Giant Mountains

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Giant Mountains
Krkonoše (Czech)
Karkonosze (Polish)
Obří důl (Riesengrund) with Sněžka

Obří důl (Riesengrund) with Sněžka

Highest peak Schneekoppe ( 1603  m npm )
location Poland, Czech Republic
part of Sudeten
Giant Mountains Krkonoše (Czech) Karkonosze (Polish) (Sudeten)
Giant Mountains Krkonoše (Czech) Karkonosze (Polish)
Coordinates 50 ° 44 ′  N , 15 ° 44 ′  E Coordinates: 50 ° 44 ′  N , 15 ° 44 ′  E
surface 631 km²
Topography of the Giant Mountains (100 times elevated)

The Giant Mountains ( Czech Krkonoše , Polish Karkonosze , mountain Silesian Riesageberge or Riesegeberche ) are the highest mountains in the Czech Republic and Silesia . Central areas of the mountains are located in the 56 km² Karkonoski Park Narodowy (Giant Mountains National Park).

Geographical location

Giant Mountains between the cities of Hirschberg ( Hirschbg. ) In the north and Reichenberg ( Reichenbg. ) In the southwest with the Schneekoppe ( Schneek. ) West of Liebau on a map from around 1905

The Giant Mountains extend on the border between the Polish Lower Silesian Voivodeship and the Czech Republic and reach a height of 1602 m on the Schneekoppe (Czech. Sněžka , Polish. Śnieżka ). The mountains have a sub-alpine character with glacial cirques , mountain lakes and the steep rocky slopes of the mountains. The source of the Elbe is located near the ridge, about 7.5 km northwest of the center of Špindlerův Mlýn (Spindleruv Mlyn) at an altitude of almost 1400 m .

As the highest part of the Sudetes , the Giant Mountains are the highest area of ​​the low mountain range . It towers over the Black Forest by more than 100 m and was thus the highest German low mountain range until 1945 . Since 1959 (Poland) and 1963 (Czech Republic) the Giant Mountains have been a national park under nature protection . Large parts of the Giant Mountains are also protected by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve . The legends and fairy tales about the mountain spirit Rübezahl (Czech: Krakonoš , Polish: Liczyrzepa or Duch Gór = mountain spirit), who has his home in the Giant Mountains, are well known.


Travel report from the Giant Mountains from 1696 to 1736

The name Giant Mountains was already popular at the beginning of the 18th century. In older documents the area is usually referred to as a mountain range ; Snow Mountains or Bohemian Mountains . Nevertheless, there are earlier documentary mentions. On the map of Silesia (1571) by Martin Hellweg, the highest mountain, the Schneekoppe, is called Riesenberg. Likewise in the Trautenauer Chronik (1549) by Simon Hüttel (... I am Symon Hyttel with eleven neighbors from Trautenauw walked to the top of the Hrisberg) . In the chronicle there are also names for the mountains surrounding the Schneekoppe (Hrisengepirge, Hrisengebirge, Risengepirge) , whereby the origin of the term from the Schneekoppe becomes clear with the name Hrisenpergian Mountains . According to Ernst von Seydlitz, the name comes from giants , which are wooden chute-like channels for transporting felled tree trunks from steep mountain valleys.

Until the 20th century, the Polish name of the mountain was mostly Góry Olbrzymie (Giant Mountains), more rarely Góry Śnieżne (Snow Mountains ). The now common and also official name Karkonosze was also in use and is an early adoption from Czech, whereby the Czech name probably goes back to the probably Celtic form Korkontoi (Κορκόντοι) attested by Ptolemy or is of Old Slavic origin. Wincenty Pol called the mountains “Góry Olbrzymie” in 1847, while Kornel Ujejski used the name “Karkonosze” in the same year.


Krkonoše is the Czech name for the Giant Mountains, here marked within the geomorphological division of the Czech Republic and Poland

The Giant Mountains are characterized by a complex geological structure. Numerous rocks (e.g. granite , mica schist and gneiss ) and minerals such as B. rock crystal . The glacial lakes in the northern part of the mountains are remains from the Ice Age .

The granite represents the main mass of rocks in the Giant Mountains. The ellipsoidal occurrence, a typical pluton , reaches a length of 66 km in its west-east direction and measures 20 km at its widest point. In the core of the deposit lies the central granite , which is encased by older gneiss and mica layers. Granite from the late Carboniferous period penetrated these layers . The so-called Giant Mountains granite consists of reddish-blue or flesh-red to white-blue orthoclase , yellow-brown oligoclase , quartz and biotite . Furthermore come plagioclase , muscovite , pyrite , apatite and zircon ago. The granite has a porphyry or even or fine-grain structure. The same-grain granite is found mainly on the ridge, especially around Janowice Wielkie (Jannowitz) and north of the so-called "Friesensteine". It is also called mountain granite .

The granite with a porphyry structure, in the fine-grained base of which there are individual large minerals as so-called sprinkles , is found on the eastern edge of the Giant Mountains and south of Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg) .

In the Giant Mountains granite, magma masses penetrated in the south-west-north-east direction of the massif, which formed gangue rocks . The deposits are up to 30 meters wide and in some cases kilometers long. These are aplites (fine-grain granites) and pegmatites (large -grain granites), porphyry granites and lamprophyres . There are also malchite and kersantite . Basalts emerge en masse to the surface north of Jelenia Góra and Orle (Karlsthal) .

The red porphyry Giant Mountains granite was mined around Jannowitz, Karpniki (Fischbach) and Strużnica (Neudorf) . This granite shows a clear directional structure due to the parallel storage of the feldspars and often has hairline cracks. It was mainly used as a building block.

The geologists Ludwig Milch (1867–1928) and Hans Cloos (1886–1951) carried out detailed investigations into the granites of the Giant Mountains ; the latter coined the term “ granite tectonics ”.


View from the north to the main ridge. Big Balaclava (Śmielec) (1424 m) and Black Agnetendorfer Snow Pit (Czarny Kocioł Jagniątkowski)

Silesian ridge

The main ridge of the Giant Mountains runs largely in a west-east direction and forms the border between Poland and the Czech Republic . The summit chain, also known as the “Prussian” or “Silesian ridge”, is divided in the middle by the saddle of the Mädelwiese (1178 m) into a western and an eastern half. On the eastern Silesian ridge is the 1602 m high Schneekoppe (Polish Śnieżka , Czech. Sněžka ), the highest mountain in the Giant Mountains and the whole of the Czech Republic. The highest point on the western Silesian ridge is the Hohe Rad at 1509 m .

The rock formation Bräuerhansens Steine ( Borówczane Skały in Polish ) extends on the slope on the northern slope of the Veilchenstein at an altitude of 1000 to 1050 meters .

Bohemian comb

View from the main ridge to the Bohemian ridge and the Špindlerova bouda

In the Czech Republic, the Bohemian Ridge (also known as the Inner Ridge ), which is only about 100 m lower, runs south parallel to the main ridge . At Špindlerův Mlýn it is broken through by the Elbe and can therefore also be divided into a western and an eastern part. The Bohemian ridge has the highest elevations in the west with the 1435 m high Kotel ( Kesselkoppe ) and in the east with the 1555 m high Luční hora ( high meadow mountain ).

Borders and foothills

Several side ridges (Czech: Krkonošské rozsochy) adjoin the Bohemian ridge to the south. On the Silesian north side in Poland the mountains drop steeply towards the Hirschberg Valley , while on the Bohemian south side in the Czech Republic they descend towards the Bohemian Basin . The foothills of the mountains each have a sea level of 300 meters or more. In the northeast, the Giant Mountains in Poland continue in the Landeshuter Kamm , in the southeast it extends over the Kolbenkamm ridge to the Liebauer Tor and Rehorn Mountains . The western boundary runs along the Neuweltpass (886 m) near Jakuszyce (Jakobsthal) , behind which the Jizera Mountains join on the Polish-Czech border . The extension of the Giant Mountains is 631 km², of which 454 km² are on Czech and 177 km² on Polish territory.

Hydrogeological aspects

Elbe falls with Elbe falls around 1900

The main ridge and the Bohemian ridge are separated by the valleys of Mummel (Mumlava) , Elbe (Labe) and Weißwasser (Bílé Labe) . Other important rivers on the Czech side are the Velka Úpa (Great Aupa) and Malá Úpa ( Little Aupa ) as well as the Jizerka (Little Jizera) . The Mumlava and the Jizerka flow into the Jizera (Iser) , which rises in the adjacent Jizera Mountains and flows through the southwest of the Giant Mountains.

Kochelfall in the Zackental below Schreiberhau

The rivers on the Czech side often plunge over steep ridges from the edges of the ridges into the valleys formed by Ice Age glaciers. The largest falls on the south side of the mountain are Labský Waterfall ( Elbfall ) m with a height of 50, Pančavský vodopad (Pantschenfall) (140 m, the highest waterfall in the Czech Republic), Horni Úpský vodopad ( Upper Aupafall ), Dolni Úpský vodopad ( Low Aupafall ) and Mumlavský vodopád (Mummelfall) (10 m). The most important rivers on the Polish side are Zacken (Kamienna) , Lomnitz (Łomnica) and Bober (Bóbr) . They and their tributaries often run in narrow rocky gorges and, due to the steep gradient, also form impressive waterfalls, such as B. the Wodospad Kamieńczyka (Zackelfall) (27 m), the Wodospad Szklarki (Kochelfall) (13.5 m), the Wodospad na Łomnicy (Lomnica Falls) (10 m) or the Wodospad Podgórnej (Hainfall) (10 m).

The watershed between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea runs over the main ridge of the Giant Mountains . The rivers on the Czech south side drain over the Elbe into the North Sea, the rivers on the Polish north side over the Oder into the Baltic Sea.


The Giant Mountains represent a main unit ( Celek ) in the geomorphological division of the Czech Republic . This is divided into further sub-units ( Podcelek ); in this case Krkonošské hřbety ( main ridge ), Krkonošské rozsochy ( branch ridges ) and Vrchlabská vrchovina ( Hohenelber Uplands ). Each sub-unit can be broken down into smaller components, which are then called Okrsek ( district ), Podokrsek ( sub-district ) and, as the smallest unit, Část or Vchrol ( section  /  peak ).

As with the geographical names, Czech name forms are used almost without exception in the formerly bilingual area. The reason for this lies on the one hand in the language policy of the Czechoslovak state after 1918 and 1945, which aimed to replace previous German names with Czech equivalents or new creations. On the other hand, Czech names were similarly disregarded by the German-speaking population.

It is not uncommon for distinguishing features to be lost in this ideological procedure. As a result, vague and contradicting terms are often used, which are also reflected in the geomorphological structure of the Giant Mountains.

Before 1945, only German names were in use on the Silesian, now Polish, side of the Giant Mountains. New Polish names were set politically.

The following two tables are based on the classification made by the Czech side. Czech names are therefore mentioned first, followed by German names and, where available, Polish terms at the end.

Geomorphological classification of the Giant Mountains 
Bohemian masses Sudetes Giant Mountains / West Sudetes
Geomorphological structure of the Giant Mountains.jpg  Color code  German name
  ▃▃ ▃▃ ▃▃   Western Silesian Ridge
  ▃▃▃▃▃▃▃  Eastern Silesian Ridge
  ■ ■ ■ ■  Schmiedeberger comb or forest comb
  ▃▃ ▃▃ ▃▃  Western Bohemian ridge
  ▃▃▃▃▃▃▃  Eastern Bohemian ridge
  ▃▃▃▃▃▃▃  Prichowitz comb
  ▃▃ ▃▃ ▃▃  Rochlitzer Bergland (Kesselkamm)
  ▃▃ ▃▃ ▃▃  Wolf crest
  ▃▃▃▃▃▃▃  Heidelberg ridge
  ▃▃ ▃▃ ▃▃  Wachur back
  ▃▃▃▃▃▃▃  Fuchsberg ridge
  ▃▃ ▃▃ ▃▃  Back of the rose
  ▃▃▃▃▃▃▃  Marschendorfer Mountains (Piston Comb)
  ▃▃ ▃▃ ▃▃  Langenau mountains
  ▃▃▃▃▃▃▃  Ladichrücke
  ■ ■ ■ ■  Rehorn Mountains
  Additional map symbols: Simple icon location.svg  Schneekoppe │ BSicon lINT.svgSignificant peaks │ ButtonOrange.svg  from west to east: Neuweltpass, Spindlerpass and Eulenpass


  1. The common origin of the terms is obvious (růže = rose; hora = mountain → Rosenberger Hochland ).
  2. As is often the case, they are named after the first significant survey. The name Schwarzenberg is probably based on the lush and therefore dark-seeming vegetation; the affinity of names between the noble family of Schwarzenbergs , who owned property here, and the mountain peak is purely coincidental.
  3. Named after the village of Vilémov ( Wilhelmsthal ) on the Iser (not to be confused with Vilémov ( Willomitz )).
  4. Named after the mountain Kapradnik ( farm mountain ) above Kořenov ( Bad Wurzelsdorf ).
  5. Named after the community of Příchovice ( Stephansruh , also Prichowitz )
  6. Named after the area around Lánov ( Langenau )


Dead spruce trees in the moor area on the northern slope of the main ridge (2005)

In the Giant Mountains the typical zoning of the vegetation according to altitude levels of a Central European mountain range is represented. The river valleys and lower altitudes form the submontane level . The deciduous and mixed forests that were originally predominant here have largely been replaced by monocultures of spruce . Only in the river valleys are the remains of the deciduous forests.

This is followed by the montane vegetation level . Their natural coniferous forests were also largely replaced by spruce monocultures. These are often severely damaged by air pollution and soil acidification . Large areas of the forest have died in many places. The reason is the geographical location in the Black Triangle , a region around the German-Polish-Czech border triangle in which there is a large number of electricity plants that are operated with lignite. Although their sulfur dioxide emissions, which are mainly responsible for acid rain , as well as the emission of many other air pollutants have been greatly reduced since the early 1990s, the process of forest dieback , which began in the 1970s and began in the late 1980s Peaked, yet to be stopped completely.

Alpine vegetation level on the Riesenkamm (1400 m), east of the Schneekoppe

The subalpine vegetation level lies above the tree line at an altitude of approx. 1250–1350 m . It is mainly characterized by knee wood stocks, subarctic raised bogs, and natural and secondary grass meadows .

Borst grass meadow locations before anthropogenic settlement were the glacier cirque and the primeval meadow .

Snow pits and former snow pit dwellings (
Schronisko nad Śnieżnymi Kotłami )

This habitat is of particular importance in the Giant Mountains. It is a remnant of the arctic tundra that prevailed in Central Europe during the Ice Ages . At the same time, however, there was a connection to the alpine grasslands of the Alps. Plant species coexist here that are otherwise several thousand kilometers apart, e.g. B. Cloudberries . Some species developed differently under the special conditions of the Giant Mountains than in the Alps or in the tundra. They are endemic , which means they only appear here.

The alpine vegetation level can only be found on the highest peaks of Schneekoppe , Hochwiesenberg (Luční hora) , Brunnberg (Studniční hora) , Hohes Rad , Kesselkoppe (Kotel) and Reifträger (Szrenica) . Grass and lichen communities predominate here, the habitat of which is extensive rubble heaps made up of rock debris.

Glacier cirques are particularly rich in species, such as the Riesengrund (Obří důl) , the Elbgrund (Labský důl) and the Weißwassergrund (Důl Bílého Labe) on the south side and the dramatic snow pits (Śnieżne Kotły) , the Melzergrund (Kocioł Łomniczki Lake ) and the large basin Pond (Wielki Staw) and Small Pond (Mały Staw) on the north side of the main ridge. The most species-rich places are called zahrádka ("little garden"). There are about 15 of them in the Giant Mountains, e.g. B. Čertova zahrádka (Devil's Garden) and Krakonošova zahrádka (Rübezahl's Garden ) .

natural reserve

Large parts of the Giant Mountains are protected as a national park on both the Czech and Polish sides . The pioneer for nature conservation in the Giant Mountains was Johann Nepomuk von Harrach , who in 1904 had an area of ​​60  hectares in the Elbgrund declared a nature reserve in order to preserve the Giant Mountains flora.

Karkonoski Park Narodowy (KPN)

The 56 km² Karkonoski Park Narodowy (KPN, Giant Mountains National Park ) has existed as a Polish National Park since 1959. It mainly includes the sensitive high and peaks of the mountains from around 900-1000 m altitude and some special nature reserves below this zone.

Krkonošský národní park (KRNAP)

Logo of the KRNAP

Following the Polish National Park, the Krkonošský národní park (KRNAP, Giant Mountains National Park ) was established in 1963 as the first national park in the Czech Republic. Its area is approximately 370 km². Not only the subalpine ridge layers are under protection, but also the areas up to the foot of the mountains.

The strict nature protection regulations of the Polish National Park do not allow artificial reforestation of the areas of the mountains affected by the forest decline in the 1970s and 1980s. On the Czech side, however, reforestation is practiced.


The climate of the Giant Mountains is characterized by frequent weather changes. The winters are cold and snow depths over three meters are not uncommon. Large parts of the mountains are hidden under a blanket of snow for about 5–6 months. The higher altitudes are often shrouded in thick fog. On an average of 296 days, the summit of the Schneekoppe is at least temporarily hidden in fog or clouds. The average temperature on the Schneekoppe is approx. 0.2 ° C. The ridges are among the most wind-exposed areas in Europe. The foehn is a common weather phenomenon on the Polish side . The annual precipitation ranges from approx. 700 mm at the foot of the mountains to 1230 mm on the Schneekoppe . With an average of 1512 mm in the snow pits, however, the highest amounts of precipitation are reached in the valleys at the foot of the main ridge.


Giant Mountains with the main mountain range south and southwest of the district town of Hirschberg in the Giant Mountains on a map before 1901

The Giant Mountains were uninhabited until the Middle Ages . The Silesian Piast erected at that time on the northern slopes of the mountain border fortresses to protect their territories. With the settlement of Saxon, Franconian and Thuringian colonists in the vicinity of these castles, the reclamation of the territory began. Starting from the Hirschberg Valley - Hirschberg was founded around 1288 - gradually higher and higher regions of the mountains were developed.

The settlement of the Bohemian side of the Giant Mountains, however, began much later (Spindleruv Mlyn around 1793), by colonists from the Alpine region. These colonists brought with them their traditional forms of farming typical of the Alpine region, such as Alpine pasture farming. As a result, those housing estates were created in the Bohemian Giant Mountains that shaped the landscape until 1945.

With the end of the Second World War , the expulsion of the German population began. The inhabitants of the Silesian part of the mountains came mainly to the British and Soviet occupied part of Germany, the inhabitants of the Bohemian part mainly to the American and also the Soviet zone of occupation. The Silesian side was then resettled with Poles, mostly from central and eastern Poland, the Bohemian side with Czechs. These were new citizens from the interior of the Czech Republic, Czech repatriants , but also Slovaks and Roma who were being culturally assimilated . Greek civil war refugees also entered the region on both sides of the border. On the Czech side in particular, however, the previous population density could never be reached, so that around two thirds fewer people live in the area today.


Mining began in the Middle Ages . First there were precious stones, then iron ore and other minerals were added. Large quantities of wood were required to process the ores so that clearing of the forest had to be halted. The Thirty Years' War ended the heyday of mining. On the Bohemian side, glass art developed , which is characterized by a rich color scheme. Today there is a glass museum in the city of Harrachov .

Specifically rich mountain meadows were created by clearing in the vicinity of Bergbauden , which were tended in alpine pasture management. As a result of the expulsion of the Germans from Czechoslovakia , this type of management largely came to a standstill from 1945 onwards, as a result of which these mountain meadows gradually overgrown. What has remained is the tourist development that has developed since the 19th century, especially winter sports and hiking tourism.


The Teichbaude (Schronisko Samotnia) at the Small Pond, Poland

The numerous mining areas are typical of the Giant Mountains . Originally, these were mostly wooden shelters in the higher mountains, inhabited by shepherds in summer . From around 1800 some of the huts became interesting for the first hikers, so that many were converted into hostels towards the end of the 19th century . Later, the buildings were often expanded to accommodate and entertain a larger number of guests. Well-known historical buildings are, for example, the meadow cottage (Luční bouda) , the Martinsbaude (Martinová bouda) and the Wosseckerbaude (Vosecká bouda) in the Czech Republic as well as the jumping barn (Schronisko Strzecha Akademicka) , the pond barn (Schronisko Samotnia) and the New Silesian barn (Schroniskona) Hali Szrenickiej) in Poland. In other places the old buildings have been replaced by newer ones. These buildings, which were specially built for tourist purposes in the 20th century, include B. the Peterbaude ( Petrova bouda , burned down in 2011) or the summit chalet on the Schneekoppe (Schronisko na Śnieżce) .

Plateau on the Pražská bouda

The Giant Mountains also have countless rock formations, some of which are very impressive, and exist over the entire length of the mountain range. B. the Mädelsteine ​​(Czech. Dívčí Kameny , Polish. Śląskie Kamienie ) and the Mannsteine ​​(Czech. Mužské Kameny , Polish: Czeskie Kamienie ) at over 1400 m above sea level on the main ridge, the Harrachstein (Harrachovy Kameny) in the Czech Republic or the enormous three-stone ( Pielgrzymy) and the Mittagstein (Słonecznik) in Poland. They are tall towers and blocks of granite that have taken on various shapes due to uneven weathering. They often resemble humans or animals, but reach heights of up to 30 meters. Similar formations can also be found in other parts of the Sudeten mountains .

In 1914/15 Othmar Fiebiger (text) and Vinzenz Hampel (melody) wrote the Riesengebirgslied , which quickly spread as a popular tune .


Memories of the Giant Mountains, Caspar David Friedrich , before 1835
View from the large snow pit

The Giant Mountains are one of the most traditional tourist areas in Central Europe. As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, the Schneekoppe was frequently climbed, for example by Theodor Körner or Johann Wolfgang von Goethe . At the end of the 19th century, two associations were founded on the Bohemian and Silesian side of the mountains, the Silesian Giant Mountains Association and the Austrian Giant Mountains Association. Both sat down u. a. the tourist development of the Giant Mountains as a goal, for which the road construction was promoted primarily. A total of 3000 kilometers of trails were created, with 500 kilometers in the high mountains alone. The Giant Mountains subsequently became one of the most popular holiday areas in Germany. In Schreiberhau (Polish today: Szklarska Poręba ) on the Silesian side there have been numerous holiday villas from Berlin manufacturers since the early days , which are still preserved today and have a special flair. There were direct train connections to Schreiberhau from Berlin , Breslau and Dresden , so that a comfortable and quick journey was possible.

After 1945, the ski areas on both sides of the mountain were expanded with lifts and new downhill slopes, while the traditional mining industries were initially neglected. Quite a few fell victim to fires, such as the Elbfallbaude , the Riesenbaude or the former Rennerbaude and the Prinz-Heinrich-Baude . Many hiking trails, ski jumps and toboggan runs also fell into disrepair due to insufficient maintenance. The cross-border path of Polish-Czech friendship (Kammweg) was only accessible to Polish and Czechoslovak citizens in the 1980s; Foreign (and thus also German) visitors were prohibited from using the site.

Today the Giant Mountains are again a popular holiday destination in summer and winter, especially for guests from Germany and the Netherlands . Large and snow-sure ski areas are located on the Czech side in Špindlerův Mlýn (Spindleruv Mlyn) and Harrachov (Harrachsdorf) as well as on the Polish side in Szklarska Poręba (Schreiberhau) and Karpacz (Krummhübel) . The ski jumping hills of Harrachov and Karpacz are also well known .

Significant surveys

See also: List of mountains in the Giant Mountains

Reifträger, east side 1362 m
(Schronisko górskie Szrenica)
Main ridge of the Giant Mountains from the south (Czech Republic)
Main ridge of the Giant Mountains from the north (Poland)
Main ridge of the Giant Mountains from the north (Poland)

Selected places in the Giant Mountains

in Poland:

in Czech Republic:


  • Joseph Carl Eduard Hoser: The Riesengebirge in a statistical-topographical and picturesque overview. Vienna 1803/04 ( digitized volume 1 , digitized volume 2 ).
  • Johann Jokely: The Giant Mountains in Bohemia . In: Yearbook of the Imperial Geological Institute Volume 12, Issue 3, Volume 1861/1862, Vienna, pp. 396–420 ( digitized version ; PDF; 2.1 MB)
  • Max Klose: Guide through the world of legends and fairy tales of the Giant Mountains. Brieger & Gilbers, Schweidnitz 1887 ( digitized version )
  • Ulrich Metzner: The Giant Mountains natural jewel. History and stories of a legendary mountain range. Verlag Anton Pustet , Salzburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-7025-0747-3 .

Web links

Commons : Giant Mountains  - Collection of images
Wikivoyage: Giant Mountains  - travel guide
Wiktionary: Giant Mountains  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Walter Sperling: Geographical names in the Bohemian countries ( Memento of the original from May 14, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. Ernst von Seydlitz: Geography 1917
  3. Pavel Holubec: Historické proměny krajiny Krkonoš (PDF; 98 kB), 2003, p. 9 (Czech)
  4. W. Dienemann and O. Burre: The usable rocks of Germany and their deposits with the exception of coal, ores and salts. Enke-Verlag, Stuttgart 1929, p. 61ff
  5. ^ Walter Sperling: Geographical names in the Bohemian countries
  6. Monitor Polski, Dziennik Urzedowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej . No. A - 44. Warsaw 1949 ( [PDF]).
  7. "The Bohemian Ridge of the Giant Mountains", Sudetenpost, 1982, volume 7 , (PDF; 9.4 MB)
  8. Joseph Partsch: Climatography of the Kingdom of Saxony ( Memento of the original from October 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. 1898, p. 123 [112] @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  9. Johann Jokely: The Riesengebirge in Böhmen , 1861, p. 398 [3] (PDF; 2MB)
  10. Schwarzenberger under the Schwarzenberg Vesely Vylet, p. 6, (PDF; 2.9 MB)
  11. Horáková: Natura 2000 in the Giant Mountains. Nature to man - man to nature . Administration of the Giant Mountains National Park, Vrchlabi 2006, ISBN 978-80-86418-57-5 , p. 10.