|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 51 ° 33 ' N , 14 ° 32' E
|Management Community :||loop|
|Height :||129 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||42 km 2|
|Residents:||2400 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||57 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||02959|
|Area code :||035773|
|License plate :||GR, LÖB, NOL, NY, WSW, ZI|
|Community key :||14 6 26 490|
|Community structure:||3 parts of the community|
|Association administration address:||Friedensstrasse 83
|Mayor :||Reinhard Bork ( CDU )|
|Location of the community of Runde in the district of Görlitz|
The village of Loop , Upper Sorbian , is the seat of the municipality of the same name and the administrative community Runde in the district of Görlitz in East Saxony . The two villages Rohne and Mulkwitz have belonged to the municipality since the mid-1990s .
As a church village in the Sorbian settlement area of Upper Lusatia, it is the center of the Schleifer region, where the Schleifer costume and the Schleifer dialect of the Sorbian language are at home. In the Schleifer dialect the place has the unofficial name Slěpe .
The community Runde is located in a wooded area on the northwestern edge of the Muskauer Heide in the northern part of the district, on the border with Brandenburg . It is located ten kilometers northwest of Weißwasser and 13 kilometers east of the urban area of Spremberg . The community is bordered by the communities of Groß Düben in the east, Trebendorf in the south, Spreetal in the west and the town of Spremberg with its districts Graustein and Lieskau in the north.
Part of the Halbendorfer See and the Altes Schleifer Teichgelände nature reserve are located in the municipality . The Struga , which flows through all three parts of the municipality, is also characteristic of the Schleifer region .
Loop was first mentioned as Slepe on January 21, 1272 . At this time the settlement process, which probably began in the Schleifer region in the 12th or early 13th century by Sorbs from Niederlausitz, was in full swing. Despite the proximity to the old settlement area of the Muskau rule , the villages were in sovereign possession. Towards the end of the 14th century, Runde was the seat of the von Köckritz aristocratic family , who originally came from the Vogtland and had other possessions in Lower Lusatia. The traces of the family are lost in a loop around 1430; Towards the middle of the century are Loop and a few other places in the parish of Muskauer Pertinenzien. In order to reduce the debts of the Muskau rulership, Wenzel von Biberstein sold the taxes incurred from Runde and Rohne to the St. Marienstern monastery for 200 shock groschen in 1464 . In a smoldering dispute between the Bibersteins and the sovereign, King Ferdinand I , Sigmund von Biberstein expelled the Catholic pastor fromschleife in 1541 to be replaced by a Protestant preacher.
During the Thirty Years' War , the location of the village on Niedere Landesstrasse (also known as Niedere Heeresstrasse), which led from Leipzig to Warsaw via Spremberg , Muskau and Sorau , had a devastating effect . Between 1630 and 1647, 21 out of 40 farms were devastated by troop marches and their consequences. Towards the end of the war, the Muskau rule came to the Counts of Callenberg through marriage . Curt Reinicke II. Von Callenberg fought between 1678 and 1690 with farmers of the Schleifer parish about unpaid labor. After initially there were only Schleifer farmers, from 1686 there were also arguments with farmers from Mulkwitz, Mühlrose and Rohne. Determined to break the peasant resistance, he used his lordly possibilities. As a result, several farmers fled to the neighboring rule Hoyerswerda or Lieskau in Lower Lusatia. In 1730 he was given a school by his son, Count Alexander von Callenberg.
In the Wars of Liberation , troops from both sides marched through Loop. As a result, the Kingdom of Saxony , fighting on the French side, had to cede the eastern part of Upper Lusatia to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815. As a result, loop came into the Rothenburg district , newly formed in 1816 , in the province of Silesia . Regulatory processes delayed the abolition of feudalism in Loop for about 30 years until 1858. The Vorwerk loop 1873 was the ninth and last of the twenty grand outworks, which were abandoned by the Ethics Muskau due to poor yields.
On the night of June 2nd to 3rd, 1889, an economy was on fire. Strong east wind caused the fire to jump over, so that in a short time 31 buildings burned. The fire destroyed 11 farmsteads on both sides of the village street. A plaque with the inscription Eben-Ezer ('Stone of God's Help', something like “God helped us up to this point”) reminds of this major fire , which was installed in the new residential building of the last farmstead affected.
The Cottbus – Görlitz line of the Berlin-Görlitzer Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft was run south of the village in 1867 through the district loop. Before the turn of the century, the railway station was expanded to include a post office, a waiting room for passengers, residential buildings for railway officials and a station for goods traffic. On August 7, 1905, human error between Spremberg and Runde resulted in a head-on collision between two trains , killing 19 people and seriously injuring 40 others.
In 1914, the community acquired the land from the Struga to the railway line from the Muskau registrar Traugott Herrman Graf von Arnim-Muskau, and in 1920 from his adoptive son and successor, Adolf Graf von Arnim-Muskau , another 150 acres of forest behind the railway line. These areas were divided into parcels and sold to interested parties. The resulting settlement and the population flow from lost eastern areas ensured an enormous increase in population. In 1926, a 100 kV line was laid from the Trattendorf power plant to Sagan by loop, which had already been electrified before the outbreak of the First World War . This line was dismantled in 1946 as a reparation payment for the Soviet Union.
After the NSDAP came to power in 1934, surveying work for the construction of a "chicken farm" was carried out on the road to Spremberg west of Runde. In the following year, the construction of the main air ammunition plant in Weißwasser began there. A siding secured the transport of workers and building materials, so that by the outbreak of the Second World War a housing estate and an ammunition plant (Muna) with production and administration buildings, tank farms and 100 ammunition bunkers with a total capacity of over 2500 t were built. Even after the construction, the Muna remained a great employer; 300–400 employees produced grenades between two and 12.8 cm. Gaps created by men fit for war were closed in the war years with women and prisoners from Belarus and Ukraine. In February 1945 the ammunition plant was cleared and relocated to Langlau in Franconia . Unlike the Muna, which was never attacked from the air, the treks were targets of low-flying pilots.
The village has also been the target of air strikes several times. On April 10, 1945, when the third line of defense on the Neisse front was being built up feverishly, Field Marshal Schörner landed in a loop. He inspected the Muna and the defensive positions of the troops. On the market square in Weißwasser, he had soldiers shot for "cowardice in front of the enemy".
On April 16, 1945, the last great battle of the war in Germany began with the crossing of the Oder-Neisse Line. Regardless of his own losses, Stalin was willing to take Berlin before the Western Allies. In the afternoon of the day, low-flying aircraft fired at loop with bombs, grenades and on-board armaments. Most of the residents moved under cover of the onset of dusk and the next day in the direction of Neustadt / Spree and on via Burghammer on a path south around Hoyerswerda to Wittichenau . The Muna was taken undestroyed after fighting for the village with heavy losses on both sides and on the evening of April 17th a white flag was waving on the church tower. The advance of the Red Army continued and the next day it reached the Spree in Neustadt . The refugee route continued on April 19 through Kamenz , Brauna and Reichenbach . In the following days he reached his provisional goal in Wachau . When the Wachau was evacuated on May 7th, it went on via Langebrück and the Dresdner Heide to the Weißen Hirsch ; some of the wagons moved on and crossed the Elbe .
After the end of the war, the refugees withdrew on May 15 and 16 along Reichsstrasse 97 and on via Burg , Burghammer and Neustadt to Runde. They were looted along the way. Arrived in Loop, they found a partially destroyed village. The church was badly damaged, 11 farms and eight other houses as well as 28 barns and stables were completely destroyed. Many houses were looted and the cattle driven away. The dead were recovered and buried for about eight weeks. Fallen Soviet soldiers from Runde and the surrounding villages were buried in the Heroes' Cemetery of the Red Army in Trebendorf .
The Munage area was partially blown up and partially used by the Red Army as a base with around 300 soldiers. During the GDR era, it was expanded into a tank farm with a capacity of around 70 million liters. Another part of the complex was used as an administration school and at times as a kindergarten.
After the administrative reform of 1952 , which resulted in the dissolution of the states and the introduction of districts, Loop was assigned to the Weißwasser district ( Cottbus district ).
After an agricultural production cooperative (LPG) had still not been founded in 1959 and the mayor was not interested in founding one under his chairmanship (“I'd rather stamp”), he and his deputy were recalled. In March 1960, the Red Brigades came to Runde, which, regardless of the law and order, urged farmers to “voluntarily join” the LPG. Under enormous psychological pressure and in order not to forfeit personal freedom, an LPG was finally founded.
Until 1969, lignite was mined in the Trebendorfer Felder opencast mine on the boundary of the district . During this time, the opening of the Nochten opencast mine opened up another major employer. As a result of further influx, the existing capacities of the school loop had reached their limits several times, so that in 1968 the construction of a new school complex with a capacity for around 700 pupils began, which was handed over in two construction phases in 1971 and 1972.
After the reunification of Germany and the withdrawal of the Soviet Army from the Munagelände, it had to be cleaned at great expense. The use of the area was gradually released for the local clubs, for example the rifle clubschleife has set up a shooting range there.
The name was probably derived from the Slavic "slip", murmuring , which could come from the murmuring sound when walking on peatland. After Meschgang [Loop - Slepo] was built on a place oozed out of the water when you went over to Old Slavonic slěpati, gush, gush . According to Eichler / Walther , it is more likely that the Old Sorbian adjective "slěpy" is blind . Loop would then be a “place by the murky stream”.
Population and language
For his statistics on the Sorbian population in Upper Lusatia, Arnošt Muka determined a population of 615 in the 1880s, including 595 Sorbs (97%) and 20 Germans. In 1956 Ernst Tschernik counted a Sorbian-speaking population of 44.9%. The decline was v. a. caused by the advancing industrialization of the region and the influx of German-speaking resettlers from the former eastern areas. The Schleifer dialect , a transition dialect between Upper and Lower Sorbian , is still spoken in the village today. In addition, the parish forms its own costume region .
Since the municipal council election on May 26, 2019 , the 16 seats of the municipal council have been distributed among the individual groups as follows:
The majority of the religious population is Protestant. The parish includes the seven villages of the administrative community (Groß Düben, Halbendorf, Mulkwitz, Mühlrose, Rohne, Runde, Trebendorf) and Lieskau in Brandenburg . Until the beginning of the 1920s Neustadt / Spree and the Mühlros district Ruhlmühle were re-parish to the parish of Spreewitz.
Within the traditional Schleifer costume of the Sorbian population there is a separate church attire costume .
The church was first mentioned in 1346. The church in Tzschelln , which is documented for the year 1495, was a branch church of Runde until 1588, then of Nochten . The chancel of the Schleifer Church is the only evidence of late Gothic architecture in the region. The nave was added to it around 1685. The first organ was installed in 1859 as part of a renovation. The Dresden painter William Krause was also involved in an interior renovation ; he was already in Loop in the summer months from 1902 to 1912 and had a studio in the rectory. Towards the end of the Second World War, on April 16 and 17, 1945, the church was badly damaged. The reconstruction took place until October 1946. A new crucifix was erected in 1948. It was carved by the artist Dorothea von Philipsborn, who fled from Silesia, working from home in Trebendorf.
In addition to the Evangelical Church Congregation, there is a Evangelical Free Church Congregation.
In the Witaj kindergarten in Rohne as well as in the elementary and high schools “Dr. Marja Grollmus ”, Sorbian is also taught in addition to the normal Saxon curriculum.
The first civil service school in the new federal states was housed in the building complex of the administration school. In the only civil service school in Saxony, people doing civil service completed one to two-week courses in political education by June 2011.
Loop is connected to the Berlin – Görlitz railway line with a train station . The regional train line RB65 of the East German Railway (ODEG) stops there .
The federal highway 156 runs north of the community, the northern route of the planned federal highway 160 through the community area was rejected by the majority of the community representatives.
The writer and half-builder Hanzo Njepila (1766–1856) lived in Rohne throughout his life. His works give an insight into the rural life of the Sorbs of his time.
Jakub Lorenc (1874–1939) acquired a sawmill in loop , the income from which allowed him to work as a freelance writer under the pseudonym Zalěski. He is considered the most important Sorbian writer of the interwar period. His grandson Kito Lorenc (1938–2017) was born in Runde. He is the most important contemporary Sorbian poet.
The Sorbian teacher, scientist and statistician Ernst Tschernik (1910–1988), who prepared comprehensive demographic statistics for the Sorbian Lusatia in 1954/55, came from Runde.
The racing cyclist Dieter Zuchold (1939–2014) was born in Runde. He lived in Leipzig and was GDR champion in the stalker race in 1966.
Former soccer player Hans-Joachim Wank (* 1951) was born in Runde. He played for BSG Energie Cottbus in the GDR league.
→ see also: List of cultural monuments in a loop
- late Gothic church from the 14th century in a loop
- Parish outbuilding in field stone brick construction in a loop
- Sorbian cultural center in a loop
- Njepila farm with a Sorbian farmhouse parlor in Rohne
- Nature reserve (NSG) Altes Schleifer pond area (large pond)
- NSG Urwald Weißwasser / NSG Trebendorfer Tiergarten
- Landscape protection area Mulkwitzer Hochkippe
- Halbendorfer See (south beach)
Folklore and historical homestead
The Sorbian folklore ensemble is known beyond the borders of Lusatia for the tradition and customs of the Schleifer region. In the Rohne part of the municipality, the Njepila Association runs a historic homestead with a museum.
The SV Lok Loop, founded in 1901 as the gymnastics club “Feste Eiche”, is the largest sports club in the parish. The first men's handball team was championship master of Brandenburg-Süd in 1930 and vice master-master in 1934. In field handball, Lokschleife achieved promotion to the double -tier GDR league in 1961 and remained in this for five years until the two seasons were unified. After the fall of the Wall, the women's fistball team was able to establish itself in the 1st and 2nd Bundesliga . The SV Lok football teams are particularly well known regionally.
- Helmut Hantscho: Loop, Slěpo - village chronicle 1272–1997 . Lausitzer printing and publishing house, Bautzen 1995.
- Hermann Graf von Arnim, Willi A. Boelcke: Muskau. Jurisdiction between the Spree and the Neisse . 2nd Edition. Ullstein publishing house, Frankfurt / M, Berlin, Vienna October 1978.
- From the Muskauer Heide to the Rotstein. Home book of the Lower Silesian Upper Lusatia District . Lusatia Verlag, Bautzen 2006, ISBN 978-3-929091-96-0 , p. 223 ff .
- Community loop
- Loop in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Kólesko eV
- Sorbian cultural center loop
- ↑ Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2019 ( help on this ).
- ↑ The State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony gives 2324 hectares of the 4187 hectares of community area as forest area, see 2007 community statistics for loop .
- ^ Jan Meschgang : The place names of Upper Lusatia . 2nd Edition. Domowina-Verlag, Bautzen 1979 (edited by Ernst Eichler ).
- ↑ Ernst Eichler , Hans Walther (ed.): Historical book of place names of Saxony . Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-05-003728-8 , Volume II, page 360
- ↑ Ernst Tschernik: The development of the Sorbian population . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1954, p. 121 .
- ^ Ludwig Elle: Language policy in the Lausitz . Domowina-Verlag, Bautzen 1995, p. 255 .
- ↑ Results of the 2019 municipal council elections
- ^ Congregation loop - church history. Retrieved May 2, 2008 .
- ^ Sorbian fine arts - Sorbian art in the 20th century. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 18, 2012 ; Retrieved May 2, 2008 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Lausitzer Rundschau: The special handball premiere 48 years ago. (No longer available online.) May 16, 2009, archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; Retrieved August 26, 2010 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.