Building trade school

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baugewerkschule (originally Subcontracting s schools , Subcontracting e train or Subcontracting en train ) were from 1823 throughout the 19th century established for the training of construction workers. Some of them developed into training centers for construction technicians and architects until the 20th century .

They are mostly the forerunners of today's technical colleges , and more rarely technical colleges and universities specializing in civil engineering / civil engineering and architecture.


Following the example of the Paris École polytechnique and the Berlin Building Academy , the Royal Building Trade School was founded in Munich in 1823 . The initiator and long-time school director, Gustav Vorherr , wanted to train skilled builders and parlors to become master builders in this way . Under state protection, a modern building industry oriented to local needs should be in the foreground. High standards based on the latest developments in the international construction sector at the time were consistently taught here. The previously neglected rural area should be included.

In view of new building materials (e.g. in northern Germany during the first half of the 19th century the use of bricks became more prevalent and replaced traditional half-timbered construction) as well as increasing official regulations for the building industry arose in the first decades of the 19th century Need for the professionalization of builders.

Against this background, Friedrich Ludwig Haarmann founded the first building trade school in Holzminden in 1831 . During the winter, when most of the construction activities were suspended, construction workers etc. a. Trained in building materials science, building design, building history, form and architectural style, drawing and building techniques. Following the Holzminden model, further building trade schools were initially founded in northern Germany. In the course of time, foundations followed in many other German regions, e.g. B. in Regensburg 1846, Nienburg / Weser 1853, Höxter 1864 (by Karl Möllinger ), Darmstadt 1876, Lübeck 1896. Because of their mostly large catchment area, these schools often had dormitories for their students.

In view of their training, which became more demanding over time and was no longer limited to the winter, the graduates of the building trade schools often practiced the profession of architects. Formally, they were first building trade masters who shaped the style of raw brick buildings in northern Germany . Towards the end of the 19th century at the latest, artistically ambitious graduates often visited the architecture faculties of technical colleges as guest auditors (" interns ") after graduating from the building trade school , where they could not acquire diplomas or exams due to a lack of university entrance qualification ( Abitur ) .

One of the most important style-defining architecture teachers of the 19th century was Conrad Wilhelm Hase , lecturer at the Technical University of Hanover from 1849 to 1894. He founded the so-called “Hanover School”, which drew its repertoire of forms from medieval brick Gothic. Many of Hase's students became teachers at building trade schools and passed on the “program” of the Hanover School. (An impressive example of this style is the Hamburg warehouse district ).

From the 1920s onwards, most of the building trade schools were rededicated to technical schools, building colleges or technical colleges. Outside of Prussia, the corresponding educational institutions usually had different names officially, whereby the legal regulations of the building industry that differed from state to state (i.e. not uniformly across the empire) played a role. There were detailed regulations regarding the recognition of “foreign” qualifications. The unofficial collective term "building trade school" was in use for all state-recognized training centers in Germany at the latest in the 1920s.

While the access of women to architectural training at the German technical universities was regulated by law between 1900 and 1909, and subsequently (few) first female architecture students enrolled, women stayed at building trade schools - primarily because of the parallel craft apprenticeship - a very big exception.

Building trade schools in Germany ceased before 1900

Kingdom of Prussia

  • The Marienwerder building trade school existed from 1819 to 1834; the founder, director and teacher was building inspector Salomo Sachs until 1820 .
  • The building trade school in Wetzlar existed from 1878 to 1885.

Building trade schools in Germany in 1928

Directory of state (or state-recognized) building trade schools in Germany (as of February 1928):

Free State of Prussia

as well as in non-governmental sponsorship :

  • Municipal building trade school Berlin
  • Municipal building trade school Trier

Free State of Bavaria

As early as April 10, 1823, the Royal Building Trade School was founded as the first of its kind in Munich under the protection of King Max I Joseph under the direction of Gustav von Vorherr to “perfect the building industry and especially the education of the building trade” .

as well as in non-state sponsorship:

Free State of Saxony

People's State of Württemberg

  • Württemberg Higher Building School Stuttgart

Republic of Baden

State of Thuringia

People's State of Hesse

as well as in non-state sponsorship:

  • Hessian building trade and trade school in Bingen
  • Building trade school of the technical colleges Offenbach (Main)

Free State of Braunschweig

Free State of Anhalt

in non-governmental sponsorship:

  • Municipal building school Zerbst

Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

in non-governmental sponsorship:

Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg

  • State building trade school Hamburg

Free Hanseatic City of Bremen

  • Building trade school of the technical state schools in Bremen

Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck

  • Building trade school of the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck

Individual evidence

  1. Wetzlarer Anzeiger , No. 6 of January 8, 1885
  2. founded in 1900, new school building at Aachener Blücherplatz moved into on October 20, 1900 - Aachen Chamber of Commerce and Industry (publisher): 25 years of cooperation agreement between FH Aachen and IHK Aachen. Aachen 2009, p. 8. ( online as PDF document)