Building trade school
Baugewerkschule (originally Subcontracting s schools , Subcontracting e train or Subcontracting en train ) were from 1823 throughout the 19th century established for the training of construction workers. Some of them developed into training centers for construction technicians and architects until the 20th century .
Following the example of the Paris École polytechnique and the Berlin Building Academy , the Royal Building Trade School was founded in Munich in 1823 . The initiator and long-time school director, Gustav Vorherr , wanted to train skilled builders and parlors to become master builders in this way . Under state protection, a modern building industry oriented to local needs should be in the foreground. High standards based on the latest developments in the international construction sector at the time were consistently taught here. The previously neglected rural area should be included.
In view of new building materials (e.g. in northern Germany during the first half of the 19th century the use of bricks became more prevalent and replaced traditional half-timbered construction) as well as increasing official regulations for the building industry arose in the first decades of the 19th century Need for the professionalization of builders.
Against this background, Friedrich Ludwig Haarmann founded the first building trade school in Holzminden in 1831 . During the winter, when most of the construction activities were suspended, construction workers etc. a. Trained in building materials science, building design, building history, form and architectural style, drawing and building techniques. Following the Holzminden model, further building trade schools were initially founded in northern Germany. In the course of time, foundations followed in many other German regions, e.g. B. in Regensburg 1846, Nienburg / Weser 1853, Höxter 1864 (by Karl Möllinger ), Darmstadt 1876, Lübeck 1896. Because of their mostly large catchment area, these schools often had dormitories for their students.
In view of their training, which became more demanding over time and was no longer limited to the winter, the graduates of the building trade schools often practiced the profession of architects. Formally, they were first building trade masters who shaped the style of raw brick buildings in northern Germany . Towards the end of the 19th century at the latest, artistically ambitious graduates often visited the architecture faculties of technical colleges as guest auditors (" interns ") after graduating from the building trade school , where they could not acquire diplomas or exams due to a lack of university entrance qualification ( Abitur ) .
One of the most important style-defining architecture teachers of the 19th century was Conrad Wilhelm Hase , lecturer at the Technical University of Hanover from 1849 to 1894. He founded the so-called “Hanover School”, which drew its repertoire of forms from medieval brick Gothic. Many of Hase's students became teachers at building trade schools and passed on the “program” of the Hanover School. (An impressive example of this style is the Hamburg warehouse district ).
From the 1920s onwards, most of the building trade schools were rededicated to technical schools, building colleges or technical colleges. Outside of Prussia, the corresponding educational institutions usually had different names officially, whereby the legal regulations of the building industry that differed from state to state (i.e. not uniformly across the empire) played a role. There were detailed regulations regarding the recognition of “foreign” qualifications. The unofficial collective term "building trade school" was in use for all state-recognized training centers in Germany at the latest in the 1920s.
While the access of women to architectural training at the German technical universities was regulated by law between 1900 and 1909, and subsequently (few) first female architecture students enrolled, women stayed at building trade schools - primarily because of the parallel craft apprenticeship - a very big exception.
Building trade schools in Germany ceased before 1900
- The Marienwerder building trade school existed from 1819 to 1834; the founder, director and teacher was building inspector Salomo Sachs until 1820 .
- The building trade school in Wetzlar existed from 1878 to 1885.
Building trade schools in Germany in 1928
Directory of state (or state-recognized) building trade schools in Germany (as of February 1928):
- State Building Trade School Aachen (→ FH Aachen )
- State building trade school Barmen-Elberfeld ( Wuppertal ) (→ Bergische Universität Wuppertal )
- State building trade school Berlin-Neukölln
- State Building Trade School Bytom (Upper Silesia) (1922–1945, previously Building Trade School Kattowitz 1895–1922)
- Wroclaw State Building Trade School
- Staatliche Baugewerkschule Buxtehude (→ Fachhochschule Nordostniedersachsen ; → Hochschule 21 )
- Staatliche Baugewerkschule Deutsch Krone ( Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia , before 1922 Province of West Prussia ; since 1945 Wałcz Raduń, Poland)
- State building trade school Eckernförde
- State Building Trade School Erfurt (→ University of Applied Sciences Erfurt )
- State building trade school Essen
- State building trade school Frankfurt am Main
- State building trade school Frankfurt an der Oder
- State building trade school Görlitz
- State Building Trade School Hildesheim (→ University of Applied Science and Art )
- State building trade school Höxter (→ Ostwestfalen-Lippe University )
- State building trade school Idstein (Taunus)
- State building trade school Kassel
- Staatliche Baugewerkschule Köln (later State Engineering School for Civil Engineering Cologne , today Faculty of the Technical University of Cologne )
- State building trade school Königsberg (East Prussia)
- State building trade school Magdeburg
- State building trade school Münster
- State building trade school Nienburg (Weser)
- State Civil Engineering School Rendsburg
- State Building Trade School in Szczecin
as well as in non-governmental sponsorship :
- Royal Building Trade School (→ State Building School Munich ) (→ University of Applied Sciences Munich )
- As early as April 10, 1823, the Royal Building Trade School was founded as the first of its kind in Munich under the protection of King Max I Joseph under the direction of Gustav von Vorherr to “perfect the building industry and especially the education of the building trade” .
- Higher Technical State College in Nuremberg
- Higher Technical State School in Kaiserslautern
- State Building Trade School Coburg (→ Coburg University )
as well as in non-state sponsorship:
- Municipal Building School Augsburg
- Municipal Building School Nuremberg
- District Building School Regensburg
- District building trade school Kaiserslautern
- State Trade Academy and State Building School Chemnitz
- Saxon State Building School Dresden (in the Inner Neustadt )
- Saxon State Building School Leipzig
- Saxon State Building School Plauen (Vogtland)
- State higher building school for civil engineering Zittau
- Württemberg Higher Building School Stuttgart
- Badische Höhere Technische Staatslehranstalt Karlsruhe (also: Staatstechnikum Karlsruhe) (→ Hochschule Karlsruhe - Technik und Wirtschaft )
- State Building School Gotha (formerly the Ducal Building Trade School Gotha )
- State building trade school Weimar
as well as in non-state sponsorship:
- Hessian building trade and trade school in Bingen
- Building trade school of the technical colleges Offenbach (Main)
- Braunschweigische Landesbaugewerkschule Holzminden (→ University of Applied Science and Art / → Friedrich Ludwig Haarmann # Baugewerkschule Holzminden )
in non-governmental sponsorship:
- Municipal building school Zerbst
in non-governmental sponsorship:
- Building trade school of the technical college Neustadt (Mecklenburg)
- State building trade school Hamburg
- Building trade school of the technical state schools in Bremen
- Building trade school of the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck
- Wetzlarer Anzeiger , No. 6 of January 8, 1885
- founded in 1900, new school building at Aachener Blücherplatz moved into on October 20, 1900 - Aachen Chamber of Commerce and Industry (publisher): 25 years of cooperation agreement between FH Aachen and IHK Aachen. Aachen 2009, p. 8. ( online as PDF document)