Les Républicains (LR) , German Republicans , by the end of May 2015 Union for a Popular Movement ( UMP , German Union for a Popular Movement ) is a political party in France , that of the 2002 multi-party center-right spectrum emerged and is partly in the line of tradition of Gaullism . Les Républicains belong to the European People's Party and the International Democratic Union , a global forum for conservative parties. Since it was founded in 2002 to 2012, the party provided the president with Jacques Chirac and Nicolas Sarkozy . From May 15, 2017 until his expulsion from the party at the end of October 2017, the party appointed Édouard Philippe as prime minister.
Les Républicains also forms an alliance of parties through the status of the Partis associés (associated parties). The associated parties are legally independent, but are also represented in the Conseil National . Together with other parties, the UMP formed the Comité de liaison de la majorité présidentielle (liaison committee of the majority of the president; usually only briefly majorité présidentielle ), which comprised the parties of the center-right and moderate right, those in elections and in the national assembly Presidents of the UMP supported.
From the 1970s onwards, there were two larger right-of-center parties in France: the Gaullist Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) founded by Jacques Chirac and the Union pour la démocratie française (UDF) initiated by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing , which originally was a Alliance of smaller bourgeois parties was. However, both of them made agreements in most elections to increase their chances of winning and to prevent leftist candidates from winning. From 1990 to 1995 the Union pour la France (UPF) existed as an umbrella organization to coordinate joint election campaigns.
The ideological dividing lines between RPR and UDF became blurred over time. The initially more sovereign and dirigistic RPR adopted under Chirac an increasingly pro-European and economically liberal line, as represented by parts of the UDF. As early as 1989, 71% of the supporters of the RPR and UDF spoke out in favor of a single right-of-center party with several inner-party currents. Jacques Chirac and Édouard Balladur ran for the 1995 presidential election , both members of the RPR, who each had supporters in their own party as well as in the UDF. Chirac won the election. The sovereignist and EU-skeptical wings of the UDF and RPR split off in 1994 and 1999, respectively. The economically liberal wing of the UDF separated in 1997/98 as Démocratie Libérale , but remained allied with the RPR.
From the late 1990s, there were several attempts to unite the center-right parties with a view to the next presidential election. The Alliance, which was initiated in 1998 by the then party leaders Philippe Séguin (RPR) and François Léotard (UDF), was stillborn because both were not among the supporters, but rather among the rivals of President Chirac. François Bayrou , who took over the leadership of the UDF in 1998, then tried to make his party more independent from the RPR. The Union en mouvement (UEM), founded in April 2001 - with the UDF politician Renaud Dutreil as chairman and Hervé Gaymard (RPR) as general secretary - however, had the sympathy of Chirac. Most of the leading RPR representatives declared on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the party in December 2001 that they wanted to hold onto their previous party.
Chirac founded and presidency (2002 to 2007)
With the approach of the presidential election , the Union en mouvement was restarted in February 2002 , not as a unified party, but as an alliance to support a second term in office for Chirac, this time with broad support from the RPR, Démocratie Liberale and parts of the UDF (whose chairman François Bayrou, meanwhile, was pursuing his own candidacy). Nevertheless, in the first ballot on April 21, 2002, Chirac only received 19.88% of the vote. But he reached the runoff election as the leader, in which Jean-Marie Le Pen from the right-wing extremist National Front surprisingly entered second .
Two days later, the UEM was transformed into the Union pour la majorité présidentielle (UMP; "Union for the majority of the President"). This was to collect the bourgeois voters for the second ballot and the following parliamentary elections. Chirac won the runoff against Le Pen with 82 percent. He then appointed Jean-Pierre Raffarin as Prime Minister, who did not come from the RPR but from the Démocratie Libérale - for some Gaullists this was an imposition. In parliamentary elections, there should only be a single UMP candidate in all constituencies and then a common parliamentary group in the National Assembly . The discipline of the UMP candidates paid off: the alliance won a large majority of 369 of the 577 seats. The rump of the UDF under François Bayrou, who did not want to participate in the UMP, fell back to 22 seats. The subsequently formed parliamentary group was led by Jacques Barrot (a former UDF member).
The founding party convention of the UMP was held on November 17, 2002. Since the original name was only aimed at a strategic short-term goal, it was changed to Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (Union for a people's movement). The predecessor parties RPR and DL thus dissolved. Smaller parties like the Parti radical valoisien remained independent organizations associated with the UMP. The former prime minister and RPR chairman Alain Juppé became chairman (président) of the UMP, the mayor of Marseille Jean-Claude Gaudin (ex-DL) his deputy and Philippe Douste-Blazy (ex-UDF) general secretary. In the 31-member board, the relationship between members of the predecessor parties was precisely balanced: 15 came from the RPR, 9 from the UDF and 7 from the DL.
The first few years were mainly characterized by the clashes between the supporters of Jacques Chirac (especially Dominique de Villepin ) and the supporters of Nicolas Sarkozy .
In the first acid test since the 2002 election victories, the UMP suffered a heavy defeat in the 2004 regional elections (losses in 20 of 22 regions). The party also performed disappointingly in the European Parliament elections in the same year. Started with the claim to represent the entire political right, it could only collect 17 percent of the vote, while the strongest competitor, the Socialist Party (PS) , received 29 percent of the vote.
After a conviction for taking advantage of Juppé resigned on July 16, 2004 as party leader. At the following party congress in Le Bourget , Nicolas Sarkozy was elected as his successor. This also prevailed in the internal party contest for the presidential candidacy in 2007 against Jacques Chirac (who only declared on March 11, 2007, a good month before the first ballot, that he would not run again) and Dominique de Villepin. As a result of the Clearstream affair, the latter decided not to apply. When he was nominated on January 14, 2007, Sarkozy was the only candidate.
Sarkozy Presidency (2007 to 2012)
In the presidential election in May 2007 , Nicolas Sarkozy won against the socialist candidate Ségolène Royal . In the parliamentary elections that followed in June , the UMP defended a majority in the National Assembly , but lost 49 seats.
Sarkozy stepped down from the party president after winning the 2007 presidential election. Following a constitutional reform of July 7, 2007, the office of party president remains vacant if the incumbent is elected president; the functions are then carried out by the general secretary (Secrétaire général) . This office changed in comparatively quick succession from Pierre Méhaignerie (who had already assumed the office in 2004 under the party chairman Sarkozy and held it until November 2007) to Patrick Devedjian (November 2007 to December 2008) and Xavier Bertrand (December 2008 to November 2010 ) on Jean-François Copé (November 2010 to November 2012).
In the municipal and cantonal elections in 2008, the party and its allies suffered another defeat. Among other things, it lost the majority in ten large cities and eight departments.
In the European elections in 2009, the UMP - also part of a party alliance - won over 11 percentage points compared to the 2004 election and was the strongest party by a long way ahead of the Socialists and the Greens. In the 2010 regional elections, on the other hand, the UMP was unable to improve the poor result of 2004, but also lost Corsica to the left and thus only ruled the European regions in Alsace . She was able to win Guyana and Réunion overseas . After another defeat of the UMP and its affiliated parties in the cantonal elections in 2011, the majorité présidentielle also lost the majority in the French Senate to the political left in 2011 .
On May 6, 2012, the UMP candidate and incumbent President Nicolas Sarkozy lost the runoff election for the presidency against the socialist François Hollande . The UMP and its allies also lost the subsequent parliamentary elections in June. For the first time in its history, the party is in opposition.
Opposition (since 2012)
After Sarkozy's withdrawal from politics, the UMP elected a new party leadership in a primary election on November 18, 2012. The general secretary and acting party chairman Jean-François Copé and the former prime minister François Fillon applied . The former ministers of the Sarkozy government, Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet and Bruno Le Maire, as well as the MP Henri Guaino had announced a candidacy, but did not get the necessary supporter signatures. The former party chairman Alain Juppé had initially stated that he was available as a consensus candidate for the party leadership, but on August 27, 2012, he finally ruled out a candidacy. Jean-François Copé won the election by a very narrow 98 votes. He named Luc Chatel as Vice President and Michèle Tabarot as Secretary General .
Fillon initially recognized the result immediately after the proclamation. Shortly afterwards, however, he demanded a correction of the election results because the votes from three overseas regions had not been counted and he had won if they were taken into account. The responsible electoral commission admitted the mistake, but at the same time declared that it was no longer allowed to change the announced result, this must be done by the arbitration commission. The Copé camp responded to Fillon's request with allegations that the Fillon camp had committed electoral fraud in several constituencies. The attempt to mediate through Alain Juppé failed. The UMP Arbitration Commission declared Copé the election winner on November 26th, with a corrected lead of 952 votes. Fillon described the Commission's decision as “illegal” and accused Copé of a “coup”.
On November 27, 2012, the dispute led to the split in the UMP faction in the National Assembly: 68 members, a good third of the previous faction, founded the Rassemblement-UMP faction under the leadership of François Fillon. These MPs also announced that they would return to the UMP parliamentary group if the party leadership were to be re-elected. On December 16 and 18, 2012, the two opponents, through the mediation of Jean-Pierre Raffarin, agreed that the party leadership should be re-elected before the beginning of the 2013/14 parliamentary term, i.e. probably in September 2013. Until then, the statutes should be revised by an independent commission and, at the beginning of January 2013, the party leadership should be expanded to include an additional deputy party chairman and a deputy general secretary, who should belong to the Fillons camp. In return, the R-UMP faction would be dissolved and its MPs would return to the official UMP faction.
On January 15, 2013, the UMP changed its party leadership in accordance with the agreement between Copé and Fillon: It now included five other vice-presidents in addition to the actually planned closer team of party president (Jean-François Copé), vice president (Luc Chatel) and general secretary (Michèle Tabarot) ( Christian Estrosi , Jean-Claude Gaudin , Brice Hortefeux , Roger Karoutchi and Laurent Wauquiez ) as well as an “appointed” Secretary General ( Valérie Pécresse ). At the same time, the members of the Rassemblement-UMP faction in the National Assembly returned to the UMP faction.
In the wake of the 2012 presidential election, the UMP was shaken by several affairs, most of which concerned the funding of the election campaign. First, the election campaign reimbursement commission declared Sarkozy's election campaign accounts invalid because the cost ceiling had been exceeded; Unlike the campaign management, the commission counted Sarkozy's expenses before Sarkozy's official declaration of candidacy for the election campaign. The imposed repayment of 11 million euros in reimbursement of election campaign costs brought the already heavily indebted UMP to the brink of insolvency, which could only be avoided through a successful appeal for donations, which brought in the 11 million. The Bygmalion affair, which occurred in spring 2014, reached even greater proportions : Here the UMP and its members' leaders are accused of having actually charged the UMP with incorrect or excessive invoices from the Bygmalion advertising agency that should have been paid by the Sarkozy election campaign committee. As a result, these costs did not appear in the accounting of the election campaign so as not to exceed the upper limit for election campaign expenses. According to research by the newspaper Liberation , 18 million euros are said to have been concealed.
On May 27, 2014, the entire party leadership resigned because of the Bygmalion affair . On June 10, 2014, the party executive decided to replace party leader Jean-François Copé with a troika of former premiers Alain Juppé, Jean-Pierre Raffarin and François Fillon until an extraordinary party congress .
In the elections since 2012, the UMP has had mixed results. In the 2014 local elections, she and her allies of the right won back numerous parishes from the left, including 10 large cities; The UMP and its candidate Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet clearly lost the symbolically important election in Paris . In the European elections, however, the UMP lost votes and, with 20 percent, only came second behind the Front National ; but it was able to distance the socialists clearly. In the 2014 Senate elections, the UMP gained 14 seats, while the rights overall regained a majority in the Senate after losing in 2011. In the départemental elections, the right was able to win the presidency in 26 départements, the UMP itself now appointed the president of the département council in 44 départements (previously 24) .
Nicolas Sarkozy returned to politics at the end of 2014 in the wake of the leadership crisis in the party, and to elect the UMP chairman. He prevailed against Bruno Le Maire (30%) with a result of 65% . Sarkozy combined his application with a revision of the statutes and a renaming of the party in order to counter the threat of competition from the right-wing extremist Front National . The name change to Les Républicains was adopted in a ballot in May 2015 with 83 percent of the vote (with a participation of 47 percent), the new statutes, which included open primaries for the determination of the presidential candidate and the abolition of the currents, with 96 Percent. The new name sparked social and legal disputes in France. The main argument of the social controversy was that the name of the party symbolized an exclusive right to represent the values of the republic. This dispute was reinforced by a statement by Sarkozy that the socialists were first socialists and only afterwards republicans; Socialist State Secretary Thierry Mandon replied that this was the first time the term Republican had been used to divide. Four parties or associations of the left and 143 individuals, including the former ministers Jean-Louis Bianco and Christian Sautter , brought legal action against the new name. In the first instance, their lawsuit and an urgent motion were rejected; on September 24, 2015, the appellate court also rejected the urgent motion.
During the regional elections in 2015 there were disputes within the LR, in particular about how to deal with the Front National before the second ballot. Vice-President Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet criticized Sarkozy's strategy of Ni-Ni , neither an agreement with the Front National to beat the left together, nor with the left to prevent a victory for the FN. After the second ballot, Sarkozy announced the dismissal of Kosciusko-Morizet from the party leadership. A day later, Kosciusko-Morizet resigned and was replaced by Laurent Wauquiez . Kosciusko-Morizet commented on her departure with allegations against Sarkozy, where she found support from Alain Juppé , Sarkozy's strongest internal party opponent, among others .
The regional elections themselves were a modest success for the LR: In the overall result for France, their lists were defeated by the Front National in the first ballot, but the LR was able to clearly distance the socialists and their allies. In the second ballot, the United Right's lists received over 40 percent of the vote and the majority in 7 of the 13 regions of European France - including long-standing left strongholds such as Hauts-de-France and Île-de-France - also benefited of the withdrawal of the socialists in two regions in order to prevent a victory for the National Front. In the end, the Front National did not win any of the regions.
2017 presidential election and consequences
To determine the presidential candidate in 2017 , the Republicans carried out an open primary ( Primaire ouverte de la Droite et du Center ) for the first time, in which a total of seven members of the LR and one candidate from another party stood and all eligible citizens were allowed to vote. According to a survey, 15% of the 4 million voters said they were politically left. Since Nicolas Sarkozy also applied, he resigned the Republican presidency; he was temporarily replaced by the previous first Vice-President Laurent Wauquiez . With his surprising failure in the first round, in which he only finished third with 21%, his political career ended for the second time. Before him, François Fillon (44%) and Alain Juppé (28%) reached the runoff, in which Fillon prevailed. He received two thirds of the votes cast. After his victory, Fillon de facto took over the leadership of the party, but the presidency remained vacant; Fillon failed in the first round of the presidential election after being a favorite for months but hurting him by an affair over the employment of family members in the closing stages of the campaign.
One day after his inauguration, on May 15, 2017, the new President, Emmanuel Macron , appointed the Republican Mayor of Le Havre and Member of the French National Assembly , Édouard Philippe , as its Prime Minister . It is highly unusual in France for a president to make a politician from another party head of government. With this decision, Macron wanted to send a signal to the bourgeois camp, from which he had not yet been supported. The president had to achieve a parliamentary majority in the parliamentary elections in June 2017 in order to push through his reform agenda.
The Secretary General of the Republicans, Bernard Accoyer , initially suggests that cooperation with the liberal head of state could be envisaged after the election. He also stated that Édouard Philippe could remain a member of the party. At the end of October 2017, however, Philippe, Budget Minister Gérald Darmanin , State Secretary for the Environment Sébastien Lecornu and MPs Thierry Solère and Franck Riester were expelled from their Les Républicains party because they were accused of supporting Macron and his party. Riester then founded the Agir party with a group of other MPs from the Républicains , which advocates a “constructive” relationship with the government. Darmanin, Lecornu and Solère meanwhile joined the presidential party La République en Marche (LREM), Philippe remained independent.
With the election of Laurent Wauquiez , who did not face a promising opponent, as the new party leader in November 2017, the party made a clear turn to the right. When he was elected, Wauquiez declared: “The right is back.” The new party leader is considered a hardliner and has been described as France's new “ Trump ”. However, the new positioning turned out to be unsuccessful: In the European elections in May 2019 , the party suffered a significant setback, receiving only 8.5% of the vote after 20.8% five years earlier. On June 1, 2019, Wauquiez resigned as party chairman. Other prominent members left Les Républicains, including the regional president of Île-de-France, Valérie Pécresse , and former Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin .
Since October 2019, the party has been led by the former group leader of the Républicains in the National Assembly, Christian Jacob . His election as party chairman is seen as a distancing from the course taken under Wauquiez.
Party leadership: party president, general secretary, presidium of the party council, secretariat
The party leadership differs depending on whether the party provides the president or not. If this is not the case, the party is headed by the party president . This is determined by all members in a primary election for a period of five years, usually at the first congress following an election of the president. If no candidate reaches an absolute majority in the first ballot, a second ballot will take place seven days after this with the two candidates who received the most votes in the first ballot. The party president is supported by a vice-president ( Vice-président délégué ) and a general secretary ( Secrétaire Général ). Both are proposed by him and have to be confirmed by the party council. The party president presides over all bodies at the national level, is responsible for the implementation of their decisions and represents the party externally and legally. He can also impose sanctions against members. The general secretary is responsible for organizing the party work. He is supported by Deputy General Secretaries ( Secrétaires Généraux adjoints ), the number of whom is determined by the party executive and appointed by the party president.
If the party provides the state president, the office of party president remains vacant. The party is then led on the one hand by a general secretary and two deputy general secretaries, who are elected by the party executive committee; in this case, the general secretary heads the party executive committee and represents the party externally and legally. On the other hand, a Presidium of the Party Council ( Bureau du Conseil National ) is formed, which consists of a first Vice-President and three other Vice-Presidents who are jointly elected by the Party Council. The first vice president heads the party council.
For the organization of the party work, the party president suggests to the party executive committee the appointment of secretaries who are each responsible for a topic or a task.
|president||Beginning of the term of office||Term expires||Remarks|
|Alain Juppé||November 17, 2002||July 16, 2004||resignation|
|Jean-Claude Gaudin||July 16, 2004||November 28, 2004||provisional|
|Nicolas Sarkozy||November 28, 2004||May 14, 2007|
|Jean-Claude Gaudin||May 14, 2007||July 7, 2007||provisional|
|unoccupied||July 7, 2007||November 18, 2012||Party provides the president|
|Jean-François Copé||19th November 2012||June 10, 2014||Resignation; Replaced by an interim top management until November 2014|
|Alain Juppé , Jean-Pierre Raffarin , François Fillon||July 10, 2014||November 29, 2014||provisional|
|Nicolas Sarkozy||November 29, 2014||23rd August 2016|
|Laurent Wauquiez||23rd August 2016||29th November 2016||provisional|
|unoccupied||29th November 2016||April 23, 2017||De facto presidency by François Fillon|
|unoccupied||April 23, 2017||December 9, 2017||De facto presidency by Bernard Accoyer|
|Laurent Wauquiez||December 10, 2017||June 1, 2019|
|unoccupied||2nd June 2019||October 13, 2019||Guided tour by Vice-Chairman Jean Leonetti|
|Christian Jacob||October 13, 2019|
|Secretary General||Beginning of the term of office||Term expires||Remarks|
|Philippe Douste-Blazy||November 17, 2002||November 28, 2004|
|Pierre Méhaignerie||November 28, 2004||September 25, 2007||from July 7, 2007 with extended rights if the party president is vacant|
|Patrick Devedjian||September 25, 2007||December 5, 2008||with extended rights if the party president is vacant|
|Xavier Bertrand||December 8, 2008||17th November 2010||with extended rights if the party president is vacant|
|Jean-François Copé||17th November 2010||November 18, 2012||with extended rights if the party president is vacant|
|Michèle Tabarot||19th November 2012||June 10, 2014|
|Luc Chatel||June 10, 2014||November 29, 2014|
|Laurent Wauquiez||November 29, 2014||December 15, 2015||Appointed Vice President|
|Eric Woerth||December 15, 2015||29th November 2016|
|Bernard Accoyer||29th November 2016||December 13, 2017||with extended rights if the party president is vacant|
|Annie Genevard||December 13, 2017||23 October 2019|
|Aurélien Pradié||23 October 2019|
So far the only first Vice-President of the Presidium of the Party Council was Jean-Pierre Raffarin ; he is currently (September 2015) listed in the organization chart of the Republicans as President of the Party Council, although this function does not exist according to the statutes.
Party executive (bureau politique)
The party executive is the political leadership of the LR. It consists of the party president, the vice-president, the general secretary and the treasurer, 80 members elected by the party council (50 of whom must be national MPs, 20 elected at sub-national level and 10 representatives of the party branches) and 3 members of the youth organization Jeunes Républicains . By virtue of office, the party executive board also includes, insofar as they are members of the LR: The former state presidents, the incumbent and former prime ministers , the presidents of the National Assembly and Senate, the group chairmen in the National Assembly, Senate and in the European Parliament (here also the chairman of the group UMP MEPs in the Group of the European People's Party ), President or Vice-President of the European Parliament, President or Vice-President of the European People's Party and the former party presidents. Members of the government and the European Commission take part in the meetings in an advisory capacity.
The party council elects the 80 members by proportional representation: Lists can be submitted that must be grouped according to the three groups (national parliamentarians, other elected representatives, representatives of the branches) and must alternate between men and women. The seats on the party executive committee are distributed proportionally according to the votes cast on the lists that have received at least 10 percent of the votes cast. The voters cannot change the order on the list.
Party Council (Conseil National)
The party council is the highest body of the Republicans between the party congresses. In particular, he is responsible for fundamental decisions about the political direction of the Republicans.
The party council meets at least twice a year. By virtue of his office, he owns the party president (who chairs the party council) and the vice-president, the general secretary, the treasurer, all members of the UMP from the government, the national assembly, the senate and the European parliament, the former presidents and prime ministers, the presidents of the departmental and regional councils and the Mayors of cities with a population of over 100,000, the presidents, secretaries and treasurers of the party branches in the départements, the chairmen of the constituency organizations and the heads of youth organizations in the départements. There are also representatives of the Organization of the French Abroad, the Organization of the Citizens of the European Union, the affiliated organizations, specialized party groups (which can be formed, for example, for certain subject areas or professional groups) as well as delegates elected by the divisions of the departments. The number of these representatives is determined by the party executive.
Party Congress (Congrès)
The party congress is the highest organ of the UMP. All members of the UMP with voting rights can participate in it. He decides on the fundamental political orientation of the UMP, until May 2015 he was also responsible for nominating the UMP candidate for the presidential elections. The congress takes place once in the first four months after a state president takes office and once halfway through his term of office, i.e. about every two and a half years.
National level organizations
According to the statutes of the LR, at least one organization for the French abroad, an organization for members of the LR who are citizens of another member state of the European Union and an organization for members between 30 and 40 ( Jeunes Actifs ) are set up at national level . In addition, so-called Fédérations spécialisées can be formed, which z. B. represent or edit certain professional groups, age groups or subject areas.
The party has a youth organization called Les Jeunes Républicains , which is chaired by Marine Brenier .
Affiliated parties and organizations
Article 6 of the LR statutes allows organizations and parties to become associate members ( Personnes morales associées ). These associated organizations send delegates to the party council, who in turn must be members of the LR.
The LR have not currently published a list of related parties and organizations. The UMP included as related parties :
- Alliance pour la diversité républicaine ( Alliance for Republican Diversity )
- Center national des indépendants et paysans (CNI; national center for the self-employed and farmers , 2002 to 2008)
- Chasse, pêche, nature et traditions (CPNT; Hunting, Fishing, Nature and Traditions ); since 2012
- Les Progressistes ( The Progressives )
- Parti chrétien-démocrate (PCD; Christian Democratic Party ) (formerly Forum des Républicains Sociaux , forum of the social republicans )
- Parti radical valoisien (PRV, 2002 to 2011)
- Rassemblement pour la France et l'indépendance de l'Europe (RPF-IE; Collection for France and the independence of Europe )
The Gaullist parties of the overseas regions also have a special status:
The government majority in the National Assembly from 2002 to 2012, the so-called majorité présidentielle, included other parties such as La Gauche Moderne (LGM; Die Moderne Linke ) or Le Nouveau Center (NC; The New Center ). But these were not members of the UMP party alliance.
Subnational party divisions
Below the national level, there are party structures for the constituencies, departments and regions.
The constituency organization is headed by a chairman who is elected by all members in the respective constituency. The board of directors of the constituency consists of elected representatives in the respective constituency (including the members of the National Assembly, the departmental and regional councils and the mayors) as well as other persons elected by the members.
The board of directors in a department consists of members of the boards of directors of the constituency organizations. The chairman of the structure is elected by primary vote. In addition to the chairman, there is a secretary in the department who is appointed by the party executive at the proposal of the party president. The board of directors forms a presidium made up of the chairman of the structure, the structure secretary and his deputies, the treasurer of the structure as well as the ministers, representatives, regional and departmental council presidents, the person responsible for the youth organization and the chairmen of the constituency organizations. The department board prepares candidates for local elections in cities with up to 30,000 inhabitants and for departmental elections.
The board of the regional organizations consists of the boards of the departmental organizations.
Presidential elections: mode of candidate selection
The presidential candidate of the LR has been determined in an open area code ( primaire ) since the 2015 constitutional reform . All French people who feel they belong to the values of the LR are allowed to vote. For this, voters have to register themselves in a voting list, make a declaration in which they admit to these values and pay a contribution of 2 euros for each ballot. Applicants from the LR must submit support signatures from 250 elected representatives (including at least 20 parliamentarians) from at least 30 départements and from 2,500 party members from at least 15 départements. In addition, candidates from parties other than the LR can also be proposed in accordance with the applicable regulations. The candidate who received more than 50 percent of the votes is elected in the first ballot; if no applicant is able to do this, there will be a runoff election between the two candidates with the most votes one week after the first ballot.
The election of the 2017 presidential candidate took place on November 20, 2016. The applicants were François Fillon , Alain Juppé , Nicolas Sarkozy , Jean-François Copé , Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet , Jean-Frédéric Poisson and Bruno Le Maire . However, most observers only gave the first three realistic chances. François Fillon and Alain Juppé emerged as the winners of the first round of elections, between whom a run-off election must take place on November 27, 2016. For many, the biggest surprise was the poor performance of Nicolas Sarkozy, who announced his complete retirement from politics after the results became known. Sarkozy and Bruno Le Maire then called for support from Fillon. François Fillon won the runoff election on November 27, 2016 with a clear majority.
on November 20th
on November 27th
|be right||%||be right||%|
|Bruno Le Maire||101,766||2.4|
|All valid votes||4,272,880||100.0||4,387,549||100.0|
National and European elections: mode of candidate selection
Candidates for elections at national level and for European elections are determined by a central nomination commission ( Commission nationale d'investiture ), which consists of the party president and the vice-president, the general secretary, the deputy secretary general or secretary responsible for elections and the president as well as the Group chairmen of the parliaments, in the case of the European Parliament alternatively the chairman of the group of LR members. The party structure concerned is included in the elaboration of the election proposal. The election proposal is decided by the party council.
Previous election results
|Election year||candidate||First ballot result||Second ballot result||Remarks|
|2002||Jacques Chirac||5,665,855 (19.9%)||25,537,956 (82.2%)||officially still a candidate of the RPR|
|2007||Nicolas Sarkozy||11,448,663 (31.2%)||18,983,138 (53.1%)|
|2012||Nicolas Sarkozy||9,753,629 (27.2%)||16,860,685 (48.4%)|
|Election year||First ballot result||Second ballot result||Seats|
|2002||8,620,070 (33.4%)||10,029,762 (47.3%)||358|
|2007||10,289,028 (39.5%)||9,463,408 (46.4%)||313|
|2012||7,037,268 (27.1%)||8,740,628 (38.0%)||194|
|2017||3,573,388 (15.8%)||4,040,016 (22.2%)||112|
|Election year||won seats||Total seats|
Elections to the European Parliament
|Election year||be right||Seats|
- ↑ https://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/en-quatre-ans-les-republicains-ont-perdu-trois-quart-de-leurs-adherents-20200129 January 29, 2020
- ↑ 
- ↑ After Brexit (before Brexit 7 of 74)
- ↑ Sarkozy party UMP becomes "The Republicans" - restart with a new name. Tagesschau.de, May 30, 2015.
- ^ Andrew Knapp: From the Gaullist movement to the president's party. In: Jocelyn AJ Evans: The French party system. Manchester University Press, Manchester 2003, pp. 121-136, at pp. 125-126.
- ^ Andrew Knapp: From the Gaullist movement to the president's party. In: Jocelyn AJ Evans: The French party system. Manchester University Press, Manchester 2003, pp. 121-136, at p. 129.
- ^ Andrew Knapp: From the Gaullist movement to the president's party. In: Jocelyn AJ Evans: The French party system. Manchester University Press, Manchester 2003, pp. 121-136, at p. 130.
- ^ Andrew Knapp: From the Gaullist movement to the president's party. In: Jocelyn AJ Evans: The French party system. Manchester University Press, Manchester 2003, pp. 121-136, at p. 132.
- ^ A b Andrew Knapp: From the Gaullist movement to the president's party. In: Jocelyn AJ Evans: The French party system. Manchester University Press, Manchester 2003, pp. 121-136, at p. 133.
- ^ Andrew Knapp: From the Gaullist movement to the president's party. In: Jocelyn AJ Evans: The French party system. Manchester University Press, Manchester 2003, pp. 121-136, at p. 134.
- ↑ a b Les militants de l'UMP éliront leur président les 18 et 25 novembre. Le Monde .fr, July 4, 2012, accessed July 5, 2012 (French).
- ↑ UMP: Fillon a Reuni 45,000 parrainages. Le Figaro .fr, September 18, 2012, accessed on September 19, 2012 (French).
- ↑ Alain Juppé ne sera pas candidat à la présidence de l'UMP. Le Monde .fr, August 27, 2012, accessed on August 27, 2012 (French).
- ↑ Jean-François Copé élu président d'une UMP “republicaine, modern et qui combattra toujours le politiquement correct”. (No longer available online.) UMP (press release) November 19, 2012, archived from the original on November 27, 2012 ; Retrieved November 20, 2012 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Dépôt des candidatures à la présidence de l'UMP. (No longer available online.) UMP (press release), September 18, 2012, archived from the original on October 31, 2012 ; Retrieved November 20, 2012 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ UMP: Alain Juppé lance sa commission de médiation. Le Monde .fr, September 22, 2012, accessed on September 22, 2012 (French).
- ↑ UMP - Copé défend ses positions, Juppé jette l'éponge, Fillon “saisira la justice”. Le Monde .fr, September 25, 2012, accessed September 26, 2012 (French).
- ↑ En direct - UMP - la commission des recours désigne Jean-François Copé. Liberation .fr, September 26, 2012, accessed September 26, 2012 (French).
- ↑ La list des parlementaires ayant rallié le groupe Rassemblement-UMP. Le Monde .fr, September 27, 2012, accessed on September 28, 2012 (French).
- ↑ Fillon et Copé s'accordent sur un nouveau vote en septembre. Le Monde .fr, December 16, 2012, accessed December 17, 2012 (French).
- ^ Samuel Laurent, Jonathan Parienté: UMP - l'accord entre Fillon et Copé décrypté. Le Monde .fr, December 18, 2012, accessed December 18, 2012 (French).
- ^ Samuel Laurent, Jonathan Parienté: UMP - l'accord entre Fillon et Copé décrypté. Le Monde .fr, December 18, 2012, accessed December 18, 2012 (French).
- ^ Samuel Laurent: Comprendre l'affaire des pénalités de campagne de l'UMP. Le Monde.fr , 9 September 2015, accessed 11 September 2015 (French).
- ↑ Jim Jarrassé: L'UMP solde sa dette de 11 millions d'euros. Le Figaro.fr , September 8, 2013, accessed October 18, 2015 (French).
- ↑ L'affaire Bygmalion en 5 questions. Le Monde .fr, October 15, 2015, accessed October 18, 2015 (French).
- ↑ Alain Auffray: Bygmalion: Cope prêt à porter plainte pour sauver sa tête. Liberation (online), May 24, 2014, accessed October 18, 2015 (French).
- ↑ New management trio to lead UMP out of the crisis. Süddeutsche Zeitung online, June 11, 2014.
- ↑ Stefan Simons: New UMP boss Sarkozy: Comeback with scratches. Spiegel online , November 29, 2014, accessed September 4, 2015 .
- ^ Au revoir l 'UMP, bonjour «Les Républicains»! Le Parisien , May 29, 2015, accessed September 4, 2015 (French).
- ^ Anne-Laëtitia Béraud: L'UMP se dote des statuts du nouveau parti baptisé "Les Républicains". 20 minutes , April 14, 2015, accessed September 4, 2015 .
- ^ Ludovic Vigogne: Les Républicains: le nom qui fâche. L'Opinion , April 26, 2015, accessed September 4, 2015 (French).
- ↑ Hugo Puffeney: Les Républicains: la sanity du nouveau nom jugée en appel le 24 septembre. Le Monde .fr, June 24, 2015, accessed September 4, 2015 (French).
- ^ Les Républicains. La justice refuse de bloquer le nouveau nom de l'UMP. Ouest-France (online), September 24, 2015, accessed October 18, 2015 (French).
- ↑ Election winner Sarkozy throws his deputy out. Die Welt (online), December 14, 2015, accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- ↑ Kosciusko-Morizet n'est officiellement plus n ° 2 du parti Les Républicains En savoir plus sur http://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2015/12/15/pour-nathalie-kosciusko-morizet-on- ne-redressera-pas-la-france-avec-des-reactionnaires_4832233_823448.html # EejY3JQM4Sy6FKV6.99. Le Monde (online), December 15, 2015, accessed October 18, 2015 (French).
- ^ Pour Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, "on ne redressera pas la France avec des réactionnaires". Le Monde (online), December 15, 2015, accessed October 18, 2015 (French).
- ↑ a b c Sarkozy fails, Fillon clearly in front on tagesschau.de, November 21, 2016, accessed on March 24, 2019
- ^ Ex-Prime Minister Fillon becomes Conservative candidate. In: Spiegel online. November 27, 2016, accessed November 27, 2016 .
- ^ Bernard Accoyer nommé secrétaire général du parti Les Républicains. In: Le Monde (online). November 29, 2016, accessed December 1, 2016 .
- ^ A b France: Edouard Philippe is the new Prime Minister. In: Spiegel Online . May 15, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2018 .
- ↑ France's conservatives throw premier out of the party. ORF , October 31, 2017, accessed on November 1, 2017
- ↑ Cat Contiguglia: French politicians launch new party in challenge to conservatives. In: Politico , November 26, 2017.
- ↑ Darmanin, Lecornu et Solere rejoignent LREM. In: Le Figaro , November 26, 2017.
- ^ Anne-Charlotte Dusseaulx: Réforme constitutionnelle: le duo Philippe-Macron à la manœuvre. In: Le Journal du Dimanche , March 6, 2018.
- ↑ Republicans elect hardliner Wauquiez as party leader , spiegel.de December 11, 2017.
- ↑ Michaela Wiegel: France's new Trump. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine , February 20, 2018.
- ^ Valérie Pécresse annonce sa démission des Républicains. In: Le Figaro , June 5, 2019.
- ↑ "Evidemment" Raffarin quince Les Républicains. In: Le Parisien , October 13, 2019.
- ^ Ludovic Vigogne: Petit à petit, Les Républicains se déwauquiezisent. In: l'Opinion , December 1, 2019.
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k Les Républicains (ed.): Nouveaux Statuts . Paris May 2015 ( cloudfront.net [PDF; accessed September 4, 2015]).
- ↑ a b Les Républicains (ed.): Règlement intérieur . Paris May 2015 ( cloudfront.net [PDF; accessed September 4, 2015]).
- ↑ 
- ↑ Les Républicains (ed.): Charte de la Primaire . Paris June 2015 ( cloudfront.net [PDF; accessed September 4, 2015]).
- ↑ Alexandre Lemarié: Nadine Morano officialise sa candidature à la primaire de la droite pour 2017. Le Monde .fr, September 4, 2015, accessed on September 4, 2015 (French).
- ↑ Résultat primaire de la droite 2016: les résultats officiels dévoilés, Fillon loin devant. Internaute, November 20, 2016, accessed November 20, 2016 (French).
- ↑ Primaire de la droite: Nicolas Sarkozy reconnaît sa défaite, soutient François Fillon, et esquisse son retrait de la vie politique. Le Monde, November 20, 2016, accessed November 20, 2016 (French).
- ↑ Bruno Le Maire: "Je voterai pour François Fillon". Le Monde, November 20, 2016, accessed November 20, 2016 (French).
- ↑ Les results: Results provisoires de la Primaire ouverte de la droite et du center. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 28, 2016 ; Retrieved November 27, 2016 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.