|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||242 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||66.75 km 2|
|Residents:||25,086 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||376 inhabitants per km 2|
02788 (Dittelsdorf, Hirschfelde, Schlegel, Wittgendorf)
|Primaries :||03583, 035843 (Dittelsdorf, Drausendorf, Hirschfelde, Schlegel, Wittgendorf)|
|License plate :||GR, LÖB, NOL, NY, WSW, ZI|
|Community key :||14 6 26 610|
|LOCODE :||DE ZIT|
|City structure:||9 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Thomas Zenker (Zittau can do more)|
|Location of the city of Zittau in the district of Görlitz|
Zittau ( Upper Lusatian : custom , Czech. Žitava , Polish. Żytawa , Sorb. , Slavic derivation of rye, grain (e.g. Sorb. "Žito")) is a large district town in the district of Görlitz . It is located in the extreme south-east of Saxony in the triangle of Germany , Poland and the Czech Republic .
The core town of Zittau is located in the Zittau Basin at the foot of the Zittau Mountains at 230 m to 285 m above sea level. The Oberlausitzer Bergland connects to the northwest . To the southeast, the basin landscape merges into the Lusatian Neisse valley (Lužická Nisa) in the Czech Republic. The hilly foothills of the Jizera Mountains rise to the east . The small river Mandau flows through the city and flows not far into the Lusatian Neisse. This forms the border between the Zittau urban area in the east and Poland and drains the Zittau basin. On the south-western outskirts of the city, the city borders on the Olbersdorfer See lake in the neighboring municipality .
Zittau borders Oybin in the south, Olbersdorf and Bertsdorf-Hörnitz in the south-west and Mittelherwigsdorf in the north-west . In the north the city borders on Ostritz , in the east on the small Polish town of Bogatynia .
The core city of Zittau is divided into five districts:
- Center: historic city center within the Green Ring with most of the sights
- Zittau Nord: north of the railway lines towards Dresden and towards Görlitz
- Zittau Ost: east of the center, bounded by Bahnhofstrasse, Hochwaldstrasse and Mandau ; contains the Weinau Park and the industrial area of the same name
- Zittau Süd: south of the Mandau
- Zittau West: west of the center; contains the West Park and part of the grounds of the State Garden Show 1999 in Zittau and Olbersdorf
In addition to the core city, Zittau consists of eight other districts:
- Eichgraben - mentioned for the first time in 1582, the first houses are said to have been plague huts (two plague huts were built there in 1680), around 1666 the settlement was enlarged by Bohemian exiles , formerly belonged to Olbersdorf
- Pethau - originated in the 19th century as a workers' settlement in Zittau, after 1850 the western suburb of Zittau was expanded to include the Pethau district and the main road and its residential development (Neu-Pethau), the Watzdorfheim foundation by the governor, Councilor Karl von Watzdorf, was built (later district chief in Bautzen)
- Hartau - probably founded in the 13th century, the name probably comes from the German word Harth , which means something like forest or bushes
- Hirschfelde (with Rosenthal ) - first mentioned in a document in 1310
- Drausendorf - first mentioned in 1366, expanded as a workers' settlement in the 19th century
- Wittgendorf - originated in the 13th century, first mentioned in a document in 1322
- Dittelsdorf - first mentioned in a document in 1369
- Schlegel (with Burkersdorf ) - mentioned for the first time in 1287
- Until 1945 Großporitsch (pol. Porajów) east of the Neisse was a district of Zittau. Today it belongs to the Polish municipality of Bogatynia (before 1945: Reichenau).
Early history - city foundation
In the Middle Ages, an old trade route led across the Lusatian Mountains to Leipa in Bohemia . On this street, in the area of today's Zittau West Park, there was a Slavic hamlet and, since the German conquest of the area in the 10th century, a castle. To the east of it, in the north of today's inner city, German colonists founded a forest hoof village called Sitte in the early 13th century . Another settlement existed in the area of the Frauenkirche. It was named after the gentlemen of the local order of St. John Herrendorf .
The earliest written mention of the place dates back to the year 1238, when the lords of Sitavia first appeared in a document . A few years later, legend has it that King Ottokar II of Bohemia contested the city in 1255. He thus determined the boundaries for the city wall and raised the settlement to a city. As privileges , Zittau was granted tax exemption until Ottokar's death, Zittau merchants did not have to pay customs duties in Bohemia and Zittau had the right to mint coins until 1300. In addition, a district court was set up.
Zittau was strategically located between Bohemia and the then Brandenburg Upper Lusatia. Ottokar's concern was to develop a strong, well-fortified settlement as protection against possible attacks on the Bohemian heartland.
The city soon grew rich, and major tournaments were held there as early as 1270-1280, as evidence of the city's prosperity. The von Leipa family donated a monastery to the Franciscans in 1268; In 1300 the Knights of St. John founded a commander there .
14th century - changing rulers and six cities
The area around Zittau initially belonged to the margraviate of Meißen , but was under the Bohemian crown as an imperial fief since 1158. King Wenzel II pledged Zittau and Oybin Castle to the Margrave of Brandenburg in 1283 . By a court order of the German King Rudolf von Habsburg , the city came back into the possession of Bohemia. Later Zittau was handed over to the Lords of Leipa by King John of Bohemia . Heinrich von Leipa exchanged his Hostraditz and Mispitz goods for the city of Zittau and the castles of Oybin , Ronow and Schönbuch in 1319 . Later Johann got the property back and left it to the Silesian Duke Heinrich von Jauer as a pledge. The city remained in his possession until 1346, when the duke died without male heirs. Karl IV then gave Zittau in 1348 as security to Duke Rudolf of Saxony ; the city bought itself free again 10 years later.
In 1346, Zittau founded the Upper Lusatian Six Cities Association together with Bautzen, Görlitz, Lauban, Löbau and Kamenz . His aim was to counter the arbitrariness of the nobility and robber barons. The towns destroyed Körse Castle around 1352 . At that time, Zittau was not yet part of Upper Lusatia. That is, it was not subject to the Bautzen governor . Instead, the Zittau region had its own governor. Only at the beginning of the 15th century did it come under the rule of the Bautzen people, so from this time on it can be regarded as belonging to Upper Lusatia.
Among the six cities, Zittau was nicknamed Die Reiche . The main branches of business were cloth manufacture and trade, as well as beer brewing. In 1396 a total of 36 villages belonged to the Zittauer Weichbild .
15th Century - Hussites, Disasters and Feuds
In February 1424 the Hussites under the leader Bozko von Podiebrad besieged the six-city Zittau, which they could not take, but the Karlsfried Castle , which was located on the nearby Gabler Pass and protected the Zittau area . The Hussites appeared a second time in April 1427, but the city and its citizens were able to hold their own until the end, despite high losses. The Hussites withdrew after pillaging the suburbs. In the course of their (unsuccessful) siege of the mountain fortress Oybin on September 28, 1429, Bohemian-Hussite forces lay in front of Zittau again in mid-September 1429. The Hussite Wars from 1424 to 1434, however, led to the fact that trade connections to Bohemia were torn down and the city's economy was hit hard.
In addition to the raids and wars, the city also suffered from devastating disasters. There had already been severe city fires in 1359 and 1372, and fires broke out again in 1422, 1455 and 1473, destroying parts of the city. Then there was the plague: it was first detected in 1463, but broke out several times during this and the following century.
The tensions raised by these crises were also expressed in the beer war with Görlitz of 1491.
16th century - Reformation and Penalty Fall
The man who brought the Reformation to Zittau was Magister Heidenreich, a famous theologian who died as Pastor Primarius in Zittau. In 1521 he began to give sermons in German in Zittau. Protestantism did not gain acceptance until after 1538. In that year, the Johanniterkommende was dissolved, the Franciscan monastery followed in 1543.
The unwillingness of Zittau and the other cities in the six-city league to support the Habsburg Ferdinand I (Archduke of Austria, Bohemian king and Roman emperor since 1533 ) in the fight against the Protestants in the Schmalkaldic War led to the Upper Lusatian Pönfall in 1547 . The imperial court imposed heavy fines on the city of Zittau, as well as deprived of possessions and privileges. But in the course of the following decades the city regained its economic strength. For example, she was able to acquire the Oybin mountain, including the castle and monastery, as early as 1574 .
Even in the 16th century, Zittau was not spared from misfortune. In 1555 a large part of the population fell victim to the plague; In 1559 and 1599 the plague broke out again. In 1589, a great fire destroyed 153 houses, at that time about a quarter of the city.
17th century - Thirty Years War
After the great plague wave of 1599 and the grim winter of 1606 claimed many lives in the city, Zittau burned again in 1608, caused by arson. Three quarters of the city were destroyed. But this was only the first catastrophe of the century that brought much suffering with the Thirty Years War . From 1631 to 1645 Zittau was repeatedly shot at, besieged, looted and occupied by imperial and Swedes.
As a result of the defeat of the Bohemian estates in the Battle of the White Mountain (1620), numerous Bohemian Protestants emigrated to Zittau. This is why there was a Czech-speaking Protestant congregation in the city until the middle of the 19th century. Became known z. B. the families Pescheck and Moráwek.
History from 1700 to 1945
A merchant's society was formed in 1705 and a bookshop was set up at the same time. The linen trade took on European dimensions, breweries and draperies brought great wealth to the city and its citizens. From 1693 to 1757 Zittau owned a high-speed scale. This mechanical masterpiece was so delicate that a penny placed on it pulled it. A particularly high-quality town house in the Dresden Baroque style was created with the "Golden Sun" (Markt 9), the facade decoration probably a work of the Zwingen builder Pöppelmann or his school.
During the Seven Years' War , the city was set on fire by Austrian troops on July 23, 1757 , as the Prussian troops stationed in the city refused to surrender. It was rather the goal of the Prussian army, which was located near Ober- and Niederherwigsdorf , to requisition as much provisions as possible. When the Prussian army under August Wilhelm Prince of Prussia set up camp, the Austrian troops began to bombard the city. Despite the unfavorable situation for the Prussians, orders were given to defend the city to the last man in order to save as much provisions as possible. Only when the situation seemed hopeless did the Prussian army withdraw in the direction of Löbau. The consequences of the bombardment were devastating for the city, so the Johanniskirche including the Silbermann organ and the town hall with the council archive as well as 80% of the residential buildings were completely destroyed. A primary source from the archives of the Moravian Brethren reads as follows: "Poor Zittau was besieged and almost gangz put into the ashes." The sympathy for this catastrophe went far beyond Germany and was expressed not only in numerous publications about it, but also in an unprecedented Europe-wide solidarity action. For a long time, the fate of Zittau was as present in people's minds as that of Dresden in 1945 is in the present. De Warnery gives an explanation for the outrage in the contemporary public , even if his statement about the eviction is questionable, at least there were no relevant troop contingents in the city:
“Here it happened that the enemies bombed this city, which is simply walled and, after the Saxon cities, is the wealthiest because of its trade. It is incomprehensible why they devastated it, because we had evacuated it and it belonged to their allies [...] "
In 1767 the reconstruction of the St. John's Church began, the construction of which was not completed until 1837 after considerable problems with the structural engineering . In 1840 the foundation stone for the construction of the new Zittau town hall, which was inaugurated in 1845, was laid. With the inauguration of the new theater on October 25, 1802, a new and successful era in Zittau theater life began.
After Austria declared war on France during the Wars of Liberation on August 11, 1813 and the armistice consequently expired on August 17, Napoleon went to Zittau on August 19. From there, the French Emperor ordered the eighth corps under Division General Poniatowski to Gabel and other troops under Lefebvre-Desnouettes to Rumburg / St. Georgenthal and under the Polish General Uminsky to Friedland and Reichenberg to subdue the Bohemian (main) army advancing from the south To hold up Field Marshal Schwarzenberg and to secure the Elbe line and cover Dresden with reinforcements from the Second Corps Victor and the First Army Corps under Vandamme . In addition, the fourth cavalry corps was under the Duke of Valmy at Zittau . On August 20, Napoleon went to Lauban to take action against the Silesian Army under Blücher , while Marshal Victor remained in Zittau.
With the exception of a few remains, the city wall was torn down between 1820 and 1869 and the “Green Ring” was built in its place. The Ringstrasse was built by 1914; This is where the Zittau city ring races took place in the interwar period . The Zittauer Stadtbad opened in 1873, and in 1884 the city received a hospital. The lower Mandau was regulated in 1902 and received a deeper river bed to protect against flooding. In the summer of 1908 the foundation stone for the crematorium was laid. In 1932 the Zittau City Theater fell victim to the flames. Four years after the fire, a newly built city theater was inaugurated. The city developed into a center of the machine and textile industry . In 1915 Zittau left the Zittau administration and became a district-free city.
In the middle of the 19th century, Jews settled in the city, forming an Israelite community that was recognized in 1885. They built a synagogue in the garden of the property at Lessingstrasse 12 , which was inaugurated in 1906. Their cemetery was built after 1887 and was given a morgue in 1908. As in all of Germany, Jewish residents were persecuted, expelled and murdered in Zittau during the Nazi era . The synagogue and the Jewish morgue were blown up during the November pogrom in 1938 . At least 40 Jews from Zittau and Löbau fell victim to the Holocaust .
Towards the end of the Second World War , satellite camps of the Groß-Rosen and Auschwitz concentration camps were set up for male and female concentration camp prisoners who had to do forced labor in the Zittwerke , a subsidiary of Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG . The jointly run camps with more than 1000 prisoners were located in Klein-Schönau , Germany at that time . The inhumane living conditions claimed at least 158 deaths.
In the last days of the war the city was fought over. About 80 people were killed in low-flying attacks; numerous buildings were also damaged or destroyed. On May 7, 1945, residents were asked to leave the city temporarily. On the evening of May 8th, the last day of the war, the German occupation of the city surrendered; On May 9, the Red Army marched into Zittau largely without a fight.
History from 1945
During the Nazi era , opposition members were persecuted and a large part of the Czech minority was expelled from the city and its surroundings. After the Second World War, the German population was expelled from the Bohemian area and from the area east of the Neisse, which was now under Polish administration. After the end of the war there was a strong Czech minority of 4,000 people in the city, who made efforts to incorporate the city into Czechoslovakia . In 1948 these efforts were rejected in the course of the Warsaw Agreement.
In 1945 the city lost its Großporitsch district east of the Neisse when the new state border was established as part of the Potsdam Agreement , where the Zittau war and civil prisoner camp for members of the German armed forces and German civilians was established in May 1945 . As a result, the once prosperous city became marginalized, the traffic routes to the east were partially cut off and traffic was restricted. Until 1989, Zittau only had one border crossing in Chopinstrasse into the neighboring Polish village of Sieniawka (Kleinschönau) , but since the early 1980s it could only be used by private travelers from the GDR with a special permit because the GDR government after the Solidarność strike severely restricted tourist traffic in Poland on October 30, 1980.
During the GDR era, children could relax in a summer camp in the city.
In 1991/1992 the newly designated industrial areas in Weinau and Pethau were set up, which today house a large part of the manufacturing companies. In 1996 the city of Zittau received the status of a major district town. In 1999 the second Saxon State Garden Show took place in Zittau / Olbersdorf . From August 7th to 15th, 1999 the big "no border" camp99 took place in and around Zittau . In 2001 the city was the venue for the Day of the Saxons . At the beginning of May 2004 the central German, Czech and Polish celebrations for the EU's eastward expansion took place in Zittau. On December 21, 2007, European heads of state celebrated the end of border controls to Poland and the Czech Republic on the occasion of their accession to the Schengen Agreement at the border crossings Zittau Friedensstrasse - Porajów and Porajów - Hrádek .
Pethau has been part of Zittau since 1970. Hartau was incorporated in 1999. Hirschfelde and Wittgendorf followed in 2007.
Between 1950 and 2005 the localities of Dittelsdorf (January 1, 2002), Drausendorf (May 19, 1974), Rosenthal (July 1, 1950) and Schlegel (January 1, 2005) were incorporated into Hirschfelde. Burkersdorf had been part of Schlegel since July 1, 1950.
For the time around 1400 a population of around 5,000 is assumed. After repeated population losses due to illnesses, fires and war events, the population grew steadily from the middle of the 19th century. There was a population slump around the First World War . In 1950 the population reached its historic high of around 47,000. If you take into account the territorial status at that time, the city has lost around 16,000 inhabitants since the fall of the Wall in the GDR due to emigration and the decline in birth rates, this corresponds to more than 40% of the population of 1988. A further decline in the population is expected by 2030 (2020: 23,830 inhabitants. ; 2030: 21.430 Ew.).
As early as 1319, the council consisted of the mayor and twelve councilors (consules). The first documented mention of the expression council in the word rotmanne took place in a document from 1357. Until 1360 the annual council election took place on New Year's Day, later on the day of the birth of Mary and from 1389 to 1830 on the Thursday after Bartholomäi. In 1364 the council was increased to 18 and in 1370 to 24 people. With the Pönfall, the council was also filled with twelve members. In 1559 Zittau was given back permission for free council elections. With the introduction of the general town order in 1832, there were 15 town councilors (five of them paid) and 29 town councilors in addition to a mayor.
The election for the Zittau city council took place on May 31, 2019. The constituent meeting took place on August 22, 2019. The seats are allocated to the individual parties and associations as follows:
|Party / list||Share of votes in 2014||
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||3.3%||1||5.4%||1|
|NPD (from Nov 2014: Citizens' Alliance Zittau)||8.1%||2||-||-|
|Free citizens of Zittau||8.4%||2||8.3%||2|
|Free Independent Voters (FUW)||8.3%||2||10.1%||3|
|Zittau can do more eV (ZKM)||18.5%||5||18.7%||5|
The city council meetings are scheduled to take place monthly on the last Thursday in the town hall. In addition to the city council, there is an administrative and financial committee, a social committee, and a technical and procurement committee.
The first mention of a mayor as magister civium took place in 1310. From around 1540 there were 3 mayors who took turns in the office of the ruling mayor. In the 18th century, the mayor also held the title Imperial Palatine . Since 1729 there have only been two mayors. With the introduction of the general town order in 1832, there was then a mayor. In 1904 the title of Lord Mayor was introduced, but this was abolished in 1950. Since 1996 the mayor has again held the title of Lord Mayor . Arnd Voigt (Free Citizen of Zittau) was Lord Mayor of Zittau from 2001 to 2015. On August 1, 2015, Thomas Zenker (Zittau can do more ) was sworn in as acting Lord Mayor after Voigt no longer ran for election due to his Parkinson's disease .
coat of arms
The city coat of arms consists of a four-part heart shield, in the 1st and 4th fields the double-tailed silver Bohemian lion on a red background and in the 2nd and 3rd fields the black Silesian eagle on a gold background. The colors white and red symbolize the Bohemian national colors. The black Silesian eagle was awarded by Duke Heinrich von Jauer († 1346) - as a reward for helping the citizens of Zittau to conquer Tollenstein Castle in 1337 . King John of Bohemia bestowed the silver Bohemian two-tailed lion, which symbolizes the rule over two ethnic groups . The silver Z in the middle stands for the first letter of the city. In 1896, the city's coat of arms was re-established by the Saxon Main State Archives.
In addition, there is a magnificent coat of arms, which is also provided with a helmet cover and an eagle flight. This is a reminder of the membership in the Six City Association. This ornate coat of arms is reserved exclusively for the mayor.
Until 2013, the city of Zittau also had a red and white city logo, which showed the salt house and the Roland fountain in front of it on the left and the Zittau logo on the right . In the course of the introduction of a new image for the city of Zittau, a new city logo was also created, which takes up the letter "Z" from the coat of arms in a stylized form and with the slogan "The Reiche" used in tourist advertising during the time of the Upper Lusatian Six-City Association is added as a claim.
- Villingen-Schwenningen , Baden-Wuerttemberg
- Bogatynia (Reichenau), Poland
- Liberec (Reichenberg), Czech Republic
- Pistoia , Italy
- Portsmouth , Ohio (USA)
- Hrádek nad Nisou (Grottau), Czech Republic
- Zielona Góra (Grünberg), Poland
Culture and sights
- Town hall - built 1840–1845 under the direction of Carl August Schramm (1807–1869) in neo-Renaissance style using plans by Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781–1841), at the entrance there are two large sandstone figures by the sculptor Karl Gottlob Beyer (1812– 1854), the left depicting Sophia (goddess of wisdom) and the right depicting Themis (goddess of justice), the 50 m high tower on the left is a remnant of the building that was destroyed in 1757 and adapted to the main building. Complete renovation was carried out in 1990–2002 , The stained glass windows in the inner courtyard from 1893 come from the Royal Court Glass Painting & Art Glazier Türcke & Schlein , a richly designed civic hall with a gleaming wooden coffered ceiling from 1890/1891 was restored in 1993.
- Salzhaus or Marstall auf der Neustadt - built in 1511 as a three-story building (area 53 m × 25 m), served as an armory, horse stable and bulk floor, was expanded to four floors in 1572, and in 1730 a mansard roof with five additional floors was added In the 19th century, it was used as an administration building and as a storage room for a museum, theater and municipal archive. In 1997, it was comprehensively renovated in accordance with the requirements of historical monuments;
- Building trade school, on Theaterring - built 1846–1848 in neo-Gothic style under the direction of Carl August Schramm (1807–1869), housed the Royal Saxon Building School, later building trade school , and from 1947 the State Building School ; Today the Löbau-Zittau Adult Education Center is located in this building, which was completely refurbished in 2005.
- Johanneum , on the Theaterring - built in late Classicist style in 1869–1871, the tower is intended to be reminiscent of the Bautzner city gate, named after King Johann (1801–1873), initially housed the municipal school, and since 1960 the extended secondary school (EOS), which opened between 1986 and in 1993 he was named Ernst Schneller (1890–1944), today Christian-Weise-Gymnasium , in the assembly hall there is a mural painting Paulus preaches in Athens by Anton Dietrich (1833–1904), which was imposed from 1962–1987 for political reasons was, in 1996 the complete facade renovation took place, from 2006 to approx. 2008 a complete interior construction.
- Old grammar school on Johannisplatz - one of the very first German grammar schools ; built after 1571 on the site of the Kreuzhof der Johanniterkommende, inaugurated in 1586 shortly after the founder Nikolaus von Dornspach (1516–1580) died. The current appearance is based on the renovation in 1602, when the alley was bridged, in the 19th and 20th centuries it was used as a library, school and boarding school, and since 1996 as business premises for the Zittauer Wohnungsbaugesellschaft mbH. The building bears the inscription Nullum munus melius majusve reipublicae offerre possumus, quam si doceamus atque erudiamus juventutem, his praesertim moribus ac temporibus quibus ita prolapsa est, ut omnium opibus refrenanda atque coercenda sit under the eaves.
- “Heffterbau” on Pfarrstrasse - part of the former Franciscan monastery , converted into a church for exiles after 1690 , used as a council library from 1709 to 1951, closed to visitors by the building supervisory authority in 1977, completely renovated from 2000–2002, today the exhibition room of the Zittau Municipal Museums, known by the so-called Hefftergiebel (late Renaissance gable), which was created 1652–1662 by Martin Pötzsch at the instigation of Mayor Heinrich von Heffter (1610–1663)
- Stadtbad , am Töpferberg - 1812 establishment of the first bathing establishment, named in 1816 in honor of King Augustusbad , demolished in 1869. The late Classicist new building was built in 1871–1873 under the direction of Zittau's city building director Emil Trummler (1823–1894). The tower is supposed to embody a remnant of the old city fortifications; the upper part was modeled on the tower of the weaver's gate, which collapsed in 1861. It is the oldest still preserved and used public bath in Germany.
- Historic meat banks , on Reichenberger Straße - moved from the back of the town hall to the then Böhmische Straße in 1757, opened as a market in 1848, reconstructed in 1986–1988 for the 750th anniversary of the city, today largely unused.
- "Fleischerbastei", on Karl-Liebknecht-Ring - former fortifications of the city, built in 1633 in the so-called Bohemian Zwinger. 1842–1929 used as a municipal garden center, renovated in 1998, since then used as a restaurant. The flower clock and carillon made of Meissen porcelain are located at the butcher's bastion .
- "Dornspachhaus" on Johannisplatz - Renaissance building from 1553, the name of which is derived from the owner, Mayor Nikolaus von Dornspach (1516–1580). The inner courtyard, which was built around 1610, is enclosed by a gallery with loggias consisting of Ionic columns. Was used as a public reading hall from 1909, renovated in 1998; there is a historic inn on the ground floor.
- “Schauburg” on Ottokarplatz - built in 1828 as a municipal flour store, 1863–1928 riding hall, 1928–1991 cinema, 1977–1979 redesign and establishment of a vision bar, today an event house for concerts and public and private events run by Zittauer Schauburg GmbH.
- Artists' quarter “Mandauer Glanz” - the downtown area Rosenstrasse / Grüne Strasse was artistically designed as part of its renovation in 2009. The previously sober facades were painted in rainbow colors and provided with reliefs and large sculptures. In the beginning, the project had the working title Quartier Zittauer Tor . The project was presented to the public on the occasion of the Open Monument Day on September 12, 2010.
In the old town alone, more than 60 monuments have been demolished since the political change, including baroque town houses and Renaissance merchant houses.
Sacred buildings and meeting houses
Zittau has a total of eight church buildings:
|Name (common, exact )||Denomination||location|
St. Johannis Church
|Evangelical-Lutheran , main church||City center,
(at the market)
Monastery church (→ monastery churches , → St. Peter and Paul churches )
Monastery church of St. Peter and Paul of
the former Franciscan monastery
|Evangelical Lutheran||City center,
Weber Church (see section below )
Church of the Holy Trinity
|Evangelical Lutheran||City center,
(on the ring in the axis of the Äußere Weberstraße)
Frauenkirche (see section below )
(Church is dedicated to Mary, the Mother of God)
|Evangelical Lutheran||east of the city center,
(on the women's cemetery)
|Apostle Church (→ Apostle Churches )||Evangelical Lutheran||south of the city center,
Hospital Church (→ Hospital Churches )
Hospital Church of St. Jacob
|Evangelical Methodist||south of the city center,
Catholic Parish Church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary
|Roman Catholic||north of the city center,
Kreuzkirche (see section below )
Museum Church of the Holy Cross
|dedicated (exhibition Lenten cloth)||City center,
(on the Ring on Frauenstrasse)
The church of St. Johannis Zittau - mentioned for the first time in 1291 - was originally a Gothic hall church that was destroyed in the town fire in 1757, including the Silbermann organ that had recently been inaugurated . The foundation stone for the new building was laid on July 23, 1766. After several years of construction activity, after 1770 there were several construction stops due to lack of money and cracks in the building. According to a design by Wilhelm Stier on behalf of Karl Friedrich Schinkel , the church was completed in 1833 under the supervision of Carl August Schramm and inaugurated in 1837. The altarpiece was created in 1836 by Wilhelm Bernhard Rosendal (1804–1846). The statue of the blessing Christ after Bertel Thorvaldsen was made in 1887 by the sculptor Schwartz from Dresden from a block of sandstone. In 1843 the church received an organ. The current organ was installed in 1929–1930 by the organ building company A. Schuster & Sohn from Zittau according to plans by the music director Hans Menzel. In the years 1991-1998 the renovation of the church took place. The German organist and composer Johann Krieger was an important organist at St. Johannis for more than 50 years until his death on July 18, 1735 .
Weber Church or Dreifaltigkeitskirche on Innere Weberstraße - built 1488–1508, further renovations took place between 1713 and 1718 and 1889, where the entrances on the north and south sides disappeared and the church was given a new west-facing entrance.
The Frauenkirche on Hammerschmiedtstrasse is located on the area of the women's cemetery, the largest urban cemetery. It was first mentioned in 1355. It was destroyed by fires in 1473 and 1535 and rebuilt by 1572. In 1607 and 1707 there was another structural expansion. In 1897 the floor was raised and the stalls replaced. In 1928 the church received an organ.
The Kreuzkirche on Frauenstrasse is a two-aisled hall church with a star vault over a polygon pillar. It is considered to be the largest and highest single-pillar church in Germany. Erected around 1410, with clear Bohemian influences from Peter Parler's building works, it burned down in the Thirty Years' War. It was then rebuilt under Mayor Christian von Hartig with late Gothic and early baroque inventory. This burial church with the surrounding cemetery and its splendid tombs had to be deedicated in 1972. After the renovation in mid-1999, it is now the Church of the Holy Cross Museum , where the Large Zittau Lent Cloth (8.20 m × 6.80 m) from 1472 is exhibited. (see section “ Museums and Libraries ”).
Zittau also has the following meetinghouses:
- Lutherhaus and Christian Community Center ELIM ( Elim Parishes ) on Innere Oybiner Strasse
- Seventh-day Adventist parish hall on Bahnhofstrasse
- Parish hall of the New Apostolic Church on Leipziger Strasse
- Parish hall of the Catholic Apostolic Congregation on Marschnerstrasse
In addition, Zittau had a synagogue on the site of Lessingstrasse 12 . It was consecrated in 1906 and destroyed during the Reichskristallnacht in 1938 . Today a plaque installed in 1989 commemorates the site.
- Memorial for the victims of fascism from 1946 on Klienebergerplatz, whose name recalls the Jewish doctor Carl Klieneberger , who committed suicide in 1938. The base of this monument initiated by the VVN originally belonged to a Bismarck monument that was inaugurated around 1900 .
- Street name "Dr. Brinitzer Street" of commemorating the Jewish doctor in 1946 from the effects of detention suffered in Buchenwald died
- War memorial in honor of the fallen soldiers of the 3rd Royal Saxon Infantry Regiment No. 102 “King Ludwig III. from Bavaria"; 1921 based on a design by the architect Richard Schiffner ; The eagle crowning the cenotaph- like monument was removed in 1960 by order of the SED district leadership and buried in an old building yard. There he was located on the initiative of the city council Dietrich Thiele in May 2008. After subsequent restoration, the granite eagle returned to the monument in 2010.
- War memorial in honor of the fallen soldiers of the Reserve Infantry Regiment 242 at the monastery church
- "Haberkorn Monument" and constitutional column on Haberkornplatz
- Marschner monument, Christian Weise bust and bust of Carl Gottlob Moráwek on Karl Liebknecht Ring
- Tomb of Nikolaus von Dornspach on the north side of the former Johanniskirchhof - it was laid on his grave in 1584, found again in 1812 after the city fire in 1757, erected at the old grammar school in 1838
- Morawek memorial stone on Morawekstrasse, in memory of the historian and local researcher Carl Gottlob Moráwek
- “ Stumbling blocks ” that are reminiscent of former Jewish citizens
- Grave site and memorial stone from 1945 in the cemetery of the Dittelsdorf district for those persecuted by the Nazi regime
- Memorial stone on the corner of Untere Bergstrasse and Hauptstrasse in the Pethau district, in memory of the communist resistance fighter Willi Gall , who was murdered in Berlin-Plötzensee in 1941
- Memorial plaque from 1989 on the house at Lessingstrasse 12 in memory of the destroyed synagogue and the Jewish victims of the Shoa
- Memorial stone from 1948 on the Jewish cemetery on Görlitzer Strasse in memory of the 40 murdered Jewish citizens of the cities of Zittau and Löbau
- Memorial at the municipal cemetery in memory of concentration camp prisoners and forced laborers who, during the Second World War in the Zitt plants do forced labor had
- Memorial plaque at Haus Neustadt 34 / Frauentorstraße to the Hitlerite opponents who were tortured there in 1933, two of whom were murdered: Alwin Hanspach and Julius Pawel ; A similar board on the house at Rosa-Luxemburg-Strasse 17 was removed after 1990.
- Memorial plaque on Burgstrasse 4b in memory of the Jewish communist Rolf Axen , who was murdered by SA men in 1933
In front of the Johanneum there is a very well-preserved, fossilized rhizome of a bald cypress from the Tertiary that weighs around four tons and was excavated in the Hartau clay mine in 1932 . The local geologist and Zittau high school teacher, teacher Curt Heinke, arranged for the fossil to be recovered and moved to its current location. In 2004 the stump was fundamentally conserved and in 2005 provided with a glass enclosure.
Parks and gardens
The Zittau City Theater was reopened in a new building in 1936 as Grenzlandtheater Zittau after the old theater in the vicinity of the Marstall was completely destroyed by fire on March 4, 1932. The old theater in what is now Albertstrasse was opened on October 25, 1802. In 1862 it was rebuilt according to plans by the Berlin builder Eduard Titz . Until the opening of the new building, the hall of the “Lindenhof” restaurant served as an interim venue.
In the years 1963 to 1989 it was united with the Görlitzer Theater . From 1993 it was continued as Gerhart-Hauptmann-Theater Zittau GmbH . Since January 1, 2011, the Zittauer Theater has again merged with the Görlitzer Theater. Gerhart-Hauptmann-Theater Görlitz-Zittau GmbH is the new name of the four-division house that plays at two locations (drama in Zittau and music theater, dance and concerts in Görlitz) .
The theater in Zittau has an auditorium for around 400 people.
Museums and libraries
Zittau Municipal Museums (founded in 1854)
- Cultural history museum in the Franciscan monastery Zittau - city history collection in the former Franciscan monastery, cloister courtyard and display collection in the Heffter building with baroque hall, exhibition of the small Zittau Lent Cloth from 1573, constantly changing special exhibitions
- Museum of Natural History Dr. Curt Heinke - Collection on the geological development of south-eastern Upper Lusatia, exhibition of minerals, rocks and fossils
- Museum Church of the Holy Cross - houses Germany's largest museum showcase with the Large Zittau Lent Cloth from 1472 (the only one of its kind in Germany and at 8.20 meters high and 6.80 meters wide, the third largest surviving Lent Cloth) - with the small Zittau Lent cloth part the regional Via Sacra
Christian-Weise-Bibliothek - city and district library (approx. 140,000 media, the library was first mentioned in 1564)
- Public library in the stables
- Scientific and local history (including the Zittau missals )
- University Library Zittau / Görlitz - public scientific specialist library of the University of Zittau / Görlitz (approx. 188,000 media)
- Traditional Cabinet of the German Red Cross (since May 2000)
Special features and curiosities
- Zittau flower clock in front of the butcher's bastion on Karl-Liebknecht-Ring. It was built in 1907 under the direction of the park inspector Johannes Grabowski (* 1860) and the council watchmaker Otto Rödel (* 1843). The clockwork comes from an old tower clock. The dial consists of a flower bed that is replanted three times a year. To the left of the flower is a made of Meissen porcelain existing porcelain carillon , which was donated by the Zittau craftsmen and built the 1966th In 1997 and again in 2017 it was repaired with donations. A popular folk song plays every hour on the hour, including the Oberlausitz song or Heidenröslein .
- A road bridge leads over the Mandau, which is also crossed by a second railway bridge.
- There are several testimonials to the local enthusiasm for mountain sports in the Alps:
- Friedrich II. Founded Neu Zittau in 1753 as a colonist village in order to settle fine spinners from Zittau. Of the 100 planned spinner families, only two came. The other colonists were recruited from Saxony, Württemberg and Bohemia.
- The Zittau grinding man is the figure of a pipe-smoking man who stands in the fountain opposite the Church of the Holy Cross Museum. It is driven by the water in the well and thus turns a wheel that it uses to sharpen its knife.
- Zittau city festival
- Spectaculum Citaviae ( medieval festival, always on the evening before Ascension Day)
- Mandaujazz jazz festival
- Neisse film festival
- Zittau Music Night
- Festival at the border triangle
- Spring and autumn markets, Christmas markets
- Lückendorfer hill climb
- Zittau mountain run & hiking club
- O-See Challenge
- Ring on celebration
Economy and Infrastructure
In 1848 the city was connected to the Saxon railway network via the Zittau – Löbau line. Ten years later, the Neisse Viaduct was completed as part of the Zittau – Liberec railway line . The present reception building of the Zittau train station was opened in 1859 after four years of renovation work. The building underwent extensive renovation in 2001. In 1875, operations began on the Zittau – Hagenwerder line , with trains continuing to Görlitz . Four years later, the main line went into operation via Eibau and Wilthen in the direction of Bischofswerda. From Bischofswerda the trains continued to run on the Görlitz – Dresden railway line to the Saxon capital.
Cross-border traffic to Bohemia ceased after the end of the Second World War and was only resumed in 1977 with the opening of the Zittau railway border crossing. Cross-border traffic over the Neisse Viaduct regained importance with the resumption of the Dresden – Liberec rail link. In addition to this route, there are also connections by the Czech railways to Varnsdorf . Czech trains that come from the Bohemian Varnsdorf ( Warnsdorf ) to Liberec ( Reichenberg ) continue via German and Polish national territory to Liberec and also pass the Zittau border station. German trains that run from Zittau to Seifhennersdorf pass through the station in the Czech town of Varnsdorf.
Several German railway lines end in Zittau:
- the Neißetalbahn from Görlitz, which partly runs through Polish territory
- the railway line Bischofswerda – Zittau ( coming from Dresden-Neustadt ) and
- the Mandaubahn from Seifhennersdorf .
The steam-powered Zittau narrow-gauge railway , also popularly known as the Bimmelbahn , has been running since 1890 from the Zittau train station in the Zittau Mountains to the health resort Oybin and the health resort Jonsdorf . Two trains regularly leave the Bertsdorf train station in parallel. The narrow-gauge railway is now operated by the Sächsisch-Oberlausitzer Eisenbahngesellschaft mbH (SOEG) .
Inner-city public transport (ÖPNV)
Between 1904 and 1919 the trams of the municipal tram Zittau (SSZ) drove in the city . In 1924 a motor vehicle company was founded in Zittau, which existed until 1949. In 1953, VEB Kraftverkehr Zittau took over urban passenger transport. Since 1990, several city bus routes and other routes in the district have been operated by Kraftverkehrsgesellschaft Dreiländereck mbH (KVG).
On the northern outskirts of the city, the federal highway 178 merges into the Czech expressway I / 35 and is briefly passed through Polish territory. The inner-city border crossings Chopinstrasse to Sieniawka (Kleinschönau) in Poland and Friedensstrasse (also to Poland with continuation to the Czech Republic) are available for cars . Cyclists and pedestrians can use a direct crossing to the Czech Republic in the southern district of Hartau in the Bohemian Hrádek nad Nisou (Grottau). The Neißebrücke on Lusatiaweg in the Polish town of Porajów (Großporitsch), which is approved for cyclists, was closed after the flood in 2010 and has not yet been repaired. Despite Poland's accession to Schengen, the buildings in the Hirschfelde district and the “Himmelsbrücke” at the border triangle cannot be used due to a lack of financial means for renovation.
The federal highway 178 connects the city with the Autobahn 4 and Löbau. It is also the north bypass of the city and joins the industrial area Weinau in the federal highway 99 from the direction of Görlitz. The road continues to Poland and the Czech Republic. There it forms the connection to the Czech D 35 motorway in the direction of Liberec (Reichenberg). The federal highway 96 leads from the Zittauer Ring in the north-western Upper Lusatia to Bautzen.
Zittau has a long tradition in horticulture , which was particularly positively influenced by the Bohemian exiles . Here, for example, the yellow Zittau giant onion was bred (known as Giant Zittau in English-speaking countries). Like so many other companies, GPG Edelweiß also delivered a large part of its products to Berlin during the GDR era.
The turning point brought severe upheavals in the city. For example, 5,389 of the previous 5,400 employees were laid off at the Robur works . Today the city has an unemployment rate of around 15% (as of 12/2007). More than 10,000 residents have left the city since 1990 and around 4,500 apartments are vacant. New settlements were primarily made by suppliers to the automotive industry who are banking on the market in Eastern Europe .
The head office of the cleaning agent manufacturer fit is located in the Hirschfelde district .
The Sächsische Zeitung and the free weekly newspapers Wochenkurier and Oberlausitzer Kurier maintain editorial offices in Zittau. In addition, the Zittauer Geschichtsblätter and the Oberlausitzer Heimatblätter , which emerged as a follow-up publication from the library journal of the Christian Weise library , appear here.
The Zittauer Anzeiger has been published as an online edition since 2006 .
With the old grammar school (inauguration 1586) Zittau had one of the first such educational institutions in Germany, which had an excellent reputation. B. the well-known poet and namesake of today's high school Christian Weise worked. As early as 1969, building on the technical schools for electrical energy (founded in 1951) and construction that emerged after the Second World War , the Zittau Engineering College was founded, which in 1988 received the status of a technical college. With the establishment of the Zittau / Görlitz University of Technology, Economics and Social Affairs in 1992, the traditional university location of Zittau was secured. The HTWS was later renamed to Hochschule Zittau / Görlitz (FH). With the International University Institute founded in 1993, Zittau is also home to the smallest state university in Saxony.
In the GDR , Zittau was also the seat of the officers' college of the land forces of the NVA . Today the site houses u. a. Parts of the (HTWS) Zittau / Görlitz University of Applied Sciences, the Zittau branch of the district office of the Görlitz district, the Zittau branch of the technical relief organization and the technical town hall of the Zittau city administration.
Since 2003, the Zittau / Görlitz University of Applied Sciences has been a committed initiator of Neisse University as a transnational higher education institution alongside the Technical University of Liberec in the Czech Republic and the Technical University of Wroclaw in Poland . In April 2006 two new laboratory buildings for the building and natural sciences / mathematics departments as well as a new lecture hall center were inaugurated. The new buildings, which were created according to the plans of the Berlin architects Tilman Bock and Norbert Sachs, which were influenced by the Bauhaus , complement the inadequate space available due to the steadily growing number of students, which has now grown to almost four thousand, further new building measures are planned.
The most famous daughters and sons of the city include the writer and educator Christian Weise , the lawyer and social utopian Christian Gottlieb Prieber , the composer and conductor Heinrich Marschner , the classical philologist and Germanist Moriz Haupt and the children's book author Lisa Tetzner . In the field of sport, the Olympic and multiple world figure skating champion Ernst Baier and the world ski jumping champion Matthias Buse come from Zittau. The cross-country skier René Sommerfeldt was also able to win several medals at the Olympic Games and World Championships as well as the overall World Cup. The mountaineer Peter Diener was the only German who was involved in the first ascent of an eight-thousander. Gustav Hiller and Alfred Winkler are among the most famous industrialists from Zittau .
- The south-eastern Upper Lusatia with Zittau and the Zittau Mountains (= values of the German homeland . Volume 16). 1st edition. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1970, pp. 156-189.
- Bernhard Bruhns (ed.): Zittau in 7 centuries. An overview of the city's history. Zittau 1912.
- Volker Dudeck: Zittau as it was. Düsseldorf 1993.
- Volker Dudeck, Jos Tomlow: The Zittauer Ring . City of art: Imaginative urban planning of the 19th century. Verlag Gunter Oettel, Görlitz 2000, ISBN 3-932693-54-X .
- Tino Fröde: Discover Zittau ... A companion through the city . Oberlausitzer Verlag Frank Nürnberger, Spitzkunnersdorf 2005, ISBN 3-933827-50-7 .
- Tino Fröde: privileges and statutes of the Upper Lusatian six cities . A journey through the organization of urban life in Zittau, Bautzen, Görlitz, Löbau, Kamenz and Lauban in the early modern period. Oberlausitzer Verlag, Spitzkunnersdorf 2008, ISBN 978-3-933827-88-3 .
- Karl Gottlob Hergang: Zittavia or where did the city of Zittau get its origin and name from? Schöps, Zittau 1812. (Digitized version)
- Detlef Krell: Zittau with links. A companion through town, mountains and surroundings . Neisse Verlag, Zittau 2000, ISBN 3-934038-06-9 .
- Lutz Mohr : The Hussites in Upper Lusatia with special consideration of their campaigns in the years from 1424 to 1434. Special edition No. 2/2014 of the series: History and stories from Neusalza-Spremberg . Greifswald and Neusalza-Spremberg 2014.
- Carl Gottlob Moráwek : Zittavia or: Zittau in his past and present. Seyfert, Zittau 1848. (digitized version)
- Alfred Moschkau : Zittau and its surroundings. a guide through Zittau, its immediate surroundings, into the Zittau Mountains and northern Bohemia, etc. Zittau 1893. (digitized version)
- Christian Adolf Peschek : Handbook of the history of Zittau. 2 volumes. Schöpf, Zittau 1834/1837. (Digitized version)
- Thorsten Pietschmann: The Franciscan monastery in Zittau . Zittau 2004, ISBN 3-929744-09-0 .
- Thorsten Pietschmann: Zittau . Eight centuries of architecture and art. Zittau 2005, ISBN 3-929744-13-9 .
- Thorsten Pietschmann: Zittau. Architecture and art. Lückendorf, Oybin 2015, ISBN 978-3-944470-01-6 .
- Franz Eduard Reichel: Zittau and its surroundings. A guide through the Lusatian Oberland and neighboring Bohemia; with special consideration of the history of castles, monasteries and castle ruins. Reichel, Bautzen 1865. (digitized version)
- Carl Anton Tobias: Contributions to the history of the city of Zittau. 1863, part 1, 1813 , part 2, 1866
- Three-country corner of Europe
- Website of the city of Zittau
- Zittau in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Genealogical online resources for the city of Zittau
- July 23, 1757 - The bombing of Zittau (PDF; 48 kB)
- - zweikronenhaus.de
- Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2019 ( help on this ).
- oberlausitzer-woerterbuch.de. Retrieved October 12, 2011 .
- Joh. Friedrich Boehmer: REGESTA IMPERII INDE AB ANNO MCCCXIIII USQUE AD ANNUM MCCCXLVII . The documents of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria, King Frederick the Beautiful and King John of Bohemia. Siegmund Schmerber, Frankfurt am Main 1839 ( online [accessed October 12, 2011]).
- Gottfried Kiesow , Barock in Sachsen (foreword), Monumente Edition, page 2
- Henry Lloyd: History of the Seven Years' War in Germany . tape 1 . Berlin 1783.
- Johann Michael Lauterbach (1716–1787), Herrnhut, Saxony, to Georg Wenzel Golkowsky (1725–1799), Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1757, Hs., MHS Records Box 7, folder 6, Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania .
- Charles-Emmanuel de Warnery: Campaigns of Frederick the Two, King of Prussia from 1756 to 1762 . First part. Helwing, Hannover 1789 ( online ).
- Johann Sporschil : The Great Chronicle. History of the war of the allied Europe against Napoleon Bonaparte in the years 1813, 1814 and 1815 . Vol. 1: The campaign of 1813 , part volume 2. Westermann, Braunschweig 1841. P. 398 f.
- war: This is how Zittau's zero hour passed. In: Sächsische Zeitung , May 8, 2020, accessed on October 29, 2020.
- camp 99. Retrieved September 22, 2020 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Municipalities 1994 and their changes since 01.01.1948 in the new federal states . Metzler-Poeschel, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-8246-0321-7 .
- changes from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999 (PDF; 40 kB) State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony, accessed on February 15, 2016 .
- changes from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007 (PDF; 10 kB) State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony, accessed on February 15, 2016 .
- changes from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. (PDF; 10 kB) State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony, accessed on February 15, 2016 .
- changes from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005 (PDF; 10 kB) State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony, accessed on February 15, 2016 .
- See population figures of Zittau and districts as of June 30, 2018
- Zittau - statistical data - population projection , population structure until 2030 , on www.wegweiser-kommune.de , responsible for the content: Bertelsmann Stiftung .
- Communication and Public Relations Unit: election results. In: wahlen.sachsen.de. Retrieved August 3, 2019 .
- elections 2015, final result of the second ballot on June 28, 2015. State Statistical Office of Saxony, accessed on June 30, 2015 .
- Mario Heinke: The Seventh Twin City for Zittau . In: Sächsische Zeitung , local edition Zittau . November 4, 2016, p. 9 ( saechsische.de [accessed April 13, 2020]).
- Zittau artists' quarter. Initiative for the sustainable development of a city quarter with 180 apartments in Zittau. spark :: ling AG, accessed on September 23, 2011 (numerous images).
- Matthias Grünzig: In the vicious circle. End of the old town: In Zittau there is only money for demolitions . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . January 10, 2011, ISSN 0174-4909 .
- The building history of the St. Johannis Church (Johanniskirche) in Zittau. (No longer available online.) Euroregionales Kulturzentrum St. Johannis Zittau eV, archived from the original on February 6, 2013 ; Retrieved October 11, 2012 .
- Entry on Denkmalprojekt.org
- Press article from June 7, 2010 ( Memento from October 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Entry on Denkmalprojekt.org
- Person of SLUB-Dresden ( Memento from October 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- The south-eastern Upper Lusatia with Zittau and the Zittau Mountains (= values of the German homeland . Volume 16). 2nd Edition. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1971, p. 175.
- Theater fire in Zittau . In: Dresdner latest news . Dresden March 5, 1932.
- Eduard Titz on bildindex.de
- The Zittau Theater History ( Memento from July 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Eckart Roloff and Karin Henke-Wendt: The Red Cross and the red timeline through wars and catastrophes. In: Visit your doctor or pharmacist. A tour through Germany's museums for medicine and pharmacy. Volume 1, Northern Germany. Verlag S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-7776-2510-2 , pp. 215-216.
- Jan Lange: Zittau glockenspiel is ringing again . In: Saxon newspaper . June 6, 2017 ( online ( memento of January 28, 2018 in the Internet Archive )).
- men in Zittau. In: schwabenmedia.de , accessed on May 13, 2014.
- Wilfried Rettig: Railway in the three-country corner. East Saxony (D) / Lower Silesia / (PL) / North Bohemia (CZ). Part 1: History of the main lines, operating points, electrification and route descriptions . EK-Verlag, Freiburg (Breisgau) 2010, ISBN 978-3-88255-732-9 , p. 41 ff .
- Demolition is no way out . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . April 24, 2006, ISSN 0174-4909 , p. 38 .