|location||District of Görlitz , Saxony ( Germany )|
|rock||Basalt breakthrough in granite|
|particularities||Bismarck column , observation tower|
The Landeskrone ( Sorbian : Sedło ) is the local mountain of the city of Görlitz in eastern Upper Lusatia . With a height of is located southwest of the city center and is an excursion destination with a view of Görlitz and the surrounding area as well as the Jizera and Giant Mountains .
The national crown is of volcanic origin, it has a granite base with a basalt cone . It was created around 34 million years ago as a cinder cone . Gas-rich and basaltic melt formed foamed lava fragments (slags), which were created when it emerged from the surface of the earth. The slag was deposited around the lava slot as it was ejected and formed a wall of slag. However, this was largely eroded again by water and wind . A lava lake of low-gas lava, which had formed inside the cinder cone during the late volcanic activity, largely survived the erosion and forms the summit.
Beginning of settlement
Settlement on the Landeskrone can be traced back to the younger Bronze Age , as evidenced by finds from the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Lusatian culture in the area of the 3,000 m² so-called upper castle ramparts. In Slavic times, probably around or soon after 900, in addition to a fortification between the two peaks of the mountain, another semicircular weir system was built on the southern slope of the mountain. This secured an area of around 10,000 m² and was first researched in more detail by Rudolf Virchow in 1870 through small excavations. The proven stone defensive wall is up to 8 meters thick. Further archaeological investigations in 1909, in the 1920s and 1930s as well as in 1969/1970 uncovered, among other things, various ceramic shards, but also traces of iron processing and bad luck. These finds justify the assumption that the state crown was the central location of the Besunzane tribe mentioned only in the folk table of the Bavarian geographer . Jasper von Richthofen goes even further, who even suspects an early urban settlement on the state crown, but the Milzener , whose area, as evidenced by a document, included at least the area around today's city of Görlitz since 1071 at the latest. If one wants to follow the localization of the Besunzane in the area around Görlitz, this small tribe may have merged into the probably much larger tribe of the Milzener soon after 900. At least the Besunzans are no longer mentioned in later written sources. However, previous excavations on the Landeskrone, which were very focused on fortification, have so far not uncovered any traces of dense interior development, as one would have to expect in such a central location of the Milzener. However, the thesis of the perhaps urban center on the state crown is underpinned by its mention in Thietmar von Merseburg's chronicle.
In Thietmar of Merseburg the king is in connection with a military campaign, Henry II. Against the summer 1015 I. Boleslaw the conquest of a large undertook urbs Businc mentioned by Bohemian troops. 1,000 male prisoners were taken alone. If the stated number of prisoners is actually correct, up to 4,000 people could have been in the castle at the time of the attack. This “magna urbs businc” can be identified with a certain degree of certainty with the fortifications on the state crown, as this was strategically very important for the emperor's campaign against Silesia. The name of the small and large Biesnitz towns below the mountain (around 1300 "Bisencz"), today districts of Görlitz, and possibly referring to the Besunzane tribe, supports this thesis.
In 1268 the state crown appears in a source as "castrum landischrone". It probably owes this German name to the knight family "von Landskron". The ancestral seat of these imperial knights was on the imperial castle Landskron on the Ahr , whose castle hill is similar in shape and size to Görlitz's local mountain.
In the High Middle Ages, an important castle was built on the state crown . For a long time it belonged to the lords of Bieberstein, who were wealthy in Bohemia and Lusatia . And it was used in the Bohemian administration and defense system to monitor the Via Regia (Hohe Straße), the trade route that ran from Erfurt via Bautzen and Görlitz to Breslau in the Middle Ages .
When the castle came into the possession of the city of Görlitz around 1440, it was demolished at the behest of the council . In 1620 Johann Georg I of Saxony used the state crown as an observation point . In 1758 the Austrian General Esterhazy stationed two hussar regiments on the summit and in 1866 the Prussian army command occupied the mountain during the war against Austria .
Spiritual change in Central Europe
At the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the demand to design the summit as a place of residence changed more and more. The romantic charm was discovered in the age of poets and thinkers. In 1796 the lookout tower was built, which is still standing today .
On December 18, 1901, the Bismarckian Column on the southern summit of the Landeskrone was inaugurated. It was built on the initiative of the Görlitz Academic Youth and is realized in the “Götterdämmerung” version by the architect Wilhelm Kreis . The Bismarckian column on the Görlitzer Landeskrone was the first in Silesia when it was inaugurated. The column was renovated in 1994/1995 and is now a popular destination.
Today there is a hotel with a restaurant and a lookout tower on the mountain. The higher, second tower served as a television converter for the city of Görlitz for decades and, after almost all small transmitters in Saxony were switched off in the summer of 2007, it was one of the last stations that still broadcast an analog television program.
- Zdeněk Měřínský : K Lokalizaci hradu Businc u Dětmara Merseburského (Thietmari Merseburgensis episcopi chronicon ad a. 1015). Sborník Prací Filozofické Faculty Brněnské Univerzity. Studia minora Facultatis Philosophicae Universitatis Brunensis E 40, 1995, pp 135-143. German summary: On the localization of the Businc Thietmars castle of Merseburg in 1015 (Thietmari Merseburgensis episcopi chronicon ad a. 1015) also on the Internet ( Memento from August 21, 2006 in the Internet Archive ).
- Jasper von Richthofen: The state crown near Görlitz - an important Slavic fortification in eastern Upper Lusatia. Work and research reports on Saxon soil monument preservation 45, 2003, pp. 263-300. (Here also in detail about the history of the mountain in the high and late Middle Ages and in modern times up to the present day. The article appeared in abridged version under the same title shortly before the long version in: Görlitzer Magazin , 16, 2003, ISBN 3-932693-79- 5 , pp. 3-18.)
- Jasper von Richthofen (ed.): Besunzane - Milzener - Sorben. The Slavic Upper Lusatia between Poles, Czechs and Germans . Publication series of the municipal collections for history and culture Görlitz NF 37, 2004 (exhibition catalog for the special exhibition of the same name in the Görlitz cultural history museum 2004).
- Joerg Buechner, Olaf Tietz: Reconstruction of the Landeskrone Scoria Cone in the Lusatian Volcanic Field, Eastern Germany - Long-term degradation of volcanic edifices and implications for landscape evolution . In: Geomorphology , 151-152, 2012, pp. 175-187, doi : 10.1016 / j.geomorph.2012.01.027 .