The Danske Statsbaner ( DSB ; German "Danish State Railways" ) operate as a railway company (EVU) the passenger traffic on the most important railway lines in Denmark , the international highway Sweden - Germany and the S-Bahn from Copenhagen . Regional routes are operated partly by DSB, partly by other RUs in free competition (tenders) and partly by private railways. The DSB no longer operate any freight traffic.
The state got involved in Denmark early on in the construction and operation of routes: Frederick VI. had already set up a Royal Railway Commission in 1835 , and the Danish state was the largest shareholder in the Christian VIII. Østersø Jernbane of the Altona-Kieler Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft (AKE) opened in 1844 in the Duchy of Holstein, which was then under the Crown . In 1847 the railway line from Copenhagen to Roskilde , built on the initiative of Søren Hjorth by a joint stock company, was opened; it was only possible to build on it to Korsør in 1854 with a state guarantee.
Railway lines under Danish sovereignty until October 1864
- September 18, 1844: Altona-Kieler Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft (AKE, initially "King Christian VIII. Ostseebahn"), October 30, 1864 Prussian, 1877 Prussian concession
- September 1845: Rendsburg-Neumünster Railway , acquired by AKE on January 1, 1864, October 30, 1864 by Prussian
- December 15, 1846: Berlin – Hamburg railway line , practically a transit route through the duchies of Lauenburg and Holstein
- June 27, 1847: Copenhagen - Roskilde
- October 15, 1851: Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn , concession wrested from the Danish government
- October 4, 1854: Flensburg – Husum – Tönning railway with a branch to Rendsburg , inaugurated by King Friedrich VII. October 30, 1864 Prussian
- April 27, 1856: Roskilde - Korsør
- September 2, 1862: Aarhus - Randers
- July 21, 1863: Langå - Viborg
- July 22, 1863: Copenhagen (North Station) - Nørrebro - Hellerup - Klampenborg
- October 1, 1863: Hellerup - Lyngby
- June 9, 1864: Lyngby - Hillerød - Helsingør
- October 1, 1864: ( Flensburg -Holzkrug) - Padborg - Vojens , October 30, 1864 Prussian, June 15, 1920 back to Denmark ( Fredericia – Flensburg line )
Construction of the state railway
The DSB was founded in 1885. They gradually bought up existing lines, especially the Copenhagen – Roskilde line, so that from 1882 almost all of the main lines were in state hands.
The partially island location of the kingdom, which initially did not allow a closed railway network, proved to be problematic. Only the routes on Jutland were connected to the European network. On March 19, 1872, Denmark's first rail ferry line was opened with the Lillebelt rail ferry between Fredericia and Strib across the Little Belt between Jutland and Funen . The Great Belt followed in 1882 , the Öresund on March 10, 1892 and in 1903 the connection to Germany by ferry across the Storstrømmen to Falster (replaced by the Storstrømsbroen in 1937 ) and the Warnemünde – Gedser route . During the Cold War , the Vogelfluglinie was added in 1963 , on which the Todt Organization had already started construction work in 1941 .
The travel times, however, remained relatively long in the small country. At the beginning of the 1930s, a journey from Copenhagen to Esbjerg, 342 kilometers away, took 7½ hours.
On May 14, 1935, King Christian X , who was considered a railway enthusiast, opened a new bridge over the Little Belt. This 1135 meter long bridge and the introduction of diesel-electric lightning trains, so-called Lyntogs , led to a noticeable reduction in travel time by 2 hours and 48 minutes. The fastest train between Copenhagen and Fredericia on Jutland, 254 kilometers away, took 3 hours 49 minutes in the summer of 1935, including the ferry crossing over the not yet bridged Great Belt.
In 1938 a bridge was built between Zealand and Falster . In the 1930s, the first electrified lines (1500 V ) were put into operation in the Copenhagen area with the S-Bahn . The other railways were switched to diesel operation. So it happened that by 1980 not a single kilometer of the long-distance railway network was electrified . In general, as in almost all other European countries, the state then focused on road construction . The Helsingør – Copenhagen line was the first long-distance line to be electrified with 25 kV / 50 Hz .
As early as 1974, a national cycle schedule with IC trains started, "every hour every class" - making DSB one of the first companies to introduce this concept, which has now become widespread.
From 1973, the crossing of the Great Belt was planned with a six-lane motorway bridge, which, however, was also provided as a rail link in 1987 with a new law. The first bridge piers were erected in 1990, and on June 1, 1997 the Great Belt Fixed Link was put into operation. While the motorway to the small island of Sprogø uses the shared bridge with the railway, from there to Zealand the trains go through a tunnel. The motor vehicles, however, use a suspension bridge.
Development since 1996
In 1996 there was a complete separation of network and operation, the network has since been administered by the state authority Banestyrelsen , since 2005 comparable to a state-owned AG under the name Banedanmark .
Since July 2, 2000, the trains to Malmö have been using a fixed link . Here, the motorway and railroad run parallel through the Drogden Tunnel , an immersed tunnel between Copenhagen Airport and the heaped-up island of Peberholm , from there over the Øresund Bridge , a cable-stayed bridge . The transit route from Malmö to the border town of Padborg near Flensburg is electrified and can be driven at speeds of up to 180 km / h.
As a result of the sharp decline in rail freight traffic here, as almost everywhere in Europe, all marshalling yards in Denmark were shut down by 2002 . The last remaining wagonload traffic operated by the national freight transport company Railion Danmark (transport of individual freight wagons , transfer from and to Denmark via marshalling yards in neighboring countries) was severely restricted in the course of 2006 on the Germany – Sweden transit route. However, this does not apply to container and block train traffic . Occasionally, however, wagonload transports are still being taken over by smaller Danish railway operators instead of being shifted to the road, as is usual.
In 2003 DSB had to hand over part of the regional railway network in Central and West Jutland to Arriva following a tender .
DSB International is the business unit that deals with the acquisition of further transport contracts abroad.
The DSB are pursuing a strong expansion course across national borders. In 2009, DSB and its subsidiary DSBFirst (as a joint venture with the British FirstGroup ) were able to win the cross-border Öresund traffic between Sweden and Denmark. In the neighboring country, they also operate the narrow-gauge Roslagsbana near Stockholm as well as regional transport in the greater Gothenburg area ( Västtrafik ). In December 2009, DSB subsidiary DSB Småland AB won the tender for regional transport in the Jönköping area ; operations began at the end of 2010. With the tender won in Jönköping, DSB will provide more than 20 million train kilometers in the Swedish market and thus more than in their Danish home country.
Series that are still used are in bold , those that have been discontinued are in italics .
- E (steam locomotive, decommissioned ); these locomotives with the 2'C1 'wheel arrangement originally came from Sweden. From 1936 onwards, after the electrification, they were no longer needed there, so the DSB bought them. After the war, another 25 locomotives were built.
- F (steam locomotive, retired ); three-axle shunter, was built in three series from 1898 to 1949.
- N (steam locomotive, decommissioned ); these locomotives were builtas the German class 50 in Belgium during the Second World War . After the war, the locomotives came back to Belgium, but were not used there and were sold to DSB.
- Q (steam locomotive, retired ); these Dn2t locomotives were the most powerful shunting locomotives of the DSB. They were designed and built by Maschinenfabrik A / S Frichs in Aarhus between 1930 and 1945. These locomotives were in service until the mid-1970s. Two machines have survived to this day. Locomotive Q 345 is in the care of the DSB Museumstog (not in operation), Locomotive Q 350 is used near Hamburg by the Geesthacht Railway Working Group on the Bergedorf-Geesthacht Railway line .
Diesel locomotives and railcars
- MA (diesel-hydraulic express multiple unit ) - From 1963, these diesel - hydraulic four-part multiple units replaced the pre-war models in Lyntog traffic (Blitzzug).
- ME (diesel-electric mainline locomotive) - These vehicles are the most modern diesel locomotives from DSB. They were built in two batches between 1981 and 1986 in a total of 37 copies. For the first time AC motors were installed, while the diesel generators (as with MX / MY and MZ) come from General Motors. The locomotives have a Co'Co 'wheel arrangement and a top speed of 175 km / h. The vehicle bodies are similar to the EA series, but appear a little rounder. The length over the buffers is 21 m.
- MF (three-part diesel-mechanical long-distance multiple unit, called IC3 ) - They operate in national intercity traffic. To Germany, these trains were used as EuroCity from Copenhagen via Puttgarden ( Vogelfluglinie )until the end of 2015. Via the Vogelfluglinie they were partially replaced from the 2008 annual timetable and completely from December 2015 by German diesel-electric ICE TDs , but returned to this route in the 2018 timetable year until the total shutdown of train traffic in December 2019. You also use the route from Aarhus via Padborg to Hamburg.
- MG (four-part diesel-mechanical long-distance multiple unit, called IC4 ) - manufacturer is AnsaldoBreda / Italy. The first copy was delivered to Denmark on August 20, 2003. Technical difficulties meant that this series was not used in regular traffic for a long time. From June 2007, the train type was tested again with a focus on Jutland . These had to be discontinued in March 2008 for technical reasons. The DSB then sent the manufacturer an ultimatum stating that at least 14 railcars must receive approval for domestic long-distance transport by May 2009 and that at least one vehicle fulfills all contractual conditions. Otherwise, the contract for the delivery of 83 railcars for five billion crowns will be terminated. The first passengers were carried in East Jutland in September 2010. Since the beginning of 2011, more and more of the multiple units delivered have been used on the main route from Copenhagen to Jutland. Since the trains were unsatisfactory, some of them were taken out of service from 2017, and some of the trains were scrapped.
- ML (diesel-hydraulic railcar) - With this series, the DSB set the end point in 1982 for atype of localrailcarfrom Maschinenfabrik Uerdingen / DUEWAG, which was used with great success byDanish private railways . In 1984 the DSB put seven railcars (each with a driver's cab) and five intermediate cars (without a driver's cab) into service. The vehicles are based on two bogies with two axles each; in the railcars, the internal axles of a bogie are driven by a motor. This results in the axis sequence (1A) (A1). Each engine has an output of 180 hp and the maximum speed is 80 km / h. The vehicles have an automatic central coupling. The wagons are each 17.5 m long. - The vehicles procured by DSB will only be used on the Helsingør – Hillerød ( Lille Nord ) route. There they replaced the last vehicles of the MO series from the 1930s. The DSB delayed this step because they originallywanted to use the MR / MRD series that theyalready had on this route. This would mean that these vehicles would have been stationed far away from their previous areas of use, which would have resulted in increased expenditure for technical maintenance. That is why the state railway tried to persuade the private railways of North Zealand to also switch to the MR / MRD series in order to reduce costs through joint technical maintenance. The proposal was rejected because the MR / MRD did not meet the requirements of the private railways. - The Danish private railways began using the Y-togene or Lynette (German: Blitzchen ) as early as 1965. Until 1984, this type of vehicle was built in several series and numerous variants and used on almost all Danish private railways. Originally, railcars, intermediate cars (without driver's cab) and control cars (with one driver's cab, without drive) were produced. One-piece vehicles were later produced, with driver's cabs on both sides of the vehicle. Further differences can be found, for example, in the area of the pulling and bumpers (some private railways use conventional buffers and screw couplings at the "outer" ends) and the distribution and configuration of the doors and interior fittings. - In total, the Danish railways received around 75 railcars and the same number of intermediate and control cars of this type. In some private railways, the vehicles have already been replaced by various newer vehicle types, for example the IC2 , a two-part, lighter variant of the (DSB-) IC3; through the MQ series or through RegioSprinter .
- MO (diesel-electric multiple unit, decommissioned ) - The production of this successful all-purpose diesel multiple unit with a top speed of 120 km / h began in 1935 with four units. The first two railcars were delivered with four axles, of which two axles are located in a bogie, two axles of a bogie are driven by two motors with a total output of 500 hp ( axle sequence 2-B). The other two examples were delivered with a three-axle, non-driven bogie (axle order 3-B); this design was ultimately more successful, so that the first two models in 1941/46 also received a three-axle bogie. Following the first four vehicles, the manufacturer Frichs received an order for ten more units in 1936, which again had four axles, but the engine bogies of these vehicles were not compatible with the other vehicles, which is why this "sub-series" was the first between 1966 and 1970 was retired; at a time when the remaining vehicles were being modernized. Another order from Frichs led to a delivery of another 27 copies between 1938 and 1940. After the Second World War , the last and largest delivery of 90 copies, which were delivered from 1951 to 1958, was initiated. - Technically, the one-piece MO railcars corresponded to the end cars of the three-part "Lyntog" (lightning train) of the MS seriesdelivered in 1935, or the four-part MB series from 1936. These had two motor cars with a total of 1000 hp. The MO series was therefore able to meet the transport needs of the Danish express train network with intermediate cars (normal passenger cars). The main area of application was traffic in the area. Here they quickly ousted the steam locomotives. Towards the end of their service life , the railcars were used to transport the international express trains Øresundspilen (Copenhagen– Stockholm ) and Skandiapilen (Copenhagen– Oslo ) between Copenhagen and the Danish Helsingør (45 km). The reason for using the vehicles was the lack of large diesel locomotives. - The last MO railcars operated on the Lille Nord route between Hillerød and Helsingøruntil 1984, where they were replaced by the ML / MF series. - The railcar MO 1954 (built in 1935, 2nd series) came (with its original designation MO 554 before the modernization in 1964) like MO 1878 (built in 1956, last series) to the Danish Railway Museum in Odense in 1984. Further copies are being preserved privately.
- MP (two-part diesel-mechanical long-distancemultiple unit,called IC2 ) - A multiple unit from the manufacturer AnsaldoBreda that is identical in technology and design to the MG (IC4) series, but only consists of two parts. Like the MG series, these trains are flawed. Of the 23 units ordered in 2002, the first train was put into operation by DSB in the summer of 2011. With effect from August 23, 2016, all multiple units were shut down due to permanent defects.
- MQ (diesel-mechanical local transport multiple unit) - A multiple unit of the type Siemens Desiro Classic from the manufacturer Rail Systems (formerly Siemens Mobility), which islargely identical to the German DB class 642. It has been in service on the Odense - Svendborg route since December 2002and on the Aarhus - Grenaa route since October 2010.
- MR / MRD (diesel-hydraulic local transport multiple unit) - A two-part multiple unit that was developed by Waggonfabrik Uerdingen on the basis of the German DB class 627/628 and put into service between 1978 and 1985. Of the total of 98 units built, only the first 30 were manufactured directly by the Uerdingen wagon factory, all others were builtunderlicense from the Danish manufacturer Scandia A / S in Randers .
- MX (II) (diesel-electric mainline locomotive) - The M X is the smaller sister of the M Y series. The main area of application for this type of locomotive was on the lines away from the main lines, for which a lower axle pressure was required. They were needed there to replace the steam locomotives. The machines have been completely withdrawn from DSB since 1993, but some of them have been taken over by Danish private railways.
- MY (II) (diesel-electric mainline locomotive) - With this type of locomotive, the DSB began the conversion from steam to diesel traction. The typical rounded shape of the fronts gave the locomotives the nickname Rundnasen in Danish Rundsnuder .
- MZ (diesel-electric mainline locomotive) - Due to the increased use of multiple units and increasing electrification, the series is about to be retired. Like the locomotives of the M X (II) and M Y (II) series, they were built by NoHAB.
Electric locomotives and multiple units
- EA (electric mainline locomotive) - The first electric locomotives of the DSB, which were procured for mainline electrification from 1984 onwards. By 1996, a total of 22 locomotives were put into service in two lots. The wheel arrangement of the Bo'Bo 'locomotive is interesting (two axles each in two bogies), after the standard diesel locomotives of DSB and then the EG series had the Co'Co' wheel arrangement (three axles each in two bogies). The vehicle body is similar to the ME series, but appears more angular and is slightly shorter (19.38 m).
- EG (electric mainline locomotive) - heavy freight locomotive. These locomotives with the Co'Co 'wheel arrangement are the most powerful electric locomotives of the DSB. They are technically related to the EuroSprinter . In 2001 the machines were handed over to Railion Danmark.
- ER (electric multiple unit, called IR4 ) - They operate in interregional traffic in Denmark. They can travel together in a train set with the diesel multiple units of the MF (IC3) series, with which they share the front.
- ET (electric multiple unit, called Öresund train ) - They run between Helsingør, Copenhagen , Kastrup Airport and Swedish Malmö via the Öresund connection to Gothenburg and Kalmar . They are equipped for the different power and signal systems in Denmark and Sweden. Despite the “rubber nose”, they cannot be coupled with IC / 3 and IR / 4.
According to European standards, DSB was privatized and converted into a holding company. The network operator is called Banedanmark . In this way politicians hoped for fair competition and access for third parties, which has now happened in Denmark.
DSB mostly expand their business areas internationally. The DSB are bidding for routes in other EU countries, such as Germany and Great Britain.
Nationally, the DSB pursues the strategy “Good Trains for All”. This stopped the planning of high-speed trains.
Status in mid-2016
Operating profit for the first half of 2016 was a pre-tax loss of 447 million crowns after depreciation of the entire IC2 fleet and five IC4 trains.
The punctuality of long-distance and regional trains was 72.7 percent, well below the target value of 81.8 percent; for trains from other operators, the value of 91.9 percent was below the target of 93.8 percent for transport contracts. Only in the case of the S-Bahn were these values of 94.1 and 98.8 percent above the target agreements.
In 2017, the travel times on some routes will be extended by a few minutes, which is intended to improve the punctuality rate. The majority of the travel time extensions are between three and six minutes. However, further improvements in punctuality will only come into play after the use of new signaling technology, the electrification of various routes and the procurement of new electric vehicles. One reason for the deterioration in punctuality is the border controls on trains coming from Padborg . Since trains from North and West Jutland are merged (winged) in Fredericia , delays affect the entire route to Copenhagen. In addition, extensive track work was carried out in 2015 on West Funen and in 2016 on East Funen, which resulted in the emigration of passengers.
In autumn 2016, DSB will publish a tender for the purchase of the first 26 new electric locomotives, which will in future be used to transport the double-decker trains in regional traffic to Zealand . With this measure, the older, polluting diesel locomotives of the ME series can be replaced. The first of the new locomotives is expected to go into operation in early 2020.
A political decision to order new electric multiple units for long-distance and regional transport must be made in 2017 so that they will be available in the middle of the next decade after the electrification of the rail network to Aarhus and Aalborg . The proposed resolutions for the purchase of the new electric multiple units are expected at the end of 2016.
The purchase of new vehicles will reduce the dependency on the IC4 train sets and enable these trains to be withdrawn in a controlled manner. Based on experience, the IC4 will not be the backbone of Danish rail traffic, but will be a partial solution until electrification is complete and the new vehicles arrive.
The IC2 never got into a stable condition, which is a prerequisite for use in rail traffic. It was only used to a very limited extent. In future, the focus will be on the operational safety of the IC4 sets, which cannot be dispensed with in the medium term.
Therefore, all 23 IC2 trains were shut down on August 23, 2016 and at the same time a depreciation of 588 million crowns was entered in the balance sheet. At the same time, five IC4 sets that were no longer necessary and also parked were written off with 85 million crowns.
This marked the end of an unfortunate chapter in the history of the DSB, the acquisition of the IC4 and IC2 train sets. By the end of 2016, DSB will prepare an analysis and recommendations for the future use of the IC4, which on June 30, 2016 had a book value of 3.7 billion crowns.
At the end of 2016, Danske Statsbaner set the timeline for the electrification program 2018-2026, which is based on the modernization of the signaling system. After that, all lines to be electrified will be converted to European Rail Traffic Management System 2 (ERTMS 2) between 2018 and 2021 .
Experience gained with the construction of the Lunderskov – Esbjerg railway line , which went into operation on March 12, 2017, went into this preparatory phase . On May 31, 2019, traffic on the København – Ringsted high-speed line began.
The next route since 2019 is the expansion of the Køge Nord – Næstved section , which will be operated electrically from the second quarter of 2020. In 2021 the Roskilde – Kalundborg railway line is to be upgraded and put into operation when the timetable changes in December 2021.
The expansion program for Jutland extends between 2023 and 2026. The details have not yet been determined for this period. The rough planning provides for the preparatory work and the electrification of the Vejle – Struer railway line for the period after 2023.
This is a consequence of the test phase for the signal system, which is being subjected to a long-term test on the route between Hobro and Frederikshavn . That is why Banedanmark has decided to postpone a number of works from 2019 to 2020. This concerns the renewal, speed increase and preparatory work for the electrification of the Hobro – Aalborg (Lindholm) line, the construction of the Aalborg airport railway and the capacity expansion in Vendsyssel.
Extensive renovation work was planned for 2019 and 2020 on the København – Fredericia railway via Funen and Zealand. However, due to the priority of the Roskilde – Ringsted route, these were postponed to 2024/25.
The speed increase of the line between Holbæk and Kalundborg can also only be carried out in 2023, when the signaling work on Funen and Zealand has been completed. The renewal and speed increases on the routes in Central and West Jutland were postponed until after 2023, as was the area in West and South Jutland.
European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS)
After the end of the lifecycle of existing safety technology was foreseeable, the Danish rail network operator Banedanmark announced on December 10, 2008 that it would replace all signal systems in Denmark with ETCS Level 2. The project should start in the 1st quarter of 2009 and be completed in 2021. This should be accompanied by a completely new company set of rules. The project, valued at 3.3 billion euros (21 billion Danish kroner ), was to be awarded in four lots, two for equipping the network and one for equipping the vehicles. A fourth lot was planned for the Copenhagen S-Bahn , which is to be equipped with a CBTC ( Moving Block ) system due to the short train sequences . The corresponding financial resources were approved by the Danish Parliament in autumn 2008. All major signaling technology manufacturers took part in the tender, in all four lots.
In 2009, the introduction was planned for all state-operated routes between 2017 and 2021. Branch lines should be equipped with ERTMS Regional after 2021 . A Strækningsoversigt ETCS has been provided by Banedanmark since the beginning of 2019 . The costs of the vehicle equipment are funded by the infrastructure operator. In 2017, due to significant delays in vehicle equipment, the Danish government postponed the end of the ETCS transition from 2023 to 2030.
At the beginning of February 2019, an agreement was announced with which the continuation of the vehicle equipment by Alstom received a new contractual basis. In November 2019, the first six MF (IC3) trains were converted and approved. With the timetable change in December 2019, the second pilot line with ETCS L2 BL3 went into operation. Between Roskilde and Køge , the entire functionality with level crossings and connection to the national control center was put into operation with a one-week total closure.
The first line started operating on October 21, 2018 between Frederikshavn and Lindholm .
The Roskilde – Køge section has been electrified since 2019 and is scheduled to run electrically from the second quarter of 2020. The line will be converted to the ERTMS 2 safety system beforehand.
On the Thybanen between Struer and Thisted the following sections were made
- Snedsted - Thisted (from February 24, 2020)
- Bedsted - Snedsted (from March 9, 2020) and
- Hvidbjerg - Bedsted (from March 23, 2020) switched to the new signaling technology.
The further commissioning is for the routes
- Langå – Struer – Holstebro (2021)
- Køge – Næstved and Næstved – Rødby (2021)
- Vejle – Holstebro – Herning – Skanderborg (2022) planned.
Inconsistent symmetry minute
The rail network in Denmark does not have a uniform minute of symmetry as largely in neighboring countries, which is why transfers often take up to half an hour longer in one direction than in the opposite direction.
Travel times over the years
København H - Fredericia (254 km)
- Summer 1935: 3 hours 49 minutes
- Summer 1964: 3 hours 37 minutes
- Winter 1988: 3 hours 21 minutes (Lyn 188)
- Summer 1998: 2 hours 4 minutes
- Winter 2004: 1 hour 44 minutes
- Spring 2009: 1 hour 50 minutes
- Spring 2018: 1 hour 46 minutes
København H - Hamburg Hbf (367 km, Vogelfluglinie )
- Summer 1935: 10 hours 44 minutes (via Jutland and Funen)
- Summer 1964: 4 hours 58 minutes (D 142; København Express )
- Winter 1988: 4 hours 53 minutes (EC 33; Scandinavia )
- Summer 1998: 4 hours 22 minutes (EC 31)
- Winter 2004: 4 hours 25 minutes (EC 38)
- Summer 2007: 4 hours 22 minutes (EC 38)
- Spring 2009: 4 hours 34 minutes (ICE 38)
- Spring 2018: 4 hours 41 minutes (EC 38)
DSB in the film
In 1975 the film Die Olsenbande sets the course , the seventh episode of the series Die Olsenbande . The strip is considered to be one of the most famous films related to the railroad. The gang procured the locomotive from the DSB, most of the route used belonged to the private freight railway Amagerbanen . The eastern branch of the Copenhagen Metro has now been built on this route .
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