Jean-Claude Juncker

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Jean-Claude Juncker (2019)
Jean-Claude Juncker signature.svg

Jean-Claude Juncker (born December 9, 1954 in Redingen , Luxembourg ) is a Luxembourg politician of the Christian Social People's Party (CSV / PCS). He was President of the European Commission from November 1, 2014 to November 30, 2019 . He was Finance Minister from 1989 to July 2009 and Prime Minister of Luxembourg from 1995 to December 2013 and Chairman of the Eurogroup from 2005 to 2013 .



Jean-Claude Juncker grew up as the son of steel worker Joseph Juncker and his wife Marguerite Juncker in the south of Luxembourg. It was very much shaped by this industrialized area, in which many workers and immigrants (at that time mainly Italians) lived. At that time, his family was already politically part of the Christian Social People's Party (CSV), and his uncle Ed Juncker was the mayor of Ettelbruck . His father was active as a trade unionist in the Luxembourg Christian Trade Union Confederation (LCGB).

He completed middle school in the boarding school of the Belgian Clairefontaine monastery in Arlon , which was run by priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Luxembourg . In 1974 Jean-Claude Juncker obtained the Diplôme de fin d'études secondaires (Abitur, Matura) at the Lycée Michel-Rodange in Luxembourg . In the same year he joined the CSV. He began studying law in 1975 at the University of Strasbourg , which he graduated in 1979. In February 1980 he was sworn in by the Bar Association and admitted to the bar. However, he never practiced this profession, but saw himself as a professional politician from the start.

Juncker has been married since 1979.

After a car accident in September 1989 he was in a coma for two weeks , then had to learn to walk again and, according to his own account, has since suffered from a damaged sciatic nerve and walking problems.

From May 2006 until the paper was discontinued at the end of 2010, Juncker was co-editor of the weekly newspaper Rheinischer Merkur .

In addition to his mother tongue Luxembourgish , Juncker speaks fluent French , German and English .

Political career

State Secretary and Minister

In 1982 Juncker was appointed State Secretary for Labor and Social Security. In 1984, Jean-Claude Juncker won his first mandate in the elections to the Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies ( Chambre des députés ). He never ran for any length of time, neither this nor the elections won in the following elections, as he was also a member of the government in the subsequent legislative periods.

When the government was formed after the parliamentary elections in 1989 , he became Minister for Labor and Finance and Governor of Luxembourg at the World Bank . Juncker held the office until 1995, during which time he played a key role in shaping the Maastricht Treaty .

Prime Minister of Luxembourg

On January 20, 1995, he became Luxembourg Prime Minister to succeed Jacques Santer after he had taken over the office of President of the European Commission and left the government . At the same time, Juncker took over the Luxembourg Ministry of Finance and represented Luxembourg as governor at the International Monetary Fund . Right from the start, his work was closely related to international politics, where he benefited from his multilingualism. Among other things, he distinguished himself several times as a mediator within the EU . In 1996 he played a major role in the “Dublin Compromise”, which enabled Germany and France to reach an agreement on the Stability and Growth Pact . In the second half of 1997 and in the first half of 2005, Luxembourg held the EU Council Presidency under Juncker .

Juncker is considered popular with the Luxembourg population and uses his popularity again and again politically: For example, before the Luxembourg elections in 2004, he promised to remain Prime Minister of Luxembourg in the event of re-election and not to accept any European office; his party then won a clear victory. In 2005 Juncker threatened to resign if the referendum in Luxembourg on the new EU constitution was negative . In the following vote, the Luxembourgers adopted the constitution with 57 percent of the votes cast.

On November 16, 2008, Jean-Claude Juncker gave a speech to the German Bundestag on the occasion of the day of national mourning .

Secret service affair and resignation as prime minister

In the first half of 2013, a committee of inquiry of the Luxembourg parliament dealt with dubious practices of the Luxembourg secret service SREL , which had persisted for years . It was triggered by findings in the context of the legal processing of a series of unsolved bombings in the mid-1980s, usually referred to as the bombing affair . In its final report at the beginning of July, the majority of the committee found that Juncker was politically responsible for the uncontrolled activities of the SREL. As it turned out, Juncker himself had been a victim of these practices in 2007, as the then intelligence chief Marco Mille had secretly recorded a conversation between him and Juncker. On July 10, 2013, Juncker announced new elections in the course of the affair (see Chamber election 2013 ). In this election, Junckers CSV was again the strongest party with him as the top candidate, but his previous coalition partner, the Social Democrats, agreed with the Liberals and the Greens on a new coalition government. Juncker, who was most recently the longest-serving head of government in the European Union , resigned from his government office on December 4, 2013, when Xavier Bettel was sworn in as Prime Minister. He then took over the chairmanship of the CSV parliamentary group in the Chamber of Deputies and thus became leader of the opposition.

Presidency of the Eurozone

Jean-Claude Juncker (2006)

On September 10, 2004, Juncker was appointed the first permanent chairman of the Eurogroup , an informal body of finance ministers in the euro area, for a period of two years . His mandate began on January 1, 2005, and was extended on September 6, 2006 to December 31, 2008. According to the statutes of the Eurogroup at that time, Juncker's term of office ended with the fact that the same person may not hold the office of chairman for more than two terms of office. On September 12, 2008, however, his term of office was unanimously extended for a further two years at a Eurogroup meeting chaired by the French Finance Minister Christine Lagarde . After the Luxembourg parliamentary elections in 2009, Juncker resigned his position as Luxembourg finance minister but declared his interest in remaining chairman of the Eurogroup. In January 2010 he was confirmed as its chairman for a further two and a half years after the Euro Group had received formal European law status for the first time shortly before the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. In March 2012, Juncker announced that he would be relinquishing the chairmanship of the Eurogroup in summer 2012. When he was then appointed chairman of the Eurogroup for a fifth term in July 2012, he announced that he would only hold the chair for six months and that he would resign at the beginning of 2013 at the latest. He renewed this announcement in December 2012. On January 21, 2013, he resigned his mandate and was replaced by the Dutch Finance Minister Jeroen Dijsselbloem .

Candidacy for President of the European Council and the European Commission

Following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009, Juncker expressed interest in the post of President of the European Council . Alongside Tony Blair , he was the best-known candidate for this office, with numerous media assuming that Juncker was unable to win a majority in the European Council due to his European federalist positions and that his candidacy primarily wanted to prevent Blair's success. Herman Van Rompuy was eventually elected to office.

For the 2014 European elections , he ran for the EPP as the top candidate, but without running for the European Parliament. It was planned that, within the framework of the new European constitutional treaty and a strengthening of the European Parliament and grassroots democracy, the top candidate of the strongest parliamentary group would become President of the European Commission for the first time and that, unlike before, they would lead a Europe-wide election campaign including debates between the top candidates. Juncker's main rival in the election campaign was the Social Democrats' top candidate Martin Schulz . After the EPP had become the strongest force with Juncker, British Prime Minister David Cameron publicly spoke out against Juncker's candidacy, nomination and election.

President of the European Commission

Jean-Claude Juncker at the CSU party conference 2014 in Nuremberg

After weeks of discussion, Juncker was nominated as Commission President by the European Council against Cameron's opposition, who was only supported on this issue by Hungary's Viktor Orbán . On July 15, 2014, the European Parliament voted for Juncker by 422 votes to 250 (47 abstentions, 10 invalid). As President of the EU Commission , Juncker carried out a restructuring of the body of EU commissioners, in which the vice-presidents are to lead so-called clusters, i.e. larger areas of responsibility.

In an interview of the week of Deutschlandfunk on February 12, 2017, Juncker said that he was not seeking a second candidacy for the office of Commission President.
On July 25, 2018, Juncker visited US President Trump at the White House. Trump had previously threatened the EU with tariffs on various products; the EU had announced countermeasures. Juncker managed to defuse the trade dispute.

Political positions

Economic and social policy

Juncker's positions are, like those of the CSV, moderately conservative-market economy and Christian-democratic, whereby social policy is very important to him. In 2006, Juncker campaigned for a “social relance for the EPP”. Juncker is considered close to European federalism .

As chairman of the Eurogroup , he supported the Lisbon Treaty . He also complained, however, that the social question in the EU had been neglected and repeatedly spoke out in favor of a “social Europe”. Juncker condemned the trend towards social and wage dumping (whereby he was particularly critical of the German government due to its export strategy and wage reductions) and therefore called for European minimum standards in labor law, e.g. B. protection against dismissal or minimum wages.

Jean-Claude Juncker at the Bündnis90 / Die Grünen European party conference in January 2009 in Dortmund

In Luxembourg there is currently a high minimum wage (“social minimum wage”) compared to other European countries, and there are still a comparatively large number of state benefits, e. B. in the areas of environment, health and social security. Tax and government ratios are below the EU average, but still on average for the OECD member states and thus significantly higher than in other small countries with a strong financial sector such as B. Switzerland (status 2007/2008). Income inequality has remained at the same level since he took office, namely slightly below the EU average (as of 2005).

At the same time, the Luxembourg government continued its strategy under Juncker to attract financial service providers with relatively low tax rates and special investments for international investors (“niche strategy” for a small country). In 2009, Juncker turned against proposals by the then German Finance Minister Peer Steinbrück ( Merkel I Cabinet ) to make access to tax havens more difficult across Europe .

Reactions to financial crisis

Juncker in Munich (February 2018)

Juncker changed his initially negative and skeptical attitude towards European financial regulation as a result of the global financial crisis from 2007 onwards . In connection with the euro crisis from 2009 onwards, he criticized the financial speculation and advocated a financial transaction tax , among other things . He also announced that following US pressure, he would loosen banking secrecy in Luxembourg.

Juncker was one of the authors of the Stability and Growth Pact and turned against a pan-European Economic Recovery Plan Krisenabmilderung after the economic crisis from 2007. However spoke Juncker as an economic support since 2008. Community for the introduction of government bonds of EU member states ( euro bonds ) that part one of debt are to be bundled in order to make it easier for financially weaker countries to access more favorable credit terms. The proposal met with criticism from other conservatives in Europe; Juncker announced in 2014 that he would not seek any Eurobonds in the next few years.

The announcement by the then Greek Prime Minister Giorgos Papandreou in November 2011 that he would hold a referendum on whether further government spending cuts should be implemented was described by Juncker as being disloyal to the euro countries that support Greece. Juncker also advocated not publicly discussing the euro crisis.

Jean-Claude Juncker with Angela Merkel

Responses to the refugee crisis

As became clear in September 2015, Juncker advocates the mandatory EU-wide distribution of refugees in order to solve the refugee crisis - even to EU countries that expressly do not want to accept refugees. He also advocates closer cooperation between the EU and Turkey in this regard : “We cannot solely look inwards. We need to make sure that we look at the issues that concern us in the periphery of Europe. Turkey and the European Union need to walk together [down] this path. " ("We must not only look inward. We have to make sure that we also look at the problems on the periphery of Europe. Turkey and the European Union must go this way together.")

Negotiations on CETA, TTIP, etc.

At the end of June 2016, Juncker expressed the view that the planned European-Canadian free trade agreement CETA was exclusively a supranational , European agreement and therefore the approval of national parliaments in Europe was not necessary. This statement was heavily criticized by political leaders and the media. In view of the criticism, he weakened his statement a short time later and said: "I personally don't care."


Accusations of lies

During the euro crisis in 2011, Juncker denied a planned secret meeting of some EU finance ministers on the situation in Greece , which actually took place at the same time. The news agency dapd quoted him in connection with the sentence: "When things get serious, you have to lie." Juncker had said the sentence shortly before at an award ceremony in the Bavarian state representation . Members of the EU Parliament criticized the denial with clear words, including the chairman of the Liberals Guy Verhofstadt and the then chairman of the Socialists Martin Schulz .

Public speaking

After the European elections, Juncker was criticized in various reports for receiving fees for speeches at trade fairs and in front of industrial associations without giving an account of the amount of this income. He also appeared at a conference of the Federal Association of the German Security and Defense Industry on June 24, 2014 in Berlin. According to Juncker, however, all speaking activities are properly declared to the European Parliament and their number is also very manageable.

Position on climate policy

In October 2014, German, French and Austrian business associations criticized the marginalization of EU climate policy by Juncker since his commission presidency. One year after taking office, the climate and energy goals were still to be implemented.

Illegal state aid and tax advantages for large corporations

In October 2014, the European Commission launched an investigation into the tax benefits granted to the Amazon group in Luxembourg. According to the European Commission, the government of Luxembourg, headed by Jean-Claude Juncker, had been providing Amazon with illegal state aid in the form of tax benefits since 2003. In 2013, the Luxembourg-based subsidiaries of Amazon only had to pay 60 to 70 million euros in tax on sales of 13.6 billion euros, which corresponds to a tax rate of around 0.5 percent. In 2015, Juncker was awarded the “Schandfleck des Jahres” (eyesore of the year) by the Austrian “Network for Social Responsibility” as an award for “particularly anti-social companies, institutions or individuals”.

In November 2014, an international research team called Luxemburg-Leaks uncovered that during the term of office of Jean-Claude Juncker since 2002 the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg had concluded complicated tax agreements between more than 340 international corporations and Luxembourg, which channeled hundreds of billions of euros through Luxembourg and thus Save billions in taxes. There are tax agreements, for example, between Luxembourg and Amazon , FedEx , IKEA , PepsiCo , Procter & Gamble , Deutsche Bank , E.ON (see also: Dutchdelta Finance ), Fresenius Medical Care etc. In two cases the EU Commission is investigating whether it is this is a prohibited subsidy. Juncker claimed he did not want to interfere in the investigation. As finance minister, Juncker was the employer of Marius Kohl , the head of the tax authority Sociétés 6 , who discussed and approved tax agreements personally with corporate advisors. In consultation with his employer, then Finance Minister Jean-Claude Juncker or Luc Frieden, Kohl decided most of the applications were positive. Sven Giegold (MEP Greens) said in 2017 that Luxembourg's tax policy under Juncker had led to enormous tax shortfalls in other EU countries. Germany alone lost more than 200 million euros.

In January 2017, on the basis of German diplomatic dispatches, the Guardian accused Juncker of having secretly blocked efforts by the EU through vetoes to address tax avoidance by multinational corporations as Prime Minister : A leaked message said: “It is impressive to see how some member states are doing to the outside world as advocates [international tax reform] and at the same time to see how they really behave in EU discussions when they are protected by confidentiality. "

At the end of May 2017, Juncker was questioned by an investigative committee of the European Parliament about the mailbox affair in Panama ( Panama Papers ) and about initiatives by the EU Commission against money laundering and tax evasion .


Juncker had defended the smallest EU member state, Malta, despite the state's slipping into mafia-like structures for party-tactical reasons, because he had to rely on the vote of its Prime Minister Joseph Muscat in the Council of the European Union .


Juncker has been repeatedly criticized for his unusual public appearances, which are judged to be either special humor or missteps.

In 2015 he gave Viktor Orbán a ritual slap in the face at the EU summit in Riga . Orbán's appearance was previously spoken by Juncker with the words "The dictator is coming!" ironically introduced. As early as 2013, he gave the then Austrian Chancellor Werner Faymann a friendly pat on the back of the head during an interview with some paper pages, which he acknowledged with a smile.

The British Labor Minister Amber Rudd attested Juncker “grotesque” and “horrific” behavior towards women and referred to a scene in which he had stroked the hair of the deputy chief of protocol of the EU Commission, Pernilla Sjölin. The former Minister for Women also criticized Juncker for pulling Prime Minister Theresa May by the arm.


In 2003, Juncker was given honorary citizenship of the city of Trier "as a friend and patron of the city" . In 2005 and 2006, Juncker took over the patronage of Prominence for Charity for the benefit of UNICEF .

On May 25, 2006 Juncker received the International Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen . The eulogy held former Chancellor Helmut Kohl . As stated in the text of the certificate, which Aachen's mayor Jürgen Linden presented together with the actual award in the form of a medal with an inscription, Juncker received the award “in recognition of his exemplary work for a social and united Europe”.

On December 7th, 2009 the Fasel Foundation (Duisburg) recognized Junckers “outstanding services as an advocate for a socially just and market-based European order” (foundation deed). Juncker was awarded the “Prize of the Fasel Foundation - Social Market Economy 2009” in Duisburg. The laudation was given by the then North Rhine-Westphalian Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers .

Juncker also received numerous other awards:


In 1999, Juncker, then in his capacity as Luxembourg's Prime Minister, said of the methods he was encouraging EU leaders to use in European policy:

“We decide something, then put it in the room and wait a while to see what happens. If there is then no great shouting and no uprisings, because most of them do not even understand what was decided, then we continue - step by step, until there is no turning back. "

On the occasion of a conversation with citizens in the Bucharest National Art Museum in Romania , Juncker said on May 11, 2017: "In my life I have met two great destroyers: (Mikhail) Gorbachev , who destroyed the Soviet Union , and David Cameron ." When asked whether other EU states would leave the EU following the example of Great Britain , Juncker said: “No. Because they will see at the autopsy (the ' corpse of Great Britain ') that it is not worth it. "


  • Margaretha Kopeinig : Jean-Claude Juncker. The European . With a foreword by Martin Schulz , Czernin, Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-7076-0508-2 .
  • Laurent Schmit, Jürgen Stoldt, Bernard Thomas: The man without qualities. Jean-Claude Juncker on his thirtieth anniversary in government. Forum , issue 324, December 2012. Online , PDF, 0.32 MB.
  • Jean-Claude Juncker: A New Start for Europe: My Agenda for Jobs, Growth, Fairness and Democratic Change. Political guidelines for the next European Commission; Speech at the opening of the plenary session of the European Parliament in Strasbourg on July 15, 2014 ( PDF ).
  • Jean-Claude Juncker in the Munzinger archive ( beginning of article freely available)

See also

Web links

Commons : Jean-Claude Juncker  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Audiences de congé pour les ministres sortants ( French ) Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. December 4, 2013. Archived from the original on December 8, 2013. Retrieved on December 4, 2013.
  2. a b Werner Mussler: Dijsselbloem elected at the head of the Eurogroup . Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. January 21, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  3. Juncker delivers keynote EU speech after mother's death . In: Reuters . September 9, 2015 ( [accessed June 25, 2020]).
  4. European Commission: Why the President wavers . In: The press . July 14, 2018 ( [accessed July 24, 2018]).
  5. Juncker becomes the top candidate of the Conservatives. In: , March 7, 2014
  6. EU: Financial Policy: Threats of a Disappointed , by Cerstin Gammelin , Süddeutsche , May 5, 2009.
  7. ^ Charlemagne Prize for Jean-Claude Juncker. In: Deutsche Welle , May 25, 2006
  8. 15 years at the head of the government. ( Memento of June 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) In: Luxemburger Wort , January 20, 2010
  9. ^ Speech by Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker in the Bundestag (Volkstrauertag 2008). (PDF; 26 kB) November 16, 2008, accessed on March 31, 2012 .
  10. Government threatens to end. In: Tageblatt , July 7, 2013, accessed the following day.
  11. Parliament and government remain in office for the time being - new elections in October., July 11, 2013, accessed on July 11, 2013 .
  12. ^ "Luxembourg: Prime Minister Juncker resigns". Courier , July 11, 2013, accessed June 29, 2014 .
  13. Archive link ( Memento from September 17, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  14. Financial Times Deutschland , June 4, 2009: Juncker resigns as finance minister ( memento of January 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
  15. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , January 18, 2010: Euro Group: Juncker wants more power and influence .
  16. Thorsten Knuf: Juncker withdraws to Luxembourg . In: , March 3, 2012.
  17. Juncker remains head of the Eurogroup for the time being . On: on July 10, 2012.
  18. Werner Mussler: He has had enough . On: on December 4, 2012.
  19. Juncker wants to prevent Blair. ( Memento of March 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: Eurotopics , October 28, 2009
  20. a b Blair and Juncker emerge as rivals at EU summits. ( Memento of November 1, 2009 on the Internet Archive ) In: EurActiv , October 28, 2009
  21. David Cameron: We need the very best candidate - not Juncker . Guest contribution from June 13, 2014 in the portal , accessed on June 13, 2014
  22. ^ Dpa / AFD: EU summit nominated Jean-Claude Juncker . In: , June 27, 2014
  23. Juncker starts with reform enthusiasm. In: , July 15, 2014
  24. Javier Cáceres, Cerstin Gammelin Brussels: Juncker is fundamentally rebuilding the EU Commission . In: . November 19, 2014, ISSN  0174-4917 ( [accessed April 13, 2019]).
  25. President Juncker appoints Dr. Edmund Stoiber as Special Adviser on Better Regulation - First Vice-President Timmermans announces reform of the Impact Assessment Board. In: European Commission. December 18, 2014, accessed April 13, 2019 .
  26. Jean-Claude Juncker: "The British will divide the EU states apart" , interview of the week on February 12, 2017 on Deutschlandfunk
  27. / Claus Hulverscheidt: EU and USA defuse trade dispute
  28. Thanks to Juncker for the surprising agreement
  29. ^ / Winand von Petersdorff: Surprising agreement in the trade dispute
  30. July 25, 2018: In abrupt shift, Trump makes nice with EU, gets tough on Russia / Sealed with a Juncker kiss, Trump says EU and US 'love each other'
  31., press review, February 10, 2006: Social Relance of the EPP ( Memento of November 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive ).
  32. a b Interview with Jean-Claude Juncker ( Memento from January 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 54 kB), AWV-Informations 4/2010, p. 5.
  33. RP online , November 20, 2006: Juncker calls for basic social security for all EU citizens Juncker calls for basic social security for all EU citizens .
  34. ^ Luxemburger Wort: Juncker accuses Germany of “social dumping”, August 11, 2010.
  35. taz , December 30, 2006: “We watch the workers turn away” .
  36. ^ Die Zeit online, June 6, 2009: "Minimum wages everywhere" .
  37. OECD: Economic Outlook, Paris 2008, p. 84 .; OECD: Tax Levels and Tax Structures, 1965–2007, p. 75.
  38. OECD: Growing Unequal ?, 2008, p. 27.
  39. Master of the back stairs , jW (Werner Rügemer), May 8, 2014
  40. ^ Die Zeit , March 20, 2009: Juncker forbids "German powerhouse" .
  41. ^ Hunters against their will , taz, April 12, 2013
  42. Juncker is the wrong one , Spon (Wolfgang Münchau), June 2, 2014
  43. Juncker accuses Merkel of simple thinking , Spon dated December 8, 2010
  44. EurActiv , November 19, 2008: Recession hits Europe: EU bonds stimulate discussion .
  45. Interview with Jean-Claude Juncker on the debt crisis ( memento from December 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) from December 7, 2010.
  46. Juncker does not want Eurobonds Handelsblatt, April 7, 2014
  47. "Not a cent" until the referendum in Greece
  48. ^ "Controversial Euro Policy: Juncker comes under fire for secret meetings". Der Spiegel , May 9, 2011, accessed June 29, 2014 .
  49. Juncker defies EU countries with distribution plan for 160,000 refugees ,, September 10, 2015
  50. ^ Debate: MEPs discuss best approach to refugee crisis , European Parliament News, October 6, 2015
  51. Juncker causes outrage with Ceta plan , DIE ZEIT, June 29, 2016
  52. Sebastian Fischer, Veit Medick , Philipp Wittrock: Juncker comes under fire for secret meetings , Spiegel online, May 9, 2011.
  53. Hendrik Kafsack: Juncker after false denials in the criticism , Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, May 10, 2011.
  54. Frank Doll: Luxemburg-Leaks: "When things get serious, you have to lie" , Wirtschaftswoche, November 17, 2014.
  55.,juncker112.html ( Memento from July 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  56. Funny speaker - and bookable ( Memento from July 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), BR2 Radio, June 24, 2014
  58. Gregor Peter Schmitz: EU power poker: Brussels puzzles over Juncker's silence. In: Spiegel Online . June 26, 2014, accessed June 9, 2018 .
  59. Business associations criticize the marginalization of environmental and climate protection , Joint PM of the sustainable business associations, October 6, 2014
  60. BEE: EU as No. 1 in renewable energies? The implementation is still pending. One year of the Juncker Commission - a balance sheet from an energy policy perspective. Background paper, Nov. 2015
  61. "State aid SA.38944 (2014 / C) - Luxembourg Alleged aid to Amazon by way of a tax ruling". (PDF) European Commission , October 7, 2014, accessed January 17, 2014 .
  62. ^ "EU considers Amazon and Luxembourg tax deal illegal". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , January 16, 2015, accessed on January 17, 2014 .
  63. ^ Ralf Streck: "EU Commission President Juncker on the Abyss". , January 16, 2015, accessed on January 17, 2014 .
  64. "Eyesore of the Year" for JCJuncker. February 22, 2015, accessed May 11, 2015 .
  65. ICIJ: Leaked Documents Expose Global Companies' Secret Tax Deals in Luxembourg , November 5, 2014
  67. see e.g. B. Trouble in Tax Fairy Tale Land , Süddeutsche Zeitung, November 6, 2014; Deutsche Bank: Profits flow around the globe , NDR , November 6, 2014
  68. a b Tax haven Luxembourg - Greens demand clarification from Juncker . In: Deutschlandfunk . ( [accessed on May 29, 2017]).
  69. ^ A b Simon Bowers: Jean-Claude Juncker blocked EU curbs on tax avoidance, cables show . In: The Guardian . January 1, 2017, ISSN  0261-3077 ( [accessed February 5, 2017]): "It is impressive to see how some member states present themselves outwardly as proponents of [international tax reforms] and at the same time to watch how they actually behave in EU discussions, protected by confidentiality. "
  70. Andrea Spalinger: "The EU has a hard time dealing with the black sheep Malta" NZZ of December 5, 2019
  71. ^ Jean-Claude Juncker's greatest gaffes . In: POLITICO . February 23, 2018 ( [accessed July 24, 2018]).
  72. ^ Francesco Giammarco: Jean-Claude Juncker: With full physical effort . In: FAZ.NET . June 30, 2015, ISSN  0174-4909 ( [accessed July 23, 2018]).
  73. Juncker greets Orbán with "dictator" - May 22, 2015, accessed July 23, 2018 .
  74. Faymann takes a slap on the back of the head. Retrieved July 25, 2018 .
  75. Juncker greets Faymann. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
  76. British minister reprimands Juncker for "horrific" treatment of women. Der Tagesspiegel, December 23, 2018, accessed on December 29, 2018 .
  77. European Craft Prize. North Rhine-Westphalian Crafts Day V., accessed on March 10, 2015 .
  78. 2003 Maju Prize Winner
  79. European Banker of the Year ( Memento of November 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) in: Maleki Group , accessed on December 7, 2010.
  80. Markus Guhl: Juncker receives the European Service Economy Prize . Federal Association of the Service Industry. March 23, 2009. Archived from the original on April 14, 2009. Retrieved on May 3, 2009: "The Federal Association of the Service Industry (BDWi) honors Juncker's political work."
  81. ^ "Europa Union Medal" for Jean-Claude Juncker . October 18, 2009. Archived from the original on October 22, 2009. Retrieved on October 19, 2009.
  82. ^ Prime Minister Rüttgers pays tribute to Jean-Claude Juncker . Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  83. ^ Prize of the Fasel Foundation to "Mister Euro" . Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  84. ^ Press service of the Luxembourg government: The Prime Minister ( Memento of 7 July 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  85. - ( Memento from June 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  87. Tobias Klingen: Europe's secret President Kempen honors Jean-Claude Juncker. Westdeutsche Zeitung , July 15, 2010, accessed on August 24, 2010 .
  88. List of all decorations awarded by the Federal President for services to the Republic of Austria from 1952 (PDF; 6.9 MB)
  89. Great Honor Day of the Medical University of Innsbruck under the sign of Europe , accessed March 30, 2015
  90. ^ Meeting of the Luxembourg state government and the Saarland state government
  91. Archive link ( Memento from May 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  92. Prime Minister Stefan Mappus awards the Order of Merit of the State of Baden-Württemberg . April 30, 2011. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved on May 19, 2011.
  93. Juncker receives the Order of Merit from Rhineland-Palatinate , Trierischer Volksfreund from November 15, 2011.
  94. Jean-Claude Juncker reçoit le Prix européen de la culture 2011 ( Memento of 10 January 2013, Internet Archive ), press service of the Luxembourg Government
  95. Archive link ( Memento from March 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  96. Jean-Claude Juncker a reçu le "Sigillum Magnum" de l'Université de Bologne - Press release of the Luxembourg government of March 13, 2012 ( Memento of July 31, 2012 in the web archive )
  97. An excellent mediator
  98. 225 liters of wine for Juncker
  99. ^ University of Porto: Honorary doctorate for Juncker . Retrieved on April 3, 2013. Reason: because of his contribution to the “development of European integration” and his “concern for a more social Europe”. The Luxembourg head of government is a "friend of Portugal and of the Portuguese living in the Grand Duke"
  100. ^ "Grand Cross of the Redeemer" for Jean-Claude Juncker . Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  101. Angela Merkel awards Jean-Claude Juncker the Order of Merit . Retrieved November 14, 2013.
  102. ^ Remise d'une très haute décoration lituanienne au Premier ministre luxembourgeois . Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
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