A meteorological station in national full-time measurement networks, as operated by the German Weather Service ( DWD ) or in Austria by the ZAMG , is a meteorological station staffed by specialist staff to which a climate garden is attached according to the specifications of the World Meteorological Organization .
There are 51 weather stations in Germany, 29 of which are staffed around the clock and the remaining 22 are temporarily manned by specialist staff. The constantly manned stations include 16 meteorological stations at international airports that issue special weather reports for the meteorological service. A special position among these 51 weather stations are the so-called climate reference stations, at which the German Weather Service carries out parallel measurements in order to enable a comparison between previously (operationally) used measuring technology and new types of automatically working sensors.
- Air temperature
- Air pressure
- Temperature in and on the ground
- Wind speed and wind direction
- Snow depth
- Cloud base
- Sunshine duration
- Radiation quantities
- Radioactivity in the air and in precipitation (individual weather stations)
Information about the current weather is also provided at the stations and - depending on the location - weather advice for special customers. For larger institutions or a large group of customers, a separate meteorologist can be responsible for these inquiries in addition to the duty officer .
In addition to the weather observation by the automatic measuring sensors, the data for the visibility , the type of cloud and the degree of coverage as well as the weather condition are determined by eye observation by the employees. Selected weather stations also carry out phenological observations and height measurements with weather balloons (aerological ascent with radiosondes ).
In contrast, the 131 full-time weather stations work fully automatically, i.e. without staff, record fewer meteorological values and have no or smaller climatic gardens.
Mountain weather station
If a weather station is 750 meters above sea level , it is called a mountain weather station. The special tasks of a mountain weather station include close cooperation with avalanche warning services and measurements for the global synoptic weather observation network. The Hohenpeißenberg meteorological observatory is located on the Hohen Peißenberg , the oldest mountain weather station in the world. Another important mountain weather station is the Sonnblick observatory on the Hohe Sonnblick in the Hohe Tauern at an altitude of 3105 meters. It was opened in 1886 as the highest observatory in the world that operates all year round.
- Location map of the DWD weather station (as of September 9, 2016; PDF file, 1 MB)
- German Weather Service: DWD's measurement and observation network, as of July 27, 2015
- Keyword climate reference station in the weather dictionary . In: dwd.de . German Weather Service , accessed and received on April 5, 2017.
- Kaspar, F., Hannak, L., Schreiber, K.-J .: Climate reference stations in Germany: Status, parallel measurements and homogeneity of temperature time series , Adv. Sci. Res., 2016, 13, 163-171, doi : 10.5194 / asr-13-163-2016 .
- Keyword weather station in the weather dictionary ; Tasks and presentation of the weather stations of the German Weather Service as well as the publications of the German Weather Service on some of its weather stations in PDF format . In: dwd.de . German Weather Service , accessed and received on April 5, 2017 (radiosonde stations (weather balloons) are operated e.g. by the Brocken mountain weather station, see corresponding publication on p. 2).
- Keyword mountain weather station in the weather dictionary as well as tasks and presentation of the weather stations of the German Meteorological Service . In: dwd.de . German Weather Service , accessed and received on April 5, 2017.