit . The Silesian corrugated sausage , rustic kettle brawn or pan-fried country liver sausage are among the local sausage specialties. During the Christmas season, many local butcher shops offer the Görlitzer Christmas bratwurst. Their specialty is a light lemon taste.
Economy and Infrastructure
The economic infrastructure of the city is characterized by a number of large industrial companies from the areas of plant, machine and rail vehicle construction and their numerous medium-sized suppliers. Another mainstay of the regional economy is retail. Above all, he benefits from the proximity to Poland, as there is an additional tax levied on many items, such as drugstore goods. In order to promote the economy in its own peripheral area, Poland expanded the Special Economic Zone Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna Małej Przedsiębiorczości ( SSEMP ) (German: Special Economic Zone for Medium-Sized Enterprises) near Kamienna Góra by the area of Zgorzelec in 2010 . A temporarily favorable exchange rate between the Polish zloty and the euro can be beneficial for the regional economy.
In the years 1991 to 1998, however, many businesses were shut down. As a result, unemployment in the region rose sharply and more and more skilled workers and young people moved away from the region. The manufacturing industry in particular shrank dramatically from around 11,000 people in employment in 1995 to around 5,400 people in employment in 2007. In 2000, 700 people were still employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing. In 2004 it was only 100. The construction industry also fell from 1900 to 1100 employees during this period. The service industry, on the other hand, recorded slight growth.
The resident companies include Bombardier Transportation , which today z. B. delivers double-deck cars to Deutsche Bahn and other European railways and employs around 1,500 people at the Görlitz site (March 2014). The plant was founded in 1849 under the name Eisenbahn-Wagenbau-Anstalt by Johann Christoph Lüders . The name of the street in front of the plant is reminiscent of the Görlitz industrial pioneer. As early as 1869, the company was taken over by a stock corporation and operated as a stock corporation for the manufacture of railway material in Görlitz . In 1921 the company merged with the Görlitzer Maschinenbau-Anstalt and iron foundry founded in 1847 to form Waggon- und Maschinenbau AG Görlitz (short: WUMAG). In 1935, for the first time in Germany, double-decker cars with a modern concept for push -pull trains between Hamburg and Lübeck were designed and built by WUMAG for the Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn . The tradition of double-deck car construction is continued to this day. Probably the most legendary train from the Görlitz plant, however, is the so-called Fliegende Hamburger, which was delivered to the Deutsche Reichsbahn in 1932 for express train traffic between Hamburg and Berlin.
Another vehicle manufacturer in the city is Brandschutztechnik Görlitz with its production site on Doktor-Kahlbaum-Allee. The company was founded at the beginning of the 20th century under the name GA Fischer and was nationalized during the GDR era. The state-owned company (VEB) Feuerlöschgerätewerk Görlitz was privatized after the fall of the Wall and was called BTG Brandschutztechnik Görlitz GmbH until it was taken over by Iveco Magirus in 1996 . At the Görlitz site, fire-fighting vehicles and special vehicles weighing less than 10 tons receive their bodies and are equipped for use. This vehicle category includes, among other portable pump vehicles , small tank pumpers , advance rescue vehicles and equipment trolley for dangerous goods, command vehicle , crew transport vehicles and Löschgruppenfahrzeuge . In July 2012 Iveco announced the closure of three plants in Germany. The Görlitz plant is also to be closed. At the end of June, the managing director of the Görlitz site signed a letter of intent to buy back the factory from Iveco Magirus Brandschutztechnik and continue it. The Görlitz plant has been independent again since January 1, 2013.
The Siemens Power Generation division for industrial steam turbines is headquartered in Görlitz. In 2018, the plant employed 960 people with 720 full-time positions. It has a long tradition in mechanical engineering. It began in 1847 with the construction of steam engines. It was not until 1910 that steam turbines were added to the production program. In 1945 the plant fell victim to the reparation demands of the Soviet Union. It was dismantled and production only started again in 1951. In 1991 it was taken over by Siemens.
The third large mechanical engineering company in Görlitz was BMS GmbH - KEMA Görlitz. Since 1878 it has mainly developed and built machines for the ceramics industry (rolling mills and extruders). The company was founded in 1878 by Richard Raupach under the name Richard Raupach Maschinenfabrik Görlitz . At that time, he and three to four locksmiths converted old and ineffective boiler systems and steam engines. In 1903, after the company moved to a larger area on Zittauer Strasse, the workforce had grown to 250 employees. The later Royal Commerce Councilor Richard Raupach set up a foundation for long-term employees and their widows and orphans. The company has been honored with gold and silver medals at numerous exhibitions. During the two world wars, the following armaments were manufactured in the factory: During the First World War, artillery ammunition and other war materials were manufactured, and during the Second World War, armaments orders for the Navy were carried out. In 1945 the plant was dismantled by the Soviets and in 1949 it was restructured as VEB KEMA (KEramikMAschinenbau). In 1989 there were around 550 employees at VEB KEMA, after which the plant was sold to the Eirich Group. In 2014, the insolvency proceedings for the traditional company failed and business operations were discontinued.
The Landskron brewery and the confectionery factory Rudolf Hoinkis GmbH are known in the food and beverage industry. The Landskron Brewery was founded in 1869 under the name Görlitzer Aktien Brauerei and the name Landskron Beer was patented in 1882. Under the management of Walther Scheller (from 1928 to 1946), the brand logo with a stylized L, which is still used today, was created. During the GDR era, the company was nationalized in 1972 and it was not until 1992 that it returned to the Schellers family. From 2003 to 2006 the brewery was part of the Holsten Group . In July, the entrepreneur Rolf Lohbeck bought the company and incorporated it into his family business. For a few years, the brewery advertised with the motto “The easternmost brewery in Germany”. It lost this feature in 2006 with the establishment of a small in-house brewery a few meters further east on the Neisse.
Rudolf Hoinkis founded the Hoinkis confectionery factory in 1896. He is considered to be the inventor of the love pearls , which achieved worldwide recognition. The company survived both world wars and the semi-statehood in the GDR era and was reprivatised in 1990 under the third generation of Hoinkis. On August 16, 1996, for the 100th anniversary of the company, a new company building was inaugurated in an industrial area in the north-west of Görlitz.
After the reunification, mainly service companies settled in the urban area. The former twenty4help Knowledge Service GmbH founded a technical call center in Görlitz . The motive for this settlement was on the one hand the favorable conditions of the city and the language skills of the local population. The call center is now part of Teleperformance Germany . In 2008, the Cologne-based company Software Quality Systems AG founded another location in Görlitz. The company employs over 200 people here who test software, among other things.
The Koramic Roofing Products GmbH & Co. KG (formerly F. v. Mueller Dachziegelwerke GmbH & Co. KG) is an international company for the production and distribution of clay roof tiles.
The biotechnology company CyTecs, founded in 2000, now operates as Sysmex Partec GmbH and is part of the Japanese medical technology group Sysmex Corporation . It has received several awards for its diagnostic solutions in the areas of HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Among other things, the company was a prize winner in the competition Germany - Land of Ideas 2009, won the IQ Innovationspreis Mitteldeutschland in 2007 and in 2003 the innovation award of the Free State of Saxony .
A local television program broadcasts eRtv (euro Regional tv) , which can also be received in Rothenburg, Niesky and other parts of eastern Upper Lusatia in the cable network of Kabel Deutschland GmbH . The radio station Radio Lausitz , which broadcasts in Upper Lusatia on the 107.6 MHz frequency, was represented in the city for 19 years until it moved to Bautzen in 2012. MDR 1 Radio Sachsen has a correspondent office in the city. It is the only transmitter that can be received in the Königshainer Berge motorway tunnel .
The Sächsische Zeitung (SZ) is the only daily newspaper in the city and maintains a local editorial office here. As advertising papers of be Wochenkurier and the Lower Silesian courier distributed. The Görlitzer Anzeiger only appears online .
The mustard seed publishing house is the monthly magazine Silesia Today out. The German-Polish quarterly magazine for culture and history Silesia Nova has been published since 2004 by the same publishing house, which has been based in Dresden since 2006 .
Choice of transport
The following graphic shows the choice of means of transport (also called modal split ) in the city. It should be noted, however, that the city had a different territorial status in 1995 than after the incorporation of Kunnerwitz / Klein Neundorf and Ludwigsdorf / Ober-Neundorf in 1999.
There has been an increase in motor vehicle traffic since 1995, with the number of self-drivers falling from 36.0% in 1995 to 34.7% in 2009. By contrast, the number of vehicle passengers increased (1995: 4.0%; 2009: 8.9%). In the same period, the proportion of the types of transport designated as environmental networks, which include local public transport (ÖPNV), bicycle and pedestrian traffic, fell from 60% to approx. 54%. An increase within this group was only recorded in cycling. In the inner-city area the picture is different when it comes to the choice of means of transport. a. Shorter distances, no need to search for a parking space, a higher cycle density and a high level of target networking. The main transport service of the local public transport is accounted for by the tram.
The Görlitz station is, as a railway hub in the city, the railway lines from Dresden , Berlin , Zittau , Węgliniec and the Silesian Mountain Railway meet. The latter two have been predominantly on Polish territory since 1945.
The connections to Dresden and Kohlfurt were inaugurated on September 1, 1847. In Kohlfurt there was a connection to the railway line from Berlin to Breslau . On the Berlin – Görlitz line, trains have only been running direct via the Görlitzer Bahn since 1867. The Görlitz – Zittau section was opened in 1875 and is also called the Neißetalbahn. The Görlitz-Rauschwalde and Görlitz-Weinhübel stops and the Hagenwerder train station are three more train stations in the Görlitz urban area .
In cross-border traffic to Poland, more than ten pairs of trains cross the Neißeviadukt in the direction of Lubań (Lauban) or Węgliniec (Kohlfurt) , where you can change trains to Wroclaw Central Station . Some Polish regional trains operated by the operator Koleje Dolnośląskie , which previously only ran to Zgorzelec , have been tied through to Görlitz since 2015 and thus again offer a connection-free connection via Lubań (Lauban) to Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg) in the Giant Mountains. Since February 2018, three pairs of trains have been running daily between Görlitz and Zielona Góra (Grünberg) .
The Görlitzer Verkehrsbetriebe operate two tram lines with a total length of 13.6 km and seven city bus routes in local public transport . A special feature is that underneath there is a line in cross-border traffic with a total length of 4.8 km. In 2001 the city of Veolia Environnement transferred the majority of shares in Stadtwerke Görlitz. Since that year the transport company Görlitz has belonged to the subsidiary Connex Verkehr , which renamed Veolia Verkehr in 2006 and finally to Transdev in March 2015 . The city council decided to take the city's local transport back into the custody of the city and founded the Görlitzer Verkehrsbetriebe - an urban company that took over on January 1, 2019. The tram celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2007 and today, with its KT4D Tatra multiple unit, opens up the new development areas of Königshufen in the north, Weinhübel in the south and the former suburb of Biesnitz in the west. It crosses the city center and touches the historic old town. The central stop is the Demianiplatz stop at the former Hertie department store. The customer office of the transport company is also located here.
On September 29, 2016, the city council approved the Status Quo plus public transport concept . The resolution intends to improve the development of the old town and eastern inner city by changing the route in bus traffic, the barrier-free expansion of the bus stop infrastructure , the establishment of the Görlitzer Verkehrsbetriebe (GVB) - an urban company that promotes barrier-free trams at least every hour on both lines by at the latest January 1, 2022 begins, as well as discussions with the neighboring Polish city about future joint urban transport.
Regionalbus Oberlausitz (RBO) and the Kraftverkehrsgesellschaft Dreiländereck (KVG) operate numerous intercity bus routes in the direction of Löbau, Niesky, Rothenburg and Zittau, among others. Most intercity bus routes start at the train station or at the bus station on Demianiplatz behind the Kaisertrutz.
The road network has a total length of around 217 km, of which 3.7 km are federal motorways, 21.8 km federal roads, 23.7 km state roads, 9.0 km district roads and 158.8 km municipal roads. The A 4 Erfurt – Dresden – Görlitz runs through the northern part of the city and continues on the other side of the Neisse as the Polish A4 via Breslau to the Ukrainian border. The B 6 towards Bautzen, the B 115 to Forst (Lausitz) and the B 99 to Zittau run through the city.
The city center is heavily used by motorized individual traffic. Even the narrowest streets are used by cars and used as a parking lot. Since 2006, traffic-calmed areas have been increasingly set up to relieve the old town. For example, the sub-market is largely closed. Multi-storey car parks were built at the train station and the Frauentor City Center to relieve the inner-city parking situation. Some of the parking spaces in the multi-storey car parks are rented out as long-term parking spaces. In the core city (historic old town, inner city, Nikolaivorstadt and Südstadt) around 1,800 of a total of around 3,200 parking spaces are managed . Further, resident parking places as well as two parking zones established. The only large pedestrian zone is on Berliner Straße with the Strasbourg Passage as a passage to Wilhelmsplatz.
There are three border crossings for road traffic to Poland, the Ludwigsdorf motorway border crossing, the Stadtbrücke border crossing and the Hagenwerder – Radomierzyce border crossing (formerly Radmeritz). In 2004 the old town bridge , which was destroyed in 1945, was reopened for pedestrians.
Cyclists make up 12.4% of the traffic volume.
The Görlitzer airfield , which was opened in 1925, is located on the north-western outskirts of the city directly on the federal highway 6. It has a 750 m long grass runway. The use of the Görlitz airfield is possible for aircraft up to 5.7 t. This place is mainly used by the local aviation club, but also by other aviation clubs. Tourists are offered sightseeing flights in motorized, glider or microlight aircraft over the city, the Zittau Mountains and the Lusatian Mountains.
About 30 km north of the city is the larger airfield at Rothenburg / Görlitz Airport . With a runway length of 2500 m, it can be used for aircraft up to 14 t. Nevertheless, there is little traffic in Rothenburg, so that more movements are recorded today at the smaller airfield on the outskirts of Görlitz.
Offices, authorities and municipal institutions
Görlitz is the seat of a local court and a regional court . Since January 1, 2013, the district court has extended over the districts of Görlitz and Bautzen , the former district court of Bautzen is maintained as an external chamber. The Görlitz correctional facility is located behind the courthouse on Postplatz . This was built between 1863 and 1865 and expanded in a cross shape from 1905 to 1909 based on the American model.
The city administration is housed in the former hunter barracks. The Lord Mayor, on the other hand, resides in the Görlitz Town Hall on Untermarkt, where the registry office and the council archive are also located and where the city council meets. The city library is located on Jochmann-Straße. It was founded in 1876 as a public library and moved into these rooms on February 28, 1907. Between 2006 and 2009, the old library building was fundamentally renovated (including reading room and magazine) and a new building was built on the adjacent property, which is connected to the old building on all floors and also contains the children's and youth department.
After the district reform of 2008, Görlitz became the seat of the district administrator . Until the completion of the district office opposite the Görlitzer Bahnhof in March 2013, the district administrator also resided in the Jägerkaserne. Other authorities in the district in Görlitz are the civil engineering office, the health office, the youth welfare office and the food monitoring and veterinary office.
The Dresden Customs Investigation Office has an office near the border at Görlitzer Stadtpark, the Ludwigsdorf Federal Police Inspection and a clearance point of the Löbau customs office are located at the Ludwigsdorf motorway border crossing . The Görlitz Police Department is also based in the city. It is superordinate to the police departments in the Bautzen and Görlitz districts .
The Municipal Hospital Görlitz gGmbH is considered one of ten Saxon hospitals of specialized care, the only one in the district of Görlitz. Besides orthopedics, it offers all the usual clinics for such a hospital. The clinic has a certified breast center . The Tumor Center Ostsachsen e. V. is based at the clinic. The city of Görlitz is a partner in the clinic.
The St. Carolus Hospital in Malta is located in Rauschwalde . It is a standard care hospital and has the departments of internal medicine, surgery, urology, anesthesia and intensive care medicine, a palliative care unit and radiology. Since its foundation in 1927, it has been looked after and directed by the Order of the Borromean Sisters . Numerous modernizations took place after the Second World War. Even during the GDR, the clinic remained under the direction of the order. From January 1, 2004, the Order of Malta took over the sponsorship of the hospital.
Görlitz has several cemeteries, including in the districts of Hagenwerder, Kunnerwitz, Ludwigsdorf, Tauchritz and in the districts of Weinhübel, Rauschwalde and Königshufen. The latter is the largest in Görlitz. It is divided into a new and an old section. The older one ties in with the Nikolaifriedhof . There is also a Jewish cemetery in the southern part of the city. Today it also serves as a memorial to the prisoners who died in the Görlitz satellite camp.
Education & Science
In addition to the museum in Görlitz, the Senckenberg Society for Nature Research also operates a research institute with the departments of soil zoology, botany and zoology. A new research and collection building is to be built on Bahnhofstrasse at the corner of Jakobstrasse by 2022 by merging the six locations that the Senckenberg Gesellschaft has been using in Görlitz to date.
The Leibniz Institute for Ecological Spatial Development and the Technical University of Dresden jointly operate the interdisciplinary center for ecological and revitalizing urban redevelopment in the city. It goes back to the competence center for revitalizing urban development , which was founded in 2004 on the initiative of the German Foundation for Monument Protection as a branch of the Technical University of Dresden . It analyzes the effects of social developments and municipal decisions on cities and, on this basis, supports municipalities and higher-level decision-makers in developing and testing solutions. The focus is on instruments and processes for the control of city-wide, partial spatial and also inter-municipal urban development.
In 2017, the Fraunhofer Institute opened a cybersecurity learning laboratory for potentially endangered critical infrastructures in cooperation with the Zittau / Görlitz University of Applied Sciences. It belongs to the Applied System Technology AST branch in Ilmenau . Furthermore, Siemens and the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft will examine the generation, storage and use of hydrogen at the Fraunhofer Hydrogen Laboratory Görlitz (HLG) on the planned innovation campus . In the long term, Görlitz is to be developed into a competence center for hydrogen technologies.
In 2019 the Casus research institute (Center for Advanced Systems Understanding) was founded in Görlitz. The institute belongs to the Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf and is to become the center for digital interdisciplinary systems research in Germany. With the help of modern computer technology, methods for the modeling of complex interdisciplinary systems are to be developed in order to create a digital image of the complex reality based on systems and their interaction and thus to be able to make predictions. The focus is on matter under extreme conditions, earth system research, systems biology and autonomous vehicles. At the beginning of 2020 it became known that the Free State of Saxony would acquire the building complex of the former capacitor plant on Uferstraße for around € 800,000. It will then be expanded and converted for the Casus research institute and a guest house.
On July 13, 1992, Görlitz became a university town with the establishment of the Zittau / Görlitz University of Applied Sciences (FH). In 2015, 2,932 students were enrolled in 32 courses. International networks have formed, which means that Görlitz has an impact far beyond its borders as an international educational location. The Leibniz Institute for Ecological Spatial Development (IÖR) Dresden and the Technical University of Dresden jointly operate the Interdisciplinary Center for Ecological and Revitalizing Urban Redevelopment (IZS). The IZS goes back to the Görlitz competence center revitalizing urban development.
The University of Church Music , which was re-established as the Evangelical Church Music School in Wroclaw in 1927 and in Görlitz in 1947, was sponsored by the Evangelical Church of Silesian Upper Lusatia and was officially recognized by the Saxon State Ministry for Science and Art. It was closed on August 1, 2008.
The Institute for Cultural Infrastructure Saxony in the Klingewalde House is the sponsor of the Collegium Pontes Görlitz-Zgorzelec-Zhorelec, a trinational science college for researching current problems of EU integration, and the International Summer School of the Arts Görlitz-Zgorzelec-Zhorelec .
Other educational institutions
The vocational school complex on Carl-von-Ossietzky-Strasse ( Christoph Lüder's vocational schools , divided into the vocational school center for economics and social affairs Görlitz and the vocational school center for technology Görlitz ) can accommodate up to 3000 students. A vocational high school is also located there.
The Augustum-Annen-Gymnasium is best known for its musical and artistic profile, but also offers a scientific and a linguistic branch. In particular, students of German and Polish origin are taught together as part of the bi-lingual-binational course that was introduced in the school year 203/2004. The school was established in 2004 after the merger of the formerly independent high schools Annenschule and Augustum. Classes take place in two separate buildings on Annengasse and Klosterplatz. In the rooms of the old monastery, the predecessor building of the Augustum on the monastery square, lessons have been held since 1565. In the 1850s the monastery was demolished and replaced by the current school building.
The Joliot-Curie-Gymnasium on Wilhelmsplatz emerged from the Luisenschule founded in 1779. Until 1945 it was an all girls' school where the Abitur could be taken. During the GDR period, it was the only extended secondary school in the city area and thus the only school where boys and girls were given their Abitur. After the reunification, the school was continued as a grammar school and merged with the Königshufen grammar school . Like the Augustum-Annen-Gymnasium, it offers a scientific and, since 2006, a socio-political profile.
The largest high school in Görlitz is the Oberschule Innenstadt (formerly Elisabethschule ) in Elisabethstraße. It was named after Queen Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria (1801–1873), the wife of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. There are also four other secondary schools in the city.
In addition, there is the advanced training center for handicrafts and the preservation of monuments , the Monument Academy of the German Foundation for Monument Protection and the private educational institution MultiMediaPark , which was founded in November 2001 with the support of the employment office and makes offers for dealing with new media. In addition, Görlitz has all the usual types of general and vocational schools, the training center for information processing professions and the DPFA academy group . The latter has been running a free elementary school since 2006 - the rainbow school . It is bilingual in German and Polish.
The city's best-known son is the philosopher and mystic Jakob Böhme (1575–1624). Böhme lived as a shoemaker on the eastern bank of the Neisse. His first work, Aurora or Dawn in the Rise , gained worldwide attention. In his former home in today's Zgorzelec a museum was set up in his honor. Another scientist who became known beyond the city limits was the astronomer and cartographer Bartholomäus Scultetus . Scultetus is considered one of the most important cartographers in Central Germany. Among other things, he created the first map of Upper Lusatia. He also introduced the twelve-part dial on Görlitz Town Hall.
Opposite the town hall, one of the city's most famous buildings attracts attention - the Schönhof . Its builder was Wendel Roskopf , who was also significantly involved in the design of numerous other late Gothic and Renaissance buildings in the old town. Roskopf worked not only in Görlitz, but also in neighboring Bohemia and Silesia as a builder and stonemason. However, it is debatable whether he was instrumental in introducing the Renaissance to the region.
The city has also produced well-known scientists in recent times; for example the professor of law and legal history Paul Rehme , the economist and co-founder of game theory Oskar Morgenstern , the historian Reinhart Koselleck and the physicist and Nobel Prize winner Hans Georg Dehmelt . In the field of architecture and industrial design , Herbert Hirche can be mentioned as an outstanding personality in the city. In the field of medicine, the pediatrician Marie Elise Kayser, born in Görlitz, became known as the founder of the human milk collection points . Another prominent woman is Hildegard Burjan . She was the founder of the Caritas Socialis order and a member of the Christian Social Party of Austria . In her political career, she was the first Christian social politician to join the Austrian National Council .
In the sports sector, Görlitz can refer to numerous well-known names from football. The footballers born or raised in Görlitz include: Hans-Jürgen “Dixie” Dörner , Heiko Scholz , Jens Jeremies and Michael Ballack . The rower Klaus Bittner and the swimmer Ulrike Richter both won gold medals at the Olympic Games. The handball player Lars Kaufmann , who took part in the 2007 handball world championship with the German national team, also won the world championship title.
- chronological -
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