The Görlitzer wagon is a manufacturer of since 1849 rail vehicles for the domestic and international market. The main focus in the manufacture and construction of rolling stock was on passenger cars, but multiple units and freight cars were also designed and manufactured in the factory. The trademark of the manufacturer are the double-deck cars . They have been built in Görlitz since 1935 and also run in numerous variants with German railway companies and, above all, in other European countries.
Wagon construction looks back on over 160 years of history and shaped the economic landscape in Görlitz like no other company. The history of the Waggonbauanstalt ranges from the initial coach-building workshop to an independent, large-scale company operating across Germany, to today's affiliation with the Bombardier Group .
On June 5, 1828, Johann Christoph Lüders founded a saddlery and paint shop on the Obermarkt . In addition to the saddlery and painting work, he also made all kinds of wagons. Just one year later, in April 1829, his company moved to the upper Langengasse, where he now traded as a saddler and wagon maker. But even these rooms were soon no longer enough due to his increasing reputation, so that he moved to Demianiplatz . At that time, the city of Görlitz announced the construction of two eight-axle railway wagons for transporting wood, as the city had large forest areas in the Görlitzer Heide to the northeast . Lüders also took part in the tender together with master locksmith Conrad Schiedt. On October 19, 1849, the city council decided in favor of Lüders and Schiedt. This date is considered the hour of birth of Görlitz wagon construction. Conrad Schiedt supplied the necessary iron material from his factory for iron and machine goods in the Büttnergasse and helped build the wooden transport wagons. In 1849, Lüders moved production to Brunnenstrasse.
Lüders recognized the growing market for the development and construction of railway wagons. As early as 1852, his factory was delivering 81 wagons, which were manufactured by 205 employees from nine different trades. Now the increasing production demanded an expansion of the company again. For this purpose, Lüders acquired and built additional land on Brunnenstrasse in 1853 and equipped the factory with a steam engine and steam hammer. This was the start of industrial production.
In the following years, further steam engines and workshops as well as a steam-powered forge followed. The number of employees also increased further to 500 in 1862. Production increased from 300 railway wagons in 1856 to 426 in 1869, including military wagons for the Viceroy of Egypt. In addition to the private railways , the most important customers were the Prussian and Saxon state railways , which mainly ordered two-axle compartment cars from the factory. At that time, the wagons were still transported by horse-drawn transport vehicles to the tracks at the train station, which is why Lüders first negotiated with the city in 1868 about a separate track connection for the plant via Hilgergasse and the Brautwiesen to the train station. However, the project could not be implemented.
Joint stock company for the manufacture of railway material to Görlitz / Waggonfabrik Görlitz Aktiengesellschaft
At the beginning of 1869, Lüders sold his railway carriage construction company to the Berlin merchant J. Mamroth for 600,000 thalers. He immediately pushed ahead with his plans to convert the company into a stock corporation. For this purpose, a founding committee was formed, which includes the royal Saxon finance council and director of the Saxon State Railways Freiherr Max Maria von Weber , the royal government and building council and director of the Breslau-Schweidnitz-Freiburg railway Carl Vogt and the imperial-royal councilor and general director of the Kaiser Ferdinands-Nordbahn Wilhelm Eichler von Eichkron belonged. On February 3, 1869, advertisements were made in numerous newspapers and the participation in the joint stock company to be founded was advertised. As early as February 10, 1869, when the drawing was closed, instead of the necessary 800,000 thalers, 2 million thalers were drawn. On May 26th of the same year, the company became the property of the stock corporation and was entered in the company register of the Royal District Court on June 21, 1869. Christoph Lüders left the company at his own request, although he was offered the position of technical manager under the director Heinrich August Samann.
The corporation founded its own company health insurance fund in 1871 , which guaranteed its members free medical treatment, free medicine or health resort and food, as well as sick pay in the event of disability and death benefit in the event of death. Furthermore, a pension fund was set up in 1883, from which salaried civil servants and workers in the event of incapacity were financed a pension. There were also numerous other welfare institutions for the employees.
In the first half of 1869, the corporation was able to record orders from Germany and abroad worth over 615,000 thalers in its books. The majority of the orders went back to the time of Christoph Lüders. In order to meet the increasing demand, the joinery was increased, a new assembly shed with skylights was built and the cutting mill was expanded. However, they stayed on the traditional site on Brunnenstrasse. By 1872 the turnover rose to 1,551,918 thalers with 1,222 workers. Almost 2,000 cars were produced this year, most of them baggage and freight cars. Despite the high turnover, there were no profits in 1872 and the following year. The main reasons for this were rising raw material and semi-finished product prices, speculative transactions and numerous start-ups in rail vehicle construction. It was not until the business year 1874/1875 that a dividend of 4 percent was again distributed to the shareholders. The excess capacity built up due to the economic downturn, but the increasing number of wagon construction companies, kept profits low in the years that followed. In order to achieve price stability and better profits, eighteen wagon construction companies founded the Deutsche Wagenbauverein in 1877 .
The rail connection to the station, which had already been planned by Christoph Lüders, was also resumed, but the route was not approved by the city or the police. It was not until December 14, 1881 that an agreement was reached on the tracks over Hilgerstrasse, Leipziger Platz and today's Landskronstrasse across what would later become Brautwiesenplatz and further parallel to today's Brautwiesenstrasse. The wagons were handed over to the railway site via a turntable on today's Rauschwalder Strasse at the level of the Consum Association or the former coal trade. In 1882 the traffic on the feeder track started, but until 1892 the cars were pulled to the station by horses instead of locomotives.
In the 1880s, orders increased steadily, so that once again an expansion of the factory premises was necessary. In 1887 the board of directors decided on a gradual expansion that would take about 15 years. The spatial conditions were improved by renovations in the individual workshops or individual workshops were rebuilt, e.g. B. the paint shop. The machine park also continued to grow, and with it the material required. The storage spaces along the Hohe Strasse were no longer sufficient, so they looked around for other storage spaces. In 1896 the company acquired the 5.75-hectare Horschigschen Stadtgarten about 300 meters away on the other side of Pontestrasse. Plant II was later built on this area. At that time, wood, wheel sets and steel were still stored here. Furthermore, accommodations for coachmen and stables for the work horses were created on the site. Another two years later, the area was again expanded to include the 8.83 hectare area of the Leontinenhof Vorwerk . Thus the property reached up to the Berlin-Görlitzer Railway and a direct, private connection to the state railway tracks became possible. However, the municipal magistrate still had to approve the 300 meter long section of track between Plant I and Plant II across Pontestrasse. This happened after a short time because the old connection via Landskronstrasse and the Brautwiesen was no longer necessary. From 1901 the first completed wagons, pulled by two of the company's own steam storage locomotives , rolled over the new siding to Görlitz station.
On July 12, 1903, on the occasion of the 100th birthday of Johann Christoph Lüders, a bronze monument commissioned at the expense of the stock corporation was unveiled on Christoph-Lüders-Platz (today: Burjan-Platz), which was named after him on June 28 of the same year. The monument showed Lüders on a stone pedestal from the waist up with a scale in one hand and a drawing in the other. A blacksmith with a hammer and anvil stood on a granite plinth in front of him as a sign of recognition for the factory workers.
In the following years, two eleven-meter-deep wells including a water tower were built on the site of Plant II (1906) to cover the increasing water requirements of the trades, as well as new or expanded workshops on the area of Plant I on Hilgerstrasse. A schedule was also drawn up for the further expansion of the plant. This included the new construction of the forge including a boiler house in Plant II, the new construction of a woodworking center in Plant II, the new construction and expansion of the iron processing also in Plant II and the conversion of the wheelwright and paint shop in Plant I. The conversion was carried out during the First World War completed, although numerous workers had been drafted for the war. The missing men were initially made up by women, later also by prisoners of war. Also due to the war and the related production of around 3,000 military vehicles, the business year 1917/18 ended with a record turnover of around 23.5 million marks.
In 1914 the Verband deutscher Waggonbaufabriken GmbH (from March 31, 1921: Verein Deutscher Waggonbaufabriken ) was founded, which, in addition to the Görlitzer Waggonbau, all companies from the previous German Wagenbauvereinigung joined. The most important novelty of this association was that it no longer interfered in the distribution of government contracts like its predecessor institution.
On October 22, 1919, at a general meeting, the name of the company in § 1 of the articles of association was changed from Aktiengesellschaft für Fabrikation von Eisenbahnmaterial zu Görlitz to Waggonfabrik Görlitz Aktiengesellschaft . However, only a short time was produced and sold under the new name.
On January 6, 1921, the Görlitz wagon factory merged with Görlitzer Maschinenbau AG and Cottbuser Maschinenbau-Anstalt und Eisengießerei AG to form a new stock corporation . The new company operated under the new name Waggon- und Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft Görlitz - WUMAG for short . The abbreviation was introduced as a registered trademark in September of the same year.
Just two years after the merger, the company expanded through a further merger with the mechanical engineering institute, iron foundry and steam boiler factory H. Pauksch A.-G. in Landsberg an der Warthe and the Dresden machine factory and shipyard Uebigau A.-G. The five companies were now independent departments under the umbrella of WUMAG, which from now on had a significantly larger portfolio. The company's program now included the construction of ships, dredgers, steam engines and turbines, boilers, diesel engines, presses, textile finishing machines, ice and cooling machines, distillery and drying systems as well as rolling stock for the rails. This diversity and sales problems in individual departments due to the poor economic situation at the beginning of the 1920s meant that the Landsberg department was sold after the 1926 financial year, the Uebigau department was transferred to an independent stock corporation in 1927 and the Cottbus department was finally sold in 1928 .
Waggon- und Maschinenbau AG (WUMAG)
The economic downturn did not pass the wagon construction department either. The reasons for this were, as in previous years, the overcapacity of the German wagon construction industry, but of course also generally the global economic crisis and the associated financial difficulties of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft founded in 1924 . In order to strengthen the cooperation between some wagon construction companies, eight companies - including WUMAG - founded the Eisenbahn-Liefergemeinschaft GmbH (EISLIEG) . EISLIEG was a company that organized the sale of goods manufactured by the eight founding members and the purchase of raw materials and semi-finished products. The company also adopted uniform advertising for all companies and a division of labor between the factories. In 1925, however, it became apparent for WUMAG that the cooperation in EISLIEG would not pay off. WUMAG's exit from the delivery community in December 1925 was the logical consequence.
At the railway technology exhibition at the Seddin marshalling yard from September 21 to October 5, 1924, WUMAG still appeared as part of the delivery group and showed, among other things, the new Bernau S-Bahn multiple units for Berlin and the later Reichsbahn series 1589a / b to 1645a / b for the Hanseatic City of Hamburg, a four-axle 1st class express train car for Romania and Yugoslavia, a two-axle standard compartment car and numerous baggage and freight cars. A completely new generation of bogies developed by WUMAG - the Görlitz type bogies - was also presented. Bogies of the Görlitz design are still installed in passenger coaches under the same name, but in a more advanced form.
In addition to the production of railway wagons, WUMAG also built large-area trucks based on the Thilo Kipping patent as well as omnibuses for the Reichspost in the 1920s . In cooperation with Kaelble , road utility vehicles were developed, including road rolling vehicles for transporting wagons on the road.
After attempts by the seven remaining companies of the Eisenbahn-Liefergemeinschaft GmbH (EISLIEG) to bring about a unified management in the wagon construction industry in order to secure the sales of the companies and to overcome the competitive struggles between themselves, the Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesellschaft (DRG) developed its own plan for 1926 the award of their orders to delivery companies. In the same year, the DRG and 30 wagon construction companies signed the Reichsbahn contract for the award of state railroad contracts over five years with the option of extending the contract thereafter. The DRG committed itself to awarding around 90 percent of its wagon construction contracts to the 30 companies that had now merged to form the Deutsche Wagenbau-Vereinigung (DWV). The distribution of orders among the members of the association was broken down according to a fixed percentage. In 1937, 19 companies still belonged to the association, which set a quota of 6.6 percent for Görlitz WUMAG. This put Görlitzer Waggonbau in fifth place in the distribution ranking after the United Westdeutsche Waggonbaufabriken AG in Cologne (20.076 percent), Linke-Hofmann Werke AG in Breslau (14.631 percent), Waggon- und Maschinenfabrik AG formerly Busch Bautzen (8.757 percent) and Orenstein & Koppel AG in Berlin (7.184 percent).
In the 1920s and 1930s, the WUMAG wagon construction department focused on the further development of the Görlitz type bogies , the lightweight construction, especially for railcars, and the use of new joining techniques, such as B. the welding technology instead of riveted connections . Examples of the further development in lightweight construction were the model vehicle of a four-axle lightweight express train baggage car in Berlin from 1941 and the numerous light railcars built in Görlitz. Probably the best-known railcar from Görlitz production is the VT 877 , better known under the name Fliegender Hamburger for the city express traffic between Berlin and Hamburg. In addition to baggage, freight and tram cars as well as electric and diesel-powered multiple units, WUMAG designed and built modern double-decker cars for push- pull trains between Hamburg and Lübeck for the Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn for the first time in Germany in 1935 . The double-deck car concept was the basis for the development of the double-deck car in the later GDR era.
With the seizure of power of the NSDAP early 1933, the focus was mainly on the new governance upgrading Reichswehr and Wehrmacht (1935) and the promotion of the automobile ( KdF car set). The Deutsche Reichsbahn also adjusted its vehicle procurement program in 1939 and from then on ordered more freight wagons for purposes important to the war effort. Shortly thereafter, calls were made to stop the production of passenger cars entirely and to redirect production only to armaments and transport vehicles. But the Deutsche Wagenbau-Vereinigung successfully prevented this. However, the construction of passenger cars was further throttled in the following years. Some passenger cars were used without interior alignment and later as hospital cars. The production of locomotives and freight cars was controlled and directed by state commissions. The special committee for railway wagons was responsible for the construction of the wagons , and its seat moved to Görlitz after the heavy bombing of the Reich capital Berlin. Individual departments of the committee were also located in Bautzen and Niesky . In addition to the construction of new freight wagons, the committee also coordinated the repair work on wagons of all types. The special committee implemented numerous rationalization measures and intervened deeply in the company's production processes. For example, a production line was set up at WUMAG , which enabled 25 stake cars to be output every day .
WUMAG has also manufactured military vehicles since the early 1930s , including all-terrain trucks for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht. Furthermore, as part of the war program, sound measurement, radio, armored personnel carriers and machine gun vehicles, superstructures for ambulances, armored superstructures, special trailers, replacement field vehicles, medical sleds and dock levellers were built. From 1942 WUMAG built for example on behalf of Deutsche Reichsbahn the road roller type R42 - a one-piece, 12-wheeled scooter with road lying just outside wheels. It had a total length of 8.84 meters and a payload of 40 tons. The wagon construction department was therefore also an important armaments company in the Third Reich.
On September 17, 1941, fire broke out in the saddlery and paint shop in Plant I, which developed into a major fire. Although all the fire brigades in the city, the wagon construction department and the airfield moved out, depending on the source, between 15 and 17 workers could no longer be rescued from the flames. Another 27 to 33 employees were admitted to the city hospital seriously injured . The cause of the fire could never be finally clarified. There was speculation that sparks from a dragging fan wheel ignited the paint mist. However, this could not be proven. A report by the Forensic Institute in Breslau found that it was not arson. Nevertheless, a supposed culprit was found. The painter Rudolf Hartmann was accused of arson, sentenced to death in the subsequent trial and executed in Breslau on October 21, 1942. The case files have disappeared. A memorial plaque on the Karl-Marx-Klubhaus commemorated Rudolf Hartmann until its demolition. Today only the red facade on the corner of Teichstraße reminds of the fire. This part of the building was rebuilt after the fire in 1942. The facade broke through the otherwise uniform red brick facade and has been preserved to this day.
Because of the Second World War , a large number of workers and employees were drafted into military service and so the jobs had to be increasingly filled with women, deported people from the occupied territories and prisoners of war . The number of German workers fell from 2322 to 1478 from October 1942 to February 1945. The number of forced laborers and prisoners of war rose in the same period from 1090 to 1974. Initially, most of the prisoners of war from main camp VIII A south of what was then Görlitz's Moys district went to work every day brought the work. Later, several satellite camps followed in the urban area, including summer of 1944, the concentration camp Görlitz of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp . An external warehouse was also set up on the site of WUMAG's Plant II. This satellite camp consisted of seven barracks, in which mainly Russian prisoners of war and foreign civilians were housed separately from each other. The camp inmates had to live and work under the most unworthy conditions. German employees were not allowed to have contact with the camp inmates.
On May 8, 1945, Red Army units occupied the city and the factories located there. Colonel Morosow was used as the commandant for the WUMAG works. The German employees of the plants were banned from their workplaces. In Plant I, Soviet workers initially carried out galvanic work. In Plant II, on the other hand, tanks of the Red Army were repaired. The WUMAG plants were part of the German armaments industry and, according to Soviet orders, had to be dismantled as quickly as possible. The dismantled systems and machines fell under the reparation demands of the Soviet Union and were transported to the east. During the dismantling work there was a major fire in the wheelwright shop on the night of August 7th to 8th, 1945. The Görlitzer firefighters were missing after the war firefighters, but also corresponding equipment and vehicles. Shortly before the end of the war, the comrades received the order to drive the vehicles to areas further away from the front. Thanks to the quick arrival of the remaining comrades from the city fire brigade, however, the flames could be prevented from spreading to the neighboring paint and joinery. The wheelwright's hall burned down completely.
Since all board members of the company had left the city, the city initially appointed Otto Schuhknecht and Willi Gerlach as trustees . The two employees, along with around 140 other wagon builders, responded to a request from the city in May, which called on all Görlitzers to report to their traditional businesses. The WUMAG mechanical engineering department on Lutherstrasse was spun off from the company in May 1945 and has been operating independently since then. The plant has belonged to Siemens since the fall of the Wall and is responsible within the group for the construction of smaller steam turbines. On September 10, 1945, the Soviet command returned Plant I to the German administration. The returning workers began building carts , four-wheeled carts for agriculture, and buckets and coal shovels for local needs. Only at the end of October did work on the first repair orders for rail vehicles of the Reichsbahn begin. In November, the city appointed the previous trustees Schuhknecht and Gerlach as acting heads of wagon construction. Plant I employed 242 workers again in December 1945. Plant II was only handed over to the German administration on January 25 of the following year.
With the resumption of operations in Plant II, the number of employees rose again to 1,500 by the end of 1946. In 1946, mostly two- and four-axle freight cars, but also some passenger cars, were repaired. Furthermore, the Deutsche Post had the rail mail cars of the Oberpostdirektion Berlin repaired in the Görlitz plant. However, some cars were so badly damaged that they could only be scrapped. A two-axle gondola for the Görlitzer Kreisbahn was the only new construction contract. The most significant upheaval came on August 1, 1946, when the two plants were taken over by the Soviet joint-stock company for means of transport . The takeover enabled the provision of 820,000 Reichsmarks. A large part of the money went into new machines and systems. On February 24, 1947, the Soviet company handed over the state-owned company to the representative of the Saxon state government, Alex Horstmann .
The abbreviation WUMAG was retained after the end of the Second World War in the company of WUMAG Hamburg , which was newly founded in 1946 . The founder of the company was the former general director of WUMAG Conrad Geerling. The company went bankrupt in 1953. Today's WUMAG texroll and WUMAG elevant emerged from a subsidiary of WUMAG Hamburg - WUMAG Niederrhein .
VEB Waggonbau Görlitz
The new start of the now state- owned company (VEB) was very difficult, because on the one hand the Deutsche Reichsbahn throttled the supply of damaged wagons and on the other hand there was a lack of funds to expand the works. An initiative by the plant management and the works council brought new construction and repair orders from private car sellers to the plant and convinced the state railway to add more damaged cars to the plant. In the years that followed, the main focus was still on repair work on damaged vehicles or on the conversion of vehicles. For example, two complete construction trains including interior fittings were prepared for Dresden and Berlin, two former passenger coaches were converted into a rolling X-ray or dentist station, and 22 former 3rd class passenger coaches (C4ü) were converted into 3rd class sleeping cars (WLC4ü). Three of the 22 sleeping cars were given a radio compartment. The sleeping cars were used on the Berlin - Brest route . In 1951, three seriously damaged MITROPA sleeping cars were rebuilt for the Deutsche Reichsbahn .
In 1948 the Association of Volkseigener Betriebe Lokomotiv- und Waggonbau (LOWA) was founded, whose members included the Görlitz wagon construction as well as the wagon construction companies in Bautzen, Dessau , Gotha , Halle-Ammendorf , Niesky and Werdau . The parent company had two design offices - one for locomotives in Wildau and the one for wagons in Görlitz. In the following year, the Görlitz plant was also included in the socialist planned economy and in the first two-year plan. LOWA was restructured in 1958 and from then on the Görlitz factory belonged to the Association of Nationally Owned Rail Vehicle Manufacturers .
In 1948, the engineers began designing what would later become the coaches and dining cars for the Soviet State Railroad (SZD) . The first long-distance dining car for the Soviet Union completed its test drive to Dresden as early as February 1949. With the acceptance of the wagon, a new chapter began for the manufacturer - from now on, larger quantities were also exported abroad. Before that, production was largely geared towards the German states. With the increasing number of new construction orders in the plant, there were increasing difficulties in the procurement of material, semi-finished products and the machines and systems required for the new construction. Numerous contacts with suppliers, especially in western Germany, were broken off due to the various occupation policies. The material and semi-finished product suppliers east of the Neisse were also initially no longer available after the border was drawn. Most of the East German supplier industry was still in the process of commissioning or building its new production lines, so wagon construction was forced to produce many components and assemblies in-house. This included, for example, the oak seating for the dining car. The imported sawn timber for wagon construction was also prepared for further processing in a dedicated drying facility. VEB Waggonbau Görlitz continued to take over the Mewa metal goods factory on Cottbuser Strasse for its own production . The company was incorporated into the wagon construction as Plant III and took over electroplating and galvanizing work as well as container construction. On the other hand, great importance was attached to saving materials and raw materials.
Due to the shortage of skilled workers in the Soviet occupation zone , it was difficult to recruit enough workers for the increasing production in the plant. The training of skilled workers was promoted by setting up a training workshop for carpenters and locksmiths again in Plant I in 1948. In 1948 the apprenticeship started with 54 apprentices. The number of apprentices rose in the following year to 289 skilled workers, 20 technical draftsmen and 21 commercial trainees, so that in the same year a training center for metal professions was opened on Cottbuser Straße and a training workshop for wood professions on Christoph-Lüders-Straße. With 550 apprentices in 1950, the company hired the most young people in its history. The number of employees rose in the same period between 1948 and 1950 from 3,000 to 5,754 employees and workers. A library with two branches was opened in 1948 for the employees of the plant. In 1949 the company sports association (BSG) Motor was founded. On July 22, 1951, the company sports field was opened for the club. For cultural life, the Karl Marx clubhouse was inaugurated on Struvestraße on June 30, 1951 .
On June 17, 1953 , wagon construction was one of the central starting points of the workers' uprising in the city of Görlitz . From eight o'clock on that day there was a strike and a workers' train formed. The wagon builders split up into several demonstration trains. Most of the other workers in other factories in the city also stopped working by 10 a.m. and followed the call to strike. At the Obermarkt (then: Leninplatz) the approx. 40,000 strikers gathered under the leadership of the wagon builders. Only the intervention of the Soviet headquarters could the strike end. The next day there were tanks in front of the factory gates and Red Army soldiers patrolled the factory halls.
At the beginning of the 1950s, the government of the GDR obliged large companies to produce consumer goods for the needs of the GDR population. The wagon construction product range included a. Buckets, washboards, snow guards, greenhouses, mortar mixers, couch and radio tables and, from the 1970s, also the living room furniture of the Landeskrone model , which was named after Görlitz's local mountain - the Landeskrone . In secondary production, the plant manufactured screw couplings , brake block parts and spring hooks for other wagon construction companies in the GDR and for the Deutsche Reichsbahn.
But the main focus remained on the construction of rolling stock for the rails. In the 1950s, the company also carried out repairs on Berlin and Dresden trams . In 1954, two new Hecht cars were built for the Dresden tram line 11 . The two trams were the last two trams built in Görlitz. This also closed a chapter in the history of wagon construction, which for many years also supplied tram vehicles to numerous German tram operators, including Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig and also to Görlitz. Furthermore, 200 covered freight wagons were converted into makeshift refrigerated wagons and 300 R wagons were converted into Gl wagons for transporting grain. The plant also repaired ten heavily damaged, three-part suburban trains for the Polish State Railways (PKP) . In 1951, the production of the four-part double - decker articulated trains for the Deutsche Reichsbahn began parallel to the export series for the Soviet Union, China, Poland, Korea and Czechoslovakia. In the 1960s, Bulgaria, Romania and Indonesia joined the list of countries to which the Görlitz plant exported. Iraq, Ghana, Syria, Uganda and Hungary followed in the 1970s and 1980s. Many of the vehicles were completely newly developed, which resulted in 360 domestic and 163 foreign patents between 1949 and 1989 .
In the following years the production processes were further improved. New welding processes and equipment were used, including a. a longitudinal welding device, spot welding portals and vacuum plate point systems. In 1963 left a total of 448 passenger coaches, a catenary inspection railcar of M Series 263 for the Czechoslovak State Railways (CSD) and the first Schnellverbrennungstriebzug the type Goerlitz (VT 18:16) for the German Reichsbahn the work. The multiple unit was also exhibited at the Leipzig Spring Fair. A further improvement in the production process in Plant I was achieved by building the new building on the corner of Brunnen- and Alexander-Stachanow-Straße (today: Christoph-Lüders-Straße). The building, which cost 1.9 million marks, housed the part and pipe fitter's shop, iron preparation, aluminum production and saddlery, as well as parts of the construction and testing department. The facade of the former new building has been preserved to this day and will form the facade of the building of the Görlitz Police Department in the future .
At the end of 1967, the RIC sleeping car (No. 2362) left the factory for the PKP, the 5000th passenger car manufactured since 1948. With the specialization of the rail vehicle manufacturers in the GDR at the end of the 1960s, the Görlitz plant transferred the production of long-distance dining and passenger cars to the plant in Halle-Ammendorf . The Görlitz plant was left with the construction of RIC sleeping cars and double-decker single cars. In the course of rationalization measures and the new production orientation, largely identical production processes were created in order to be able to jointly use work and material staging areas and to streamline storage and transport processes. For this purpose, a warehouse for insulating materials , air tanks and armored steel conduit was built in Plant II between 1973 and 1979 . Furthermore, the final test hall was handed over to its destination in July 1979. Up until then, most of the testing and acceptance work took place outdoors. The new construction of the final test hall marked the end of the rationalization measures. The cars were fully assembled in Plant I and then transferred to the final test hall to be placed on their original bogies. The testing and control work was then carried out in the final test hall. For this purpose, the hall had a lifting station, a profile measuring stand , a sprinkling system, a climatic chamber , a high-voltage test field and a track scale . After the subsequent test drive, the approval by the respective railway administration took place.
Which - in 1979, the umbrella organization of Waggonbaufabriken the GDR Association of Publicly Owned Enterprises rail vehicle - in VEB Kombinat rail vehicle converted. In the following year, passenger coaches and couchette coaches were again added to the product range of the Görlitz plant . With 246 RIC sleeping cars delivered in 1981 and 270 passenger coaches in 1982, the company reached a production maximum in the respective wagon category. On February 26, 1983, shortly before midnight, a fire broke out in warehouse 220. The stored wood encouraged the fire to develop until the steel structure collapsed. The fire department was able to prevent the fire from spreading. A new three-aisled warehouse was built at the location of the hall. In the same year, after a 14-year break, the production of long-distance passenger cars for the Soviet State Railways was resumed. The turnover of the state-owned company more than doubled between 1970 and 1983 to around 294.5 million marks.
The construction of bogies in Görlitz also ended in the mid-1980s. One of the last bogies developed in Görlitz was the GP 200 , which was developed in cooperation with the Prague Research Institute for Rail Vehicles . After that, the production of bogies was handed over to VEB Wagon Equipment Vetschau . To secure the wagon output of the plant, workers from neighboring Poland were also hired from 1988. To accommodate the workers, some of whom even came from Upper Silesia , a five-storey prefabricated house was built on Alexander-Stachanow-Strasse (today: Christioph-Lüders-Strasse) . In 1988, 3576 German and 240 Polish employees worked in wagon construction. In 1989 , a new hall for sheet metal processing was built in Plant II and a computer-controlled wood processing center was put into operation. VEB Waggonbau Görlitz again delivered a total of 337 vehicles this year, including 208 long-distance cars for the SZD, 115 double-deck cars for the PKP and 14 overhead line inspection cars of the 188.3 series for the DR.
Waggonbau Görlitz GmbH
With the political change came the change in economic life - from the numerous state-owned enterprises and combines, privately operating companies were to emerge. The Deutsche Waggonbau Aktiengesellschaft (DWA) was formed in 1990 from the Rail Vehicle Construction Combine and the associated companies . The individual companies operated as a limited liability company under the umbrella of the stock corporation. On May 1, 1990 VEB Waggonbau Görlitz became the DWA subsidiary Waggonbau Görlitz GmbH . On the same day, the city decided to rename the street in front of Plant I back to Christoph-Lüders-Straße in memory of the founder of Görlitz wagon construction. During the GDR era it was called Alexander-Stachanow-Straße . The supervisory board of the GmbH was constituted on October 2, 1990. The chairman of the DWA Günter Groß was elected chairman of the company. Hans Liebig was appointed to the post of Chairman of the Management Board. At the second Supervisory Board meeting on November 2 of the same year, Willibald Siegert, Martin Fencik and Dr. Ullrich Kessler used.
The wagon construction continued to realize the orders concluded under the predecessor company. These included the overhead line inspection motor coaches for the Deutsche Reichsbahn, 70 four-axle 2nd class passenger coaches for the PKP, 30 2nd class coaches for the Ghana Railway Corporation (GRC) and 118 long-distance passenger coaches for the Soviet state railway. With German reunification on October 3, 1990 and monetary union on July 1, 1990, the products of wagon construction suddenly became unaffordable for the former main customers - the Eastern Bloc countries . To make the transition easier for the East German economy, the German side issued Hermes guarantees to the East European neighbors in order not to let the former main market for East German products collapse completely. At the time, the DWA's goal was to open up new sales markets for its plants, to further increase their product quality and to restructure the company from a market-economy perspective. This was inevitably associated with downsizing and the outsourcing of parts of the company. In 1991, the company policlinic in Görlitz was closed.
In 1991 the last overhead line inspection railcars were delivered to the Deutsche Reichsbahn. In a follow-up order, the Deutsche Reichsbahn ordered 105 double-decker cars. An order for 25 RIC sleeping cars for the Romanian State Railways was also received. After the completion of the production of the sleeping cars, it turned out that the Romanian State Railways was unable to finance the vehicles. They were initially parked in Görlitz. Payment for the wagons could not be settled until the end of 1992, but the wagons had to be subjected to extensive maintenance work and repeated test drives.
For further progress in product quality, a blasting system was built in Plant II in 1992 for the shell car bodies, including a covered transfer platform, and in Plant I an exterior paint system. This had achieved the technological level to meet the requirements of international standards. In the same year, the Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker visited the city of Görlitz and also inspected the wagon construction.
1992 also saw the breakthrough in the construction of double-deck cars for railway companies outside the Eastern Bloc. For the first time in its history, the Deutsche Bundesbahn ordered double-deck series vehicles. Only in the 1950s did the Wegmann company in Kassel build double-deck vehicles for testing on the Federal Railroad. However, they never reached mass production. On April 2, 1992, the representatives of the Federal Railroad in Görlitz signed the order for 75 double-decker cars. A second contract, signed in Minden in 1992 , included the delivery of 100 double-decker control cars to the still existing Deutsche Reichsbahn. The first 25 control cars (type: DABgbufz760) left the wagon construction as early as December 1992. They were used on the S-Bahn in Dresden , Leipzig-Halle , Magdeburg as well as in Rostock and in regional transport in the greater Berlin area. The control cars were the second generation of double-decker control cars from Görlitz. They received a different head shape, a rounded roof shape and more windows in the upper and mezzanine floors. For the first time, double-deck cars for the Reichsbahn were also given a first-class compartment. A sample vehicle was exhibited at the Treuhandmesse in Leipzig in 1992 and at the Hanover Fair in 1993 .
The double-decker control cars were the last delivery to the Deutsche Reichsbahn. A year later, with the delivery of 55 double-decker cars of the type DBz750 (2nd class) and 20 of the type DABz755 (1st and 2nd class) to the Deutsche Bundesbahn, the short company chapter with the West German State Railways as a buyer was closed. The first cars were mainly used in the greater Munich area. In 1994 both German railways merged to form Deutsche Bahn AG . To this day, Deutsche Bahn is an important buyer of Görlitz double-decker cars. In 1992 there were still more than 2100 employees in the two plants.
After the completion of the production of the Federal Railroad order, an order from the Russian Railways (RZD) for the construction of 100 RIC sleeping cars for east-west traffic followed. The first sleeping cars could be delivered in February 1994. The further delivery of the wagons proceeded slowly until July 1995, as the Russian side was only able to partially fulfill the conditions attached to the Hermes guarantees and the broad gauge bogies from Russian production were missing. The Russian side was only able to take over 85 of the 100 cars from the contract because it lacked the financial means for the remaining 15 cars. The newly founded Deutsche Bahn also ordered a further 250 double-deck vehicles for the western German metropolitan areas from 1994 onwards, based on the positive experience it had with the double-decker vehicles delivered to the Bundesbahn in 1993. In the same year, the first 60 vehicles of the types DBz 751 and DABz 756 were delivered to Deutsche Bahn. Bogies of type Görlitz VII were used for the cars . CNC machines were now used for production in almost all areas . In September 1994, Plant III on Cottbuser Strasse was shut down. Since then, wagon construction has consisted of Works I and II with a total area of almost 417,000 square meters and a total length of the track system of 15,650 meters.
Deutsche Waggonbau AG
In 1995 the previously independent factories merged with Deutsche Waggonbau AG (DWA). Görlitzer Waggonbau changed its name from Waggonbau Görlitz GmbH to DWA Werk Görlitz . The DWA continued to pursue the goals of cost savings and restructuring. As part of the restructuring, the plants were assigned certain core competencies. The Görlitz plant received the production areas of double-decker cars and ICE-T cars . The plant was also responsible for implementing the integral aluminum construction . In 1995, a new high-bay warehouse for sheet metal and a modern paint shop were opened. On July 5, 1995, the 5,000th double-decker car built in Görlitz since 1936 was handed over to Deutsche Bahn. After several attempts by the trust company to privatize DWA, it succeeded in March 1996 with the sale of DWA to the private equity investor Advent International . On November 28 of the same year, the new, 7,000 square meter final assembly hall in Plant II was handed over. The hall also had an attached high-bay warehouse. Additional workshops and warehouses moved from Plant I to the new hall complex. The final test hall was also inaugurated in 1996 after three years of modernization. It was equipped with a new lifting station, a brake measuring stand, a corner force measuring system and a wheel load scale. In 1996, wagon construction offered around 1200 employees and 105 trainees.
In the following year, the exterior coloring system in Plant II was put into operation and a track triangle was built to turn the cars, thus largely completing the redesign of Plant II. The production of rail vehicles in Plant I was discontinued in 1997, which meant that the time-consuming transport of the wagons between the two parts of the plant via Christoph-Lüders- and Zeppelinstraße was no longer necessary. The trainees' workshops were also integrated into Plant II. With the closure of Plant I, one of the most serious points of the 2000 strategy concept was completed.
DWA played a leading role in the ICNeiTech DWA * DUEWAG * Fiat * Siemens consortium in the development of the ICE-T. The control cars for the high-speed multiple units were built in the Görlitz plant. For this purpose, employees were specially trained for the integral aluminum construction used in the vehicle and a new aluminum production line for the body shell car bodies was built. In addition to the ICE control car construction, newly developed double-decker control cars (type DBbzf 761) - meanwhile the 3rd generation - have been manufactured in Görlitz since 1995. The new generation differed in an aerodynamically shaped front and, depending on the design, had low-floor entrances with an entry height of 600 millimeters (DBbzf 761) or 760 millimeters (DBbzf 761.2). The control cars with 1st class compartments (type DABpbzf 762) also received air conditioning . For the follow-up orders, Deutsche Bahn decided to equip all double-decker cars with air conditioning in order to increase comfort. On August 29, 1996, Deutsche Bahn signed a contract for the delivery of a further 58 double-decker control cars and 192 intermediate cars. The contract also included an option for an additional 350 cars. Delivery started in 1997. From then on, the cars were equipped with a compact roof air conditioning unit, a passenger information system and a traffic-red exterior paint job. The first car with a further aerodynamic adjustment of the head shape - type DABpbzf 764 - was delivered as early as August 1997. The 4th generation has a wide windscreen with a train destination display and integrated lighting. An anti-graffiti protective varnish was used for the front and side walls as well as the roof .
Negotiations about the takeover of DWA by an international investor had been going on since the end of 1997. On February 2, 1998, DWA was taken over by the Canadian group Bombardier . Within the group, the DWA was integrated into the group division Bombardier Transportation . At the end of April 1998, two more groups were founded within the Transportation division - Atlantic Europe and Continental Europe . In addition to the DWA, the last one also included the Talbot wagon factory from Aachen and the former Austrian Lohner-Werke ( Bombardier Vienna Rail Vehicles - BWS ) in Vienna . In a meeting of the supervisory board it was decided to convert the DWA into a GmbH. The entry in the commercial register took place on July 22, 1998.
On April 3, 1998, the ICE-T control car was ceremoniously presented to the public in Görlitz - the powered end car was hidden behind a model of the flying hamburger , which was slowly being dismantled to reveal the ICE-T. A total of 110 ICE-T control cars were built in Görlitz. In 1997/1998 the first double-decker cars were also manufactured for a speed of 160 kilometers per hour. The vehicles of the types DBpz 752.5, DABpz 757.2 and DBpbzf 763.5 were delivered to the Berlin / Brandenburg region and based in Cottbus . They were used on the regional express line between Cottbus and Berlin. For the first time, the DABpz 757.2 wagons were equipped with a service area that included a hot beverage and snack machine .
In 1998/1999, a double-decker electric multiple unit developed by a consortium of DWA, ADtranz and Siemens was built in the Görlitz plant. The multiple unit was built as an integral aluminum construction and was designed for use in regional and S-Bahn traffic. It was presented to the public at InnoTrans 1998 and baptized with the name Meridian . Normal double-deck wagons could be lined up between the 1,800 kilowatt powered end cars. In 1999 the multiple unit was tested on the lines of the Dresden S-Bahn. After the test phase and a Federal Railway Authority approval, however, the multiple unit was not put into scheduled service by Deutsche Bahn, but returned to the manufacturer. It was dismantled in 2006 in the Bombardier factory in Hennigsdorf.
Also in 1998 a new technical building was built on the site of Plant II, which now made the last rooms used in Plant I superfluous. The last rooms in Plant I were cleared in 1999. The restructuring of the plant was thus completed. The site of Plant I and the former polyclinic as well as the prefabricated building administration building was offered for sale. A parking lot was opened on the site of Plant I in 2010. Furthermore, the red office building on Teichstrasse is to move into the Görlitz police department after the renovation has been completed. The site of the former polyclinic and the administration building was sold to the Lidl retail chain on August 2, 2007 . The retail chain had both buildings demolished and a supermarket and an associated customer car park built on them.
Since 1998, Deutsche Bahn has regularly called on double-decker cars from the 1996 contract or increased the options it was planning to order. But even the production of 63 tram bodies for the Berlin transport company , which were transported to the Bombardier factory in Hennigsdorf for interior work, could not prevent the dismissal of 300 employees in 2000 due to the poor order situation. In August 1999, the Israeli State Railways signed a contract for the delivery of double-deck vehicles to Israel. The first four-part double-decker trains were manufactured in 2001 and 2002. The trains consisted of three intermediate cars ( trailer car ) and a control car ( power car ) with an energy supply device. The energy supply device with 2 × 275 kilowatts was primarily used to supply the air conditioning. Starting in 2001, the Görlitz plant built the car bodies of the double-decker trains including paintwork and windows for a bombardment order from the Dutch Railways . The car bodies were transported to the Aachen plant for interior fitting.
On January 25, 2001, Federal President Johannes Rau visited the Görlitz plant and gave a speech to a staff meeting in the final assembly hall. Furthermore, in April 2001 a contract for 42 double-decker cars with the Porterbrook Leasing Company worth 107 million marks was concluded. After completion, the wagons were leased from the Danish State Railways . A second contract followed in December of the same year, which increased the order by a further 25 cars. The production of the Danish wagons started in 2002. In 2002 an order for 66 double-decker vehicles followed by the Lower Saxony regional transport company (LNVG) for the railway company metronom , which were delivered in 2003. Some of the cars were to have a passenger counting device and a bistro. In 2003, a further 40 cars were ordered in a follow-up order, the delivery of which was scheduled for 2005. In 2007 the regional transport company ordered another 56 cars and in 2009/2010 34 more cars. In February 2003, Bombardier Transportation also received an order from the Luxembourg State Railways for 20 class 185.1 locomotives and 85 double-decker cars. They should be shipped between November 2004 and September 2005. In addition, Bombardier won a tender from Deutsche Bahn for 298 double-decker cars with an option for a further 300 cars worth 411 million euros. The large order was celebrated with great joy in the factory. The Saxon Prime Minister Georg Milbradt also paid a visit to the plant on July 9th after receiving the order.
In November 2001, Bombardier Transportation announced a new strategy for the plants in the European manufacturing association in Berlin. This envisaged Görlitz as an important production location for double-deck cars and car bodies made of steel and aluminum. It was also planned to close the Halle-Ammendorf and Vetschau locations in 2002. In 2004, Bombardier announced the closure of plants in Europe and major job cuts. The plant in Halle-Ammendorf, along with a plant in Switzerland and three plants in Great Britain, fell victim to the closure plans. There were downsizing at the plants in Bautzen, Görlitz and Niesky. In the same year it is decided to set up a European center for the processing of stainless steels in Görlitz . The center went into operation in 2005. This enabled car bodies for single-story, modular vehicles for regional traffic to be manufactured in Görlitz, which were intended for the Scandinavian market, among other things. Assemblies for the Bucharest Metro and shell structures for the Delhi Metro are also manufactured in the center.
In 2005, 82 bodyshell car bodies were manufactured in Görlitz for the Marschbahn . They were completed in Hennigsdorf and are used on the Nord-Ostsee-Bahn (NOB) between Hamburg and Sylt. In 2006, at the InnoTrans in Berlin, Deutsche Bahn awarded the Bombardier factory in Görlitz with the 2003 double-deck vehicle series and a special award for the reliability of the vehicles. With an availability of 99 percent, the double-deck cars were the front runners in the DB fleet. The President of Bombardier Transportation André Navarri, the Chairman of the Management Board of Bombardier Transportation Germany Dr. Klaus Baur, the general manager of the Görlitz plant Siegfried Deinege and the CEO of Deutsche Bahn Hartmut Mehdorn attended.
In 2005 and 2006 five badly damaged wagons from the metronom railway company and eight badly damaged wagons from the Danish State Railways came to the factory for repairs. The damage to the cars was so great that new car body shells had to be made for the vehicles.
In October 2007 two sets of the new Görlitz IX bogies were delivered for testing . They were mounted under a double-decker control car (type DABpbzfa 767.2) and a double-decker intermediate car (type DBpza 780.2) and tested on the test sites in Minden and Schlauroth . Extensive test drives were then carried out on various routes. The double-decker cars are now being tested on the Dresden S-Bahn.
After a break of almost 20 years, double-decker cars were again built for the eastern neighboring country of Poland in 2008. The public railway company Koleje Mazowieckie of Mazovia Province ordered 26 central and 11 control cars. The cars were given signal white side walls in the lower floor and yellow-green side walls in the upper floor, a silver-gray roof and yellow entrance doors. The cars were also equipped with video surveillance and LED warning lights above the entrance doors, which warned with a visual signal when the doors were closed. The intermediate cars were delivered to Poland in July and the control cars in November. The one-story car bodies for the Norwegian railway company Flytoget were also manufactured in the workshop and then transferred to Strømmen for further expansion. In August 2008, new production lines for the production of car bodies made of stainless steel were also handed over. This also included a CNC laser cutting system and a resistance spot welding portal. For future orders, the final test hall received an overhead line to carry out the necessary test work. Also in 2008 the plant received an order from the leasing company Railpool for 45 double-deck vehicles for sub- leasing to the Danish State Railways .
On November 20, 2008 the foundation stone was laid for a new shell production hall. In the same month, the first car body shell for the Metro in Delhi is produced. The order includes a total of 424 cars for 106 trains. The first nine trains with 74 cars will be manufactured in Görlitz, the remaining cars will be produced in the Indian Bombardier plant in Vadodara . In preparation for the start of production in the Indian plant, Indian specialists visited the Görlitz plant for training. On December 1st, the general manager of the Görlitz plant Siegfried Deinige and the Görlitz mayor Joachim Paulick welcomed the first Indian specialists. Employees at the Görlitz plant also work temporarily in the Indian plant to train the workers there.
In 2008 there were a total of 1212 employees and 49 trainees. On January 5, 2009, Deutsche Bahn signed a framework agreement for the delivery of 800 double-decker cars of the new 2010 generation. The new generation also includes powered double-decker cars, which make the use of locomotives in front of the cars superfluous. Depending on requirements, several non-powered intermediate cars and a control car at the other end of the train can be set on the railcars. One day later, the Saxon Prime Minister Stanislaw Tillich congratulated the employees of the plant on a short visit on the major order. On April 2, the Prime Minister made another guest appearance at the plant. He took part in the inauguration event for the new shell production hall.
At the turn of the year 2010/2011, Deutsche Bahn ordered 27 intercity double-decker trains with a total of 135 cars from Bombardier Transportation. The double-decker cars are to be delivered by the end of 2013 / beginning of 2014 and have a top speed of 160 kilometers per hour. The car bodies for the new Siemens ICE 4 fleet of Deutsche Bahn are also to be manufactured by the Bombardier works in Görlitz and Hennigsdorf. In May 2010, Bombardier Transportation also won a tender from the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) for 59 long-distance trains and the option for a further 100 vehicles. The double-deck vehicles are to be built in the factories in Görlitz and Villeneuve in Switzerland . The start of delivery is to be in 2012/2013. In 2010, the long-standing general manager of the Siegfried Deinege plant left the plant and was entrusted with new tasks at the headquarters in Hennigsdorf. His successor was Dr. Thomas Ahlburg. Ahlburg left the plant at the end of 2011 and switched to Stadler Rail in Bussnang . His successors were Eduard Janßen and, from 2014, Marc Brzoskniewicz. In 2016, the Bombardier plants in Bautzen and Görlitz were merged to form the Saxony plant and are intended to form a competence center in rail vehicle construction. The Bautzen location is to cede the construction of trams to the Vienna plant and to become a competence center for vehicle interiors. The Görlitz plant, on the other hand, is to be developed into a shell construction competence center. After an interview in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung with the chairman of the German management board Michael Fohrer at the beginning of 2017, it was announced that the plant in Görlitz would specialize in the production of aluminum car bodies in the future. The steel shell production as well as the final interior fittings of the vehicles would thus be carried out from the Görlitz location u. a. to be relocated to the factory in Bautzen, where the final assembly of mainline and underground vehicles will take place in the future. There is resistance to these plans among the Görlitz workforce. On March 4, 2017, a demonstration with around 3000 participants against the decision of the Bombardier management and to preserve jobs in the region took place in downtown Görlitz.
Extract from the product range
- Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2nd Edition. EK-Verlag, Freiburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-88255-564-6 .
- Wolfgang Theurich: Double-deck vehicles from Görlitz - double high, double good . EK-Verlag, Freiburg 2004, ISBN 3-88255-347-2 .
- Waggonbau Görlitz GmbH, Städtische Kunstsammlungen Görlitz (Hrsg.): Görlitz - traditional location for rail vehicle construction . Maxroi Graphics, Görlitz 1995.
- Wilfried Rettig: Görlitz railway junction . Bufe-Fachbuch-Verlag, Egglham 1994, ISBN 3-922138-53-5 , p. 208-215 .
- The German railway system of the present . Volume II. Verlag Reimer Hobbing, Berlin 1911, p. 217-222 .
- ^ Ernst Kretzschmar: Johann Christoph Lüders. Biography. (No longer available online.) City of Görlitz, archived from the original on October 15, 2014 ; accessed on January 26, 2015 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 8 .
- ↑ a b The German railway system of the present . Volume II. Verlag Reimar Hobbing , Berlin 1911, p. 217 .
- ^ Richard Jecht: History of the City of Görlitz, Volume 1, Half Volume 2 . 1st edition. Verlag des Magistrates der Stadt Görlitz, 1934, p. 373 .
- ^ Ernst Heinz Lemper: Görlitz. A historical topography . 2nd Edition. Oettel-Verlag, Görlitz 2009, ISBN 3-932693-63-9 , p. 158 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 8th f .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 9 ff .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 12 f .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 13 f .
- ↑ Rettig, Wilfried: Görlitz railway junction . Bufe-Fachbuch-Verlag, Egglham 1994, ISBN 3-922138-53-5 , p. 208 .
- ↑ Magistrate zu Görlitz (ed.): Plan of the city u. of the urban district of Görlitz . Goerlitz 1891.
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 16 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 20th ff .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 22 .
- ↑ a b c Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 96 .
- ↑ a b c Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 98 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 98 ff .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 112 ff .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 100, 103 .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 103 .
- ↑ Ralph Schermann: A devastating fire raged in the wagon construction . In: Sächsische Zeitung - Görlitzer Nachrichten . September 17, 2011, p. 20 .
- ^ Niels Seidel : The Görlitz and Rennersdorf subcamps. Documentation. Großhennersdorf Environmental Library, accessed on July 17, 2012 .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 155 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 157 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 157 f .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 162 .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 158 ff .
- ↑ The repressed hours of freedom. In: handelsblatt.com. Retrieved March 17, 2013 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 162 ff .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 165 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 165, 168 .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 170 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 214 .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 214 ff .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 216 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 218 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 218 ff .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 220 ff .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 223 f .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 224 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 226 f .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 229 .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 230 .
- ↑ a b c Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 240 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 234 .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 234 ff .
- ^ Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon building in Görlitz . 2009, p. 236 f .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 238 f .
- ^ A b Wolfgang Theurich: 160 years of wagon construction in Görlitz . 2009, p. 241 .
- ↑ Deutsche Bahn uses double-decker coaches for long-distance transport In: welt.de. Retrieved October 14, 2011 .
- ↑ Deutsche Bahn orders 27 new long-distance trains: Modern double-decker cars are to be used on IC lines as early as 2013. Deutsche Bahn, January 12, 2011, archived from the original on January 15, 2011 ; Retrieved October 14, 2011 (press release).
- ↑ Bombardier factory in Hennigsdorf supplies for ICx fleet. In: Berliner Morgenpost. May 9, 2011, accessed January 26, 2015 .
- ↑ Bombardier builds the SBB double-decker trains. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . May 10, 2011, accessed January 26, 2015 .
- ↑ Thanks to the Görlitz Bombardier General Manager Deinege and welcome to his successor Dr. Thomas Ahlburg. In: lausitz-branchen.de. June 30, 2010, archived from the original on November 12, 2010 ; Retrieved October 14, 2011 .
- ↑ Sebastian Beutler: Görlitzer Waggonbauchef goes to the competition. In: SZ-Online. November 23, 2011, accessed January 26, 2014 .
- ↑ Bombardier wants a new boss for Görlitz as soon as possible. In: SZ-Online. Accessed March 12, 2012 (fee required).
- ↑ Uncertainty at the Görlitz site - 3000 people demonstrate for the preservation of the Bombardier factory. (No longer available online.) Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk, archived from the original on March 6, 2017 ; Retrieved March 5, 2017 .
Coordinates: 51 ° 9 ′ 25 ″ N , 14 ° 58 ′ 7 ″ E