The souverainism is a political mindset which supports the holding or maintaining the political autonomy of a nation or a region. In favor of intergovernmentalist cooperation between states, it is directed against supra-state perspectives such as European federalism and is therefore related to nationalism . It was formed in 1992 as a European-critical trend in German and French politics during the dispute over the Maastricht Treaty .
As the source of all legitimate political power alone is the classic nation considered that the nation state is organized. As a counter-model to a possible union of states of the EU , the sovereignists mostly propagate the slogan “ Europe of the Fatherlands ”, which supposedly goes back to Charles de Gaulle . The nation is not understood in the national sense as an ethnic or community of descent, but as a nation of political will .
The journalist Jürgen Elsässer described sovereignty in 2001 as follows: “Unlike right-wing or right-wing radical nationalists, the sovereignists have a decidedly universalistic and anti-ethnic understanding of the nation that goes back to the French Revolution ” (which is why they sometimes call themselves republicans or as Jacobins call). The historian Claude Nicolet explains the difference: “Up until the eve of the revolution, the word“ French ”had taken possession of the nobility, who invoked Germanic descent; since then it has referred to all citizens of a country whose population was knowingly and willingly mixed from the beginning ”. Chevènement praises the fact that France "grants around 100,000 foreigners French citizenship every year" and thus "is pretty much alone in Europe."
Another characteristic of the French sovereignists is their belief in German ulterior motives in European unification. For example, the former L'Humanité editor Pierre Lévy wrote about European politics: "We need a broad alliance including the Gaullists against the EU ruled by Germany and its war policy - like in the times of the Resistance!"
Well-known German representatives of sovereignty were or are on the conservative side Franz Josef Strauss and Peter Gauweiler (both CSU ) as well as Diether Dehm and Oskar Lafontaine on the left . Both the party Die Linke and Peter Gauweiler have filed lawsuits against the Treaty of Lisbon , because the approval of the reform treaty would give up “the sovereign statehood” of Germany . In 2014, Le Monde described the AfD, which was then still led by Bernd Lucke , as sovereign.
In France , well-known representatives are the Gaullist Nicolas Dupont-Aignan with his party Debout la France and the left-wing sovereign Jean-Pierre Chevènement with his party Mouvement républicain et citoyen . The Front National is traditionally not assigned to sovereignty because of its ideological roots, but the new party leader Marine Le Pen also describes her party as “sovereignist”. The sovereignists also include MPs from the communist PCF .
- Jacqueline Hénard: Jean-Pierre Chevènement: The sovereign , in: Die Zeit 26/2000.
- Jürgen Elsässer: Che fights for Corsica , in: Konkret 7/2001 ( digitized version ( memento of October 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )).
- Cf. Oskar Lafontaine: Fear of Friends. The nuclear weapons strategy of the superpowers destroys the alliances. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1983.
- Bernd Lucke veut faire entrer les souverainistes allemands au Bundestag , Le Monde, May 30, 2014
- Lazaros Miliopoulos: Atlantic civilization and transatlantic relationship - Political idea and reality, Wiesbaden 2007 (also Diss. Bonn 2006), p. 116, fn. 504.
- Samuel Salzborn , Heribert Schiedel : "Nation Europe". Ethno-federal concepts and continental networking of the extreme right, in: Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik 10/2003, p. 1209 (1213 f.).
- Archived copy ( memento of the original from March 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Markus Stanat: The French National Assembly and the European Union. Wiesbaden 2006 (Diss. Osnabrück 2004), p. 167.