Emmanuel Macron

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Emmanuel Macron (2017)

Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron ([ ɛmaˈnɥɛl ʒɑ̃ miˈʃɛl fʁedeˈʁik maˈkʁɔ̃ ]) (born December 21, 1977 in Amiens ) has been President of France and Co-Prince of Andorra since May 14, 2017 . The French politician was a member of the Socialist Party ( Parti Socialiste , PS) from 2006 to 2009 and Minister of Economic Affairs in the Valls II cabinet under President François Hollande (PS) from August 2014 to August 2016 . Macron entered with liberal positions as a candidate for the presidential election in France in 2017with the En Marche party he founded , of which he was chairman until November 2017.


Origin and education

Macron was born as the son of a doctor couple in Amiens in northern France: his father Jean-Michel Macron is a professor of neurology ; his mother Françoise Macron-Noguès is a pediatrician and works as a consultant doctor for statutory social insurance. Macron has a younger brother, Laurent (* 1979), and a younger sister, Estelle (* 1982), both of whom are doctors like their parents. The parents divorced since 2010 and his father married the psychiatrist Hélène Joly. The couple have a son, Gabriel, who is Macron's half-brother. Coming from a non-religious family, Macron, at the age of 12, was baptized a Catholic at his own request when he entered the Jesuit school in La Providence .

At the age of 16, Emmanuel Macron won a public competition in French and later a third prize in piano playing at the Amiens Conservatory . He received his Baccalauréat at the Lycée Henri IV elite high school in Paris . Macron attended preparatory classes for two years , but did not pass the entrance examination for the école normal supérieure twice, he then studied philosophy at the University of Paris-Nanterre and political science at Sciences Po . There he wrote his master's thesis on Machiavelli and his diploma thesis on Hegel . During this time he also worked in Nanterre from 1999 to 2001 as an assistant to the philosopher Paul Ricœur, who teaches there . He also needed a second attempt for the entrance exam to the École nationale d'administration (ENA) in Strasbourg , but was one of the best of his year, the graduating class "Léopold Senghor " ( French promotion Senghor ). As in Amiens, he was involved in theater at the ENA. From his year he recruited numerous friends who supported his presidential campaign. Internships took him to the prefecture of the Oise département in northern France and spent six months at the French embassy in Abuja in Nigeria .

Financial inspector

After graduating from the ENA, he was offered a position in one of the top three institutions of state administration, and so from 2005 he worked as a finance director in the public service at the Inspection des Finances , an influential department of the Ministry of Finance . The heads of the presidential office often came from this financial policy control center of the state. It was here that he finally met Jacques Attali , an economics professor, journalist and long-time economic advisor to President François Mitterrand , who later recommended him as an advisor to the new President François Hollande .

Investment bankers

After working at the Treasury Department, Macron worked at the Paris Montaigne Institute , an economically liberal think tank . Introduced by Serge Weinberg, the former CEO of La Redoute and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Sanofi , and Jacques Attali, in 2008, at the age of 31, he joined the Paris-based investment bank Rothschild & Cie . Two years later he became a partner ( associé-gérant ) at Rothschild. In 2012, Macron accompanied one of the largest takeovers of the year, the purchase of the infant formula division of the US pharmaceutical company Pfizer by the food company Nestlé for 11.9 billion US dollars.

Private life

Macron has been married to his former French teacher Brigitte Trogneux since 2007 . His wife is almost 25 years older. The future couple first met when Macron was fifteen and attended the Lycée La Providence in Amiens. At the age of seventeen, Emmanuel Macron fell in love with Brigitte Trogneux. In order to avoid a possible scandal, he moved to Paris at the request of his parents, where he obtained his Baccalauréat at the Lycée Henri IV .

Political career until 2017

Presidential office and minister of economics

When François Hollande won the presidential election in May 2012 , Macron left his position at Rothschild, moved to the presidential staff and became Hollande's economic and financial policy advisor. In addition, from May 2012 to June 2014 he was Deputy Secretary General of the President's Office at the Élysée Palace .

The building of the Ministère de l'Economie et des Finances to German Ministry of Economy and Finance , is also after Paris's Bercy called

During the election campaign, Hollande described France as the enemy of the financial markets and appointed Arnaud Montebourg, who is critical of globalization, as Minister of Economics. As advisor to the presidential staff, Macron acted as a business-friendly counterweight to Montebourg. Macron was regarded as a man without any domestic power in the party who could not be assigned to any wing. This led Montebourg to publicly ridicule Macron as the " short-haired Labrador " of President Hollande who sits behind the curtains of the Élysée all day ("  le labrador à poil lisse de François Hollande  ")

When the US company General Electric was preparing to take over the French company Alstom in 2014 , Montebourg wanted to nationalize it. Macron managed to convince both Hollande and Valls not to support this plan. In the run-up to this, Macron had, without knowledge, hired a consulting firm to examine various takeover options.

"Nous ne sommes pas légitimes pour intervenir, nous ne sommes pas dans une économie dirigée, on n'est pas au Venezuela"

"We do not have the legitimacy to intervene, we do not have a dirigiste economy, we are not Venezuela."

In mid-2014, Macron considered resigning from his position as advisor to the Élysée as he saw no possibility of becoming a minister without the support of a wing of the party. After the poor performance of the left government alliance in the local elections in March 2014, Montebourg succeeded in pushing Finance Minister Pierre Moscovici out of office and integrating important parts of the Finance Ministry into his portfolio. This was seen as a left wing victory in Hollande's government. The situation changed when the conflict between the left and right wing of the government intensified in the summer of 2014. Representatives of the left wing called for the government to abandon its austerity program and a different euro currency policy, combined with severe criticism of Germany. This led to the dissolution of the Valls I cabinet . Left Ministers Arnaud Montebourg , Benoît Hamon and Aurélie Filippetti left the government and the Valls II cabinet was formed. On August 26, 2014, President Hollande appointed Macron Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital . Macron became the official successor of Montebourg. His nomination was interpreted as a signal that Hollande is serious about the more business-friendly course he has taken and does not want a confrontation with Germany over euro currency policy. In the press, Macron has been referred to several times as Anti-Montebourg . In 2014 Macron took part in the Bilderberg Conference and gave a lecture on the state of the French economy.

Macron stood for a reform course that broke with the classic social democratic line: it was he who, as Hollande's most important economic advisor, drafted a reform package ( Pacte de Responsabilité et Solidarité ), which, among other things, was supposed to stimulate the stagnating French economy with tax breaks for companies. Macron made it possible, among other things, to sell the telecommunications provider SFR to Patrick Drahi , which his predecessor Montebourg wanted to prevent. He also aimed to expand the Sunday opening hours for shops and achieved a comprehensive liberalization of long-distance bus traffic . In autumn 2014, Macron asked Germany to launch a program worth 50 billion euros to stimulate the economy in the euro zone.

Emmanuel Macron (2014)

After the left ministers around Montebourg and Hamon left, there were conflicts within the Parti socialiste (PS). The party's left wing openly opposed the government. Up to a third of the party's MPs now voted against the government on important bills; this no longer had a majority in the National Assembly for certain projects. Prime Minister Manuel Valls was only able to implement reforms by means of an emergency decree in accordance with Article 49 paragraph 3 of the French Constitution - without a vote in the National Assembly. In particular, Macron's reform proposals were controversial and could only be implemented in this way.

On February 17, 2015, the reform package was introduced as a draft law (Loi Macron) in the National Assembly. During the lengthy parliamentary deliberations, the law grew - with around 3,000 amendments - to a work with 200 articles. If the law was originally business-friendly and liberalize the labor market, the version that came into force was viewed by right-wing critics as too complicated and the left wing of the Socialist Party as a dismantling of the welfare state. The Loi Macron touched neither the 35-hour week nor protection against dismissal or the minimum wage. The Confédération générale du travail union protested against the Loi Macron and carried out a number of actions against the law. After a filmed argument in May 2016 with demonstrating trade unionists, Macron was seen as a red rag by many members of the PS. According to polls, 52% of French people asked for his immediate resignation as minister in June 2016. The tense relationship with Manuel Valls, with whom it is said to have repeatedly led to hard arguments, was known. In July 2016, Hollande Macron threatened to be fired. On August 30, 2016, Macron resigned from his position as minister. Internally, Macron's resignation was no surprise. He had already used 80% of his budget for representation (frais de représentation) - an unusual circumstance which suggests that Macron did not want to end the year as minister.

Founding a party and running for president

In April 2016, about a year before the next presidential election , Macron announced the creation of its own political movement called En Marche . His resignation as Minister of Economic Affairs on August 30th was viewed very critically within the PS and as a “betrayal” of the government. Prime Minister Manuel Valls accused Macron of a lack of loyalty.

With his resignation, Macron fueled speculation about his own presidential candidacy. An internal PS survey showed that Macron would lose to Arnaud Montebourg in a fight vote on the PS candidacy. His result would have been significantly better than that of Hollande and Valls in direct comparison with Montebourg. After Macron had declared that he would not take part in the preselection of the PS, but rather run his own movement, the General Secretary of the PS Cambadélis categorically ruled out support for Macron's movement by the PS.

Macron announced on November 16, 2016 that he would run as an independent candidate for the 2017 presidential election. This is irrevocable; he would also run if Hollande should run for re-election. After Arnaud Montebourg and Benoît Hamon , Macron was the third former minister from Hollande's government to declare a candidate for the presidency. Macron was able to collect exceptionally high donations for his candidacy in the amount of around 16 million euros in a short time. Macron's candidacy was seen as evidence of the fragmentation of the left-wing party spectrum in France. Manuel Valls criticized it as an “irresponsible naive solo effort” that considerably weakens the left camp.

Macron was considered a popular candidate in early 2017, but he was only trusted to be a respectable success. Both the Republicans and the Socialist Party had significantly more popular candidates in Alain Juppé and Arnaud Montebourg, respectively. The primaries led to surprises for both the Socialists and the Republicans. Both Juppé and Montebourg failed. In both parties, the most extreme candidates with radical programs won. François Fillon was considered a particularly right-wing candidate with a radical program with demands such as the dismissal of 500,000 civil servants. Benoît Hamon of the socialists was considered a particularly left-wing candidate, his main demand for the introduction of an unconditional basic income was controversial even among many of his party members. This constellation was ideal for Macron. He was considered a middle-class candidate, while the candidates from the two major mainstream political camps, Hamon and Fillon, were not. When corruption allegations were raised against Fillon in the course of the election campaign, the mood turned in favor of Macron. With the socialists, however, the dispute between the party wings came to a head. The defeated right-wing socialist candidate Manuel Valls refused allegiance to Hamon, saying he would support Macron's candidacy. The socialists quarreled publicly and verbally abused one another. Macron profited significantly from the weakness of its competitors. The simultaneous weakness of the Republicans and the Socialists was a unique event in French history.

In January 2017, polls found that Macron could get between 21 and 23% of the vote in the first ballot and win a runoff against Marine Le Pen (25-27%). At that time, En Marche had around 136,000 members and donations of 4 million euros had been received. In February, Macron came under fire for his statements on the French colonial past - he had described the French colonization of Algeria as a "crime against humanity" during a visit to the country - and lost several percentage points in some polls. The Algerian war, which has not yet been dealt with in France, played a role in this. In February, the central politician François Bayrou declared his support for Macron and thus his renouncement of his own presidential candidacy, which Macron gained in the polls. Allegations by the WikiLeaks platform about possible Macron scandals turned out to be unfounded.

On March 2, 2017, Macron presented its program for the presidential election on April 23, 2017. Fillon accused Macron of whose election program was a plagiarism of his own program. Political observers have classified Macron's program as economically liberal, socially liberal and pro-European.

In the first round of the presidential elections, with 24.01 percent of the vote, he achieved the best result of all eleven candidates and therefore competed in the second round of the second round against Marine Le Pen from the Front National , who in the first round 21, Had reached 30 percent. In this runoff election he received 66.1 percent of the vote (with a turnout of 74.56%). The Socialist and Republican candidates, Benoît Hamon and Fillon, who lost out in the first round , had called for Macron to be elected in the runoff election to prevent Marine Le Pen from taking over the presidency.

Macron has been severely attacked several times by former comrades in the socialist government. Vincent Peillon polemicized and compared Macron and his movement La République en Marche with gas chambers. Manuel Valls described Macron as a scoundrel who knows no boundaries (“  Macron, lui, est méchant [… et…] n'a […] pas de limites  ”). Hollande accused Macron of systematically betraying him .

In October 2019, the FAZ reported on the book “Opération Macron” by Eric Stemmelen, the former program director of the public broadcaster France 2 . It is a chronicle of the presidential election: the media, so the author's thesis, wrote the script for Emmanuel Macron's takeover. They belonged to ten billionaires whose TV and radio stations have a market share of over fifty percent. They control ninety percent of the circulation of the daily newspapers. Stemmelen speaks of an “ oligarchy ” that Macron brought to power through intrigue and manipulation. This process began in 2014 with Macron's appointment as Minister of the Economy. According to Stemmelen, the investigations against François Fillon during the 2017 election campaign were part of this campaign, which was largely led by Jean-Pierre Jouyet , who was married to an heiress of the Taittinger family. Pierre-Emmanuel Taittinger originally wanted to run for the 2017 presidential election himself.

Political positions in the 2017 election campaign

  • Economic, labor market and pension policy : Macron calls for a dismantling of regulations for companies. He would like to restrict labor law to basic norms and maintain the 35-hour week, with the branches and companies being able to negotiate more flexible working hours. Macron plans to build a universal pension system that will replace the 37 special pension systems and apply to civil servants and employees alike. He wants to guarantee the retention of retirement at the age of 62 or after 42 years of contribution payments until 2022. He also calls for unemployment benefits for the self-employed and freelancers as well as for employees who quit themselves. However, it should be able to be withdrawn if acceptable job offers are rejected or if there is a lack of commitment in the search for a job. He plans to cut 120,000 civil servant posts, except in hospitals. In socially disadvantaged areas he calls for more teaching and police positions.
  • Finance and tax policy : Macron wants to reduce public spending by € 60 billion within 5 years through savings in health care (€ 15 billion), local authorities (€ 10 billion), and government spending (€ 25 billion), by reducing unemployment (€ 10 billion). He plans investments of € 50 billion, of which € 15 billion for education and training, € 15 billion for ecological and energetic change and € 5 billion each for agriculture, health care, transport and the modernization of the public administration. He wants to cut corporate taxes from 33.3% to 25% and plans to reform the wealth tax, which excludes capital that is invested from taxation, except real estate income.
  • Energy and environmental policy : Macron wants to reduce France's dependence on nuclear energy. He rejects an exit from this. It calls for an environment-friendly control system to an economy with low CO 2 to achieve emissions.
  • Asylum policy : Macron calls for asylum procedures to be processed more quickly , in order to enable swift training and integration for people with a right to asylum and the swift deportation of people without a right to asylum.
  • European policy : Macron advocates democratization of the European Union . [Source needed] He wants to keep the Schengen Agreement and calls for Frontex to be strengthened by 5,000 new border guards at the EU's external borders and a common information system for better exchange in the fight against organized crime and terrorism. He also advocates common institutions for the euro zone . He calls for the establishment of a budget of several hundred billion euros for investments in the euro area, which is to be legitimized and controlled by a parliament of the euro area and controlled by a minister for the economy and finance of the euro area. Such a European transfer union and thus euro bonds and the communitisation of national debt is criticized by politicians, especially in Germany. Instead, they expect increased efforts by French politicians to advance their own economy. Macron described Germany's foreign trade surplus in the presidential election campaign as "no longer sustainable".

Other political positions

In an interview reproduced in excerpts from Die Zeit , which appeared in L'Express on December 23, 2020 , Macron positioned itself on other fields:

  • State role : For the French, the state stands for unity on the one hand and coercion on the other. You feel a kind of love-hate relationship for him. For everything that does not work, the state is blamed, which is why the trust in its structures and in the political leaders “has been weaker than elsewhere for decades”.
  • Public opinion formation in the corona pandemic : The problem is not expressed doubts, which could also bring progress and knowledge, but obscurantism . Macron sees the main problem as the disappearance of any hierarchy in a society in which constant comments are made and all statements are viewed as being of equal value regardless of professional competence. The result is a vicious circle: “A leveling out that leads to skepticism creates obscurantism. This is in contrast to the Cartesian foundation of rational thought and truth, and this is how conspiracy theories arise . "
  • Cultural identity of the French : For Macron, being French means first of all “being at home in a language and a story, that is, sharing a fate.” Especially when it comes to naturalization, the requirements for knowledge of history and French will be raised. "If certain people attack and question our foundations, reject our values, gender equality, secularity - then they cannot be French because they reject the basic principles." confess without denying their own cultural roots. Those born outside of France bring with them something unique and meaningful that should be recognized. "Everyone must be allowed to live between different cultural horizons."
  • Tied to Europe : Macron’s optimism for progress and the future binds the French to joint action, not least within a European framework, which is developing positively, such as the recent agreement on economic stimulus through joint debt and, among other things, militarily and technologically subdued strategic autonomy. France's progress depends on European sovereignty. "We are a principle of action, it is our historical, cultural identity and at the same time a practice for today and tomorrow."


Macron in November 2018 in Péronne on the occasion of the
armistice celebrations in 1918

After his victory in the runoff election for the presidency on May 7, 2017, Macron gathered tens of thousands of supporters in the courtyard of the Louvre , symbolically underscoring his decision to try a new beginning away from the previous party-political lines (the right-wing traditionally assemble on the Place de la Concorde , the left on the Place de la Bastille ). Macron was introduced to office on May 14, 2017, taking over from François Hollande. Since that day he has also been co-prince of Andorra by virtue of office . The following day he appointed the previous mayor of Le Havre , Édouard Philippe , as the new prime minister. The election of the politician of the conservative Républicains should support Macron's efforts to achieve a cross-party and cross-camp majority before the upcoming parliamentary elections . In the evening, Macron, on his first trip abroad, traditionally visited Berlin and the German Chancellor; Sascha Lehnartz commented that Macron's “pro-Germanism” was a unique opportunity for bilateral and European relations. Several key positions in the Philippe I and Philippe II Cabinets are held by people such as Prime Minister Édouard Philippe himself and Economics and Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire , who have an affinity for the European Union and especially Germany. In July 2020, Macron announced a new formation of the Premies Édouard Philippe government after a poor performance in the local elections. The government resigned on July 3, 2020. Édouard Philippe's resignation was also accepted by President Macron.

Domestic politics

In July 2017, a law to “moralize politics” was passed. This sees inter alia. state that MPs are no longer allowed to employ relatives or relatives as employees. In addition, they must now provide evidence of the reimbursement of expenses, and if a crime is committed, they lose their eligibility if convicted. The law was in part a response to allegations made against François Fillon during the election campaign. In the run-up to the 100th anniversary of the end of the First World War , Macron spoke out in favor of a legitimate homage to Philippe Pétain .

Social policy

In April 2019, Macron introduced the “National Universal Service” (SNU), which will be mandatory for all young French people between the ages of 16 and 25 from 2021. It initially lasts one month and can be performed in both civil and military facilities. The aim of this general service is to convey French values, to strengthen social cohesion and to promote social commitment.


One of Macron's first projects was the introduction of a law prohibiting MPs from employing relatives; because in the run-up to the presidential elections, accusations against individual candidates had been raised again and again. This law was passed by parliament in August 2017 with a large majority.

An extensive labor market reform took place in September 2017 adopted. The protection against dismissal was relaxed and the amount of severance payments for terminated employees was limited in terms of time and financial amount. Small companies with fewer than 50 employees (around 95% of all French companies) can now bypass industry agreements such as working hours and salaries and regulate more decisions in-house without involving the unions.

At the same time, as announced in the election campaign, the wealth tax was largely abolished - the taxation of property was retained - with the aim of making it easier for tax refugees to return to France, who in turn should help create jobs. This benefited the wealthy, and since social benefits were cut at the same time, these reforms were criticized by the left opposition in view of around 8.8 million French people below the poverty line, which is why he was also criticized by them as “President of the rich”. In contrast, his left-wing opponent, the socialist Benoît Hamon , had planned a basic income for low-wage earners for his presidency. In September 2018, Macron presented a plan to overcome poverty in France with an activity income with an obligation to search for a job: A "Revenu universel d'activité" in contrast to the "Revenu d'inactivité" (French for unemployment benefit) and based on the previously paid " Revenu de solidarité active " is intended to strengthen social cohesion and redeem the ideals of the French republic of equality and fraternity ( (Liberté) égalité, fraternité ). Social benefits are to be bundled and simplified. The “activity income ” should be a basic income , not unconditional for all people living in France, but should be due to every citizen and supplemented by investments in more places in day-care centers. The height was still open in autumn 2018.

At the beginning of 2018, Macron presented the draft for tightening asylum law in France. The aim of the legislative package is to ensure that asylum procedures are processed more quickly, the deadlines for counterclaims are shortened and deportations are made easier. The proposal was controversially discussed in the En Marche group in the French parliament and for the first time brought massive criticism from Macron's own ranks of MPs who saw this proposal as too harsh in parts. Finally, despite everything, a parliamentary majority approved the law.

The planned rail reform met with great resistance. In April 2018, the government proposed abolishing the pre-World War II special status for rail workers for new hires. This special status allows members of the SNCF state railway to retire at the age of 57; In addition, they cannot be canceled and have extensive discounts such as company apartments and free tickets for relatives. In addition, the planned reform should enable private providers to run their own trains in France. In return, the government announced its intention to let the state take over part of the debt of the SNCF and to guarantee social security for the workers. The railway unions rejected the plans and started an initially two-month strike, during which the strike was carried out two days a week, and this at irregular intervals. However, the strikers failed to force the government to give in. The strike was extended, but it was becoming increasingly exhausted. Business was back to normal in mid-July, although two unions called for the stoppages to continue beyond July. The three-month strike cost the SNCF 790 million euros.

At the same time as the railway strike began, students occupied universities across France because they rejected the proposed reform of the allocation of university places. The previously valid lottery procedure for the allocation of study places is to be replaced by admission criteria that the universities themselves determine. The affected universities were finally evacuated by the police.

Syria and Russia policy

On June 21, 2017, in a long interview with eight European newspapers ( Le Figaro , Süddeutsche Zeitung , Le Soir , The Guardian , Corriere della Sera , El País , Gazeta Wyborcza and Le Temps ) , Macron announced a clear change of course regarding the civil war in Syria . The problem should be tackled politically rather than militarily by non-Syrian powers. The previous approach had been a mistake. A real change ("aggiornamento") now consists in the fact that it is no longer primarily about the removal of Bashar al-Assad .

Because no one has so far been able to show him, Macron, a legal successor to him. Macron set out four principles on the Syria question: 1. Absolute fight against the terrorist groups, they are enemies, and they were the origin of the Islamist attacks. Above all, Russia is needed as an ally in this struggle . 2. Create a certain stability in Syria in order to avoid another failed state . Macron wants to end ten years of “neoconservatism” in foreign policy, which he assesses negatively, particularly in relation to Libya and Iraq. You couldn't bring democracy into a country from outside if the people there didn't want to. 3. For Macron there are two red lines in the Syria conflict: the use of chemical weapons and access for aid measures. That was said to Putin "very clearly" by Macron. Any use of chemical weapons would receive an answer from France, even on its own; on this point one agrees with the USA. 4. The stability of Syria as a medium-term goal; this includes the recognition of minorities in the country. The way there is to be followed according to the specifications of these four principles.

Initiative for Europe

In his keynote speech given at the Sorbonne on September 26, 2017 , Macron developed an initiative for Europe that aims, under new auspices, for the rapid creation of a sovereign, united and democratic European Union. The main topics of the speech were: migration problems , digital revolution and the reform of the European Union. Macron has positioned himself in European politics as an opponent of the Italian interior minister and party leader of the Lega Nord, Matteo Salvini , and the Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán . The spokesman for Macron's party, Gabriel Attal, described Salvini's refugee policy as "sucks". Salvini, in turn, insulted Macron as a "talker and hypocrite".

Affairs and protests

Benalla affair

On July 18, 2018, the daily Le Monde published an amateur video showing how a Macron's bodyguard, Alexandre Benalla, wearing a police helmet, stood with riot police against a participant in the partly violent demonstrations in Paris on May 1, 2018 became palpable. Benalla was not a policeman, but an employee of the Elysée Palace and therefore did not have any police powers.

The Élysée had already learned of the incident on May 2, but Benalla was initially kept on with only minor sanctions. On July 19, 2018, according to media reports, the Paris Public Prosecutor opened a preliminary investigation against Benalla, inter alia, on suspicion of bodily harm in office, presumption of office and the unauthorized use of official symbols. The matter generated violent reactions in both chambers of parliament; the planned reading of a constitutional amendment proposed by the government was postponed. At the end of July 2018, it became known that the affair was fueled by indiscretions and targeted disinformation from the police apparatus, which is opposed to a possible reform of the Élysée security service.

Mass protests of the "gilets jaunes"

The approval ratings for Macron and his presidency fell significantly in the course of implementing his reform policy and fell to 23 percent in December 2018. On consecutive Saturdays since November 17, demonstrators, mostly clad in yellow safety vests, took to the streets of the country to protest. Among other things, traffic blockades took place in various parts of the country, including in remote provincial regions. But there were also outbreaks of violence with cars and street furniture being set on fire, as well as looting of banks and shops and demolitions at the Arc de Triomphe . The protests were triggered by appeals on the Internet without institutional support. The reason was price increases for petrol and diesel due to tax increases, which were raised in particular by commuters. In addition, there were calls for the betterment of socially disadvantaged people and for the resignation of Macron, who is considered by critics to be the “president of the rich”.

After the third weekend of protest, the French government reacted by suspending the petrol and diesel tax increase and also stopped the planned price increases for electricity and gas for the time being. Since that did not end the protests of the yellow vests either, Macron turned to the French in a televised address on December 10, 2018: The events of the last few weeks had disturbed the nation. The outbreaks of violence will be countered uncompromisingly. Anger and anger of the protesters, on the other hand, are legitimate in some respects and may be used as an opportunity. What is boiling up now is a malaise that has pent up in 40 years, to which one and a half years of his presidency have not found answers quickly and convincingly enough. He, Macron, is assuming his share of responsibility for this. The government will now ensure that all French people can live from their work in dignity. He announced four concrete measures to be implemented at short notice: a state subsidy for the minimum wage of up to 100 euros per month; Tax and duty exemption for overtime pay; Relief for pensioners with a monthly income of less than 2,000 euros; a tax-free, voluntary premium from employers for employees at the end of the year. Macron was expressly opposed to the reintroduction of the wealth tax, which the yellow vests movement also called for. Emmanuel Macron responded to protests by the yellow vests by declaring a “great national debate” (grand débat national) . At the start of the event on January 15, 2019, he met 600 mayors in Normandy . The Mayor of Grand Bourgtheroulde presented the President with his “Complaints Book ” ( cahier de doléances ). In this complaint book, 110 citizens of the municipality had written down their demands in the weeks before, as well as numerous others in thousands of municipalities in France, which largely sympathize with the yellow vests movement.

Awards and honors


  • Marc Endeweld: L'Ambigu Monsieur Macron. Flammarion, Paris 2015, ISBN 978-2-08-137239-9 . ( Table of contents )
  • François-Xavier Bourmaud: Emmanuel Macron: le banquier qui voulait être roi. L'Archipel, 2016.
  • Nicolas Prissette: Emmanuel Macron en marche vers l'Élysée. Plon, 2016, ISBN 978-2-259-25153-2 .
  • Thomas Porcher, Frédéric Farah: Introduction inquiète à la Macron-économie. Les Petits matins, October 2016, ISBN 978-2-36383-216-0 . ( Press reviews , French)
  • Caroline Derrien, Candice Nedelec: Les Macron. Fayard, 2017, ISBN 978-2-213-70462-3 .
  • Anne Fulda: Emmanuel Macron, un jeune homme si parfait. Plon, April 2017, ISBN 978-2-259-21705-7 .
  • Emmanuel Macron: Revolution - We fight for France. Morstadt, Kehl 2017, ISBN 978-3-88571-383-8 .
  • Juan Branco (preface by Denis Robert): Crépuscule. Macron et les oligarques: l'enquête vérité , Editions Au Diable Vauvert / Massot Edition, 2019, Paris, 2019, ISBN 979-10-307-0260-6 .

Web links

Commons : Emmanuel Macron  - Collection of Images

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Gilles Martin-Chauffier: Un jeune homme pressé. In: Paris Match . May 10, 2017, pp. 88–93.
  2. ^ Cathy Lafon: Brigitte Macron: 7 choses à savoir sur la Première dame de France . In: Sud-Ouest . May 7, 2017.
  3. [PICARDIE] Emmanuel Macron, un Amiénois à l'Élysée - Le Courrier Pica… August 27, 2014, accessed on April 5, 2020 .
  4. The elite machine . Zeit Online , May 2, 2017.
  5. Emmanuel Macron, un banquier d'affaires nommé secrétaire général adjoint de l'Elysée. lemonde.fr, May 16, 2012 (French).
  6. Young economics minister allowed to seduce France. Die Welt online, August 27, 2014.
  7. Note: at the ENA, each year is given the name of a celebrity; z. B. was the year of François Hollande, Ségolène Royal , Michel Sapin and Dominique de Villepin Voltaire ; see e.g. B. here (French) ( Memento from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). ( Le Monde ).
  8. ^ Inspection générale des finances: M. Macron (Emmanuel) . In: legifrance.fr . April 9, 2004 (French).
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