Under precincts one understands the vision and the appearance of an urban space , a city or a town , a building ensembles or individual Bauwerkes . However, it can also be applied to the entire extent of an inhabited area and thus signify its boundary or its area of influence.
The word soft comes from an old word for settlements (Latin vicus , see also ' -wik ' as the ending of place names). In terms of legal history, Weichbild refers to the district in front of the actual city walls, which was subject to city jurisdiction. In Westphalia he can still be found as a wigbold . The Saxon soft image law, which is partly found in issues of the Sachsenspiegel , is also called soft image . In Silesia , a Weichbild was a district- like administrative district until the Prussian occupation in the 18th century .
The visible soft image, or, with a more common word, the silhouette , in the case of cities, the skyline , includes formative elements such as high houses, churches with their towers or surrounding greenery or also inner-city objects that form an urban ensemble, such as B. a place.
According to German building planning law ( Building Code , BauGB), a new building within a built-up part of the town should fit in with the characteristics of the surrounding area according to the type and extent of structural use , provided that it is an unplanned interior area (Section 34 BauGB), i.e. there is no development plan that regulates the use of the property. The municipality can also set height restrictions in development plans or through design statutes for new buildings, so that, for example, no new building is higher than the highest existing greenery or a church tower, and this would change the characteristic soft appearance.
History of the term
The derivation of the word "Weichbild" is generally based on the Old High German wih , Gothic Weihs , Old Saxon wik , Dutch wijk and Latin vicus 'village' (next larger unit: oppidum 'city'). The second part of the word means "right" (related to Un-Bill, cheap, the English bill ). The basic form of the word can then be found in old German terms. Wickbileden is recorded in Westphalia for the year 1142. It was first mentioned as Wicbilede in 1170 in Leipzig , and as Wickbolde it was found in Bremen in 1259 .
The term for the geographical area of this right is derived from the soft image (parallel to “county” etc.), which then replaced the original meaning and led to the formation of the term “soft image right”, which is used in the same sense as city law has been. For many German-speaking cities, the Weichbild regulations in the Magdeburg Weistümern of 1188 formed the basis for their own ordinances. "Soft image" then also referred to larger municipalities with city-like rights ( minor city ), but was only common in this sense in some regions. In Braunschweig, for example, the original five soft areas from which today's city developed through their merger still exist today. The Braunschweiger Weichbilde still bear their old names: Altewiek , Altstadt , Hagen , Neustadt and Sack . Each of them had its own town hall , its own council , its own parish church and a different population structure.
Weichbild was also called certain, mainly urban rights and forms of ownership, such as the hereditary series (the "Weichbildgut"), then a pension in general ("Weichbildrente").
The boundaries of a city's soft image were marked by so-called “soft stones” or “columns”, see z. B. Soft picture stones (16th – 18th century) in Dresden , the Connewitz Cross (16th century) in Leipzig and the soft picture columns (18th century) in Freiberg .
Soft images in Silesia
In Silesia, until the Prussian occupation in 1740, the territorial units into which the Silesian principal principalities were divided were referred to as soft images. This classification has essentially existed since the Middle Ages . The Silesian soft images served as judicial, tax and military districts and usually comprised a city and its surrounding area. The soft picture stands met for soft picture day and elected the state elder . After the Prussian takeover, most of the soft images were transferred to circles as part of the introduction of the Brandenburg district constitution; only a few smaller soft images were combined into a circle. Most of the incumbent state elders were taken over by the Prussian King Friedrich II and appointed as district administrator .
- ↑ Sechsisch Weychbild vnd Lehenrecht, Sachsenspiegel. Lehnrecht 1537, Sachsenspiegel and Landrecht 1535.
- ^ Martin Korda: Urban planning. Technical basics , Teubner Verlag 1999, ISBN 3519350017 .
- ^ Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (1854-1971): German dictionary . Leipzig u. a.
- ↑ Karl-Heinz Hentschel: Friedkreuze and Friedsäulen, signs of the soft image - old elements in the soft image, 2008
- ↑ Georg Sandhass: On the history of the Viennese soft image law . Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna 1863 ( digitized in the Google book search).
- ^ Norbert Conrads: Silesia in the early modern age: On the political and intellectual culture of a Habsburg country . Ed .: Joachim Bahlcke. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-412-20350-4 , chap. 21 The Silesian Estates Constitution in Transition, p. 378 ff . ( Partially digitized ).
- ^ Roman Kamionka: The reorganization of the district division of Silesia in the Stein-Hardenberg reform period . Breslau 1934, chap. The establishment of administrative districts in Silesia under Friedrich the Elder. Size