from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Inc.

legal form Corporation
ISIN US0231351067
founding 1994
Seat Seattle , Washington , United States
United StatesUnited States 
management Jeffrey P. Bezos (President, CEO and Chairman)
Number of employees 1,298,000 (February 2021)
sales $ 386 billion (2020)
Branch Mail order , online trade , digital distribution , cloud computing
Website , and others
As of February 2, 2021 founder Jeff Bezos in 2016's Day 1 Tower in Seattle, Inc. ( Amazon for short , German pronunciation [ amaˈʦoːn ], English [ ˈæməzən ]) is a listed US online mail order company with a wide range of products. As the market leader in online retailing, Amazon claims to have the world's largest selection of books, CDs and videos. Via the integrated sales platform Marketplace , private individuals or other companies can also offer new and used products as part of online trading. The Amazon Kindle as a reading device for electronic books , the Amazon Fire HD tablet computer , the Fire TV set-top box, the Fire TV Stick HDMI stick and the Echo voice recognition system are sold under its own brand . The company is also one of the leading cloud computing service providers through Amazon Web Services . The company achieved sales of 386 billion US dollars in 2020. In Germany, Amazon was the top-selling US company in Germany in 2020 with sales of 29.5 billion euros.

history, Inc. is founded by computer scientist Jeff Bezos . The idea of an electronic bookstore came together with the investor David E. Shaw, as Bezos in which financial firms D. E. Shaw & Co. worked. In 1994 he left it in order to be able to develop the idea further, and in the same year founded the parent company, the US parent company, in Washington State as an online bookstore . In July 1995, the company sold its first book on its Internet platform: Douglas R. Hofstadter's work Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought . To this end, he invited 300 friends and acquaintances to test his creation. In the first four weeks the company sent books to customers in all 50 US states and in more than 45 other countries, in the second month the weekly turnover was already over 20,000 US dollars . In October 1995 the platform opened to the general public with the URL . Bezos originally wanted to call his company Relentless (English for "merciless", "inexorable", "merciless"); However, friends are said to have advised against it. The URL is still assigned to Amazon. As early as 1996, the company had sales of $ 15.7 million and increased it to $ 147.8 million in 1997.

The year 1998 was marked by the establishment of the first international websites. With the takeover of the company Telebook Inc. - in April 1998 the owners sold the parent company ABC-Bücherdienst GmbH , the leading German Internet mail order book retailer and online pioneer, to Amazon for a double-digit million amount - Amazon entered the German sales market. At that time had branches in Spain, the USA and Namibia. In Germany, the company was the market leader in online book retailing. On October 15, 1998, the website was renamed to .

In 2004, Amazon took over the Chinese e-commerce website JOYO. With JOYO's successful application at the beginning of 2016 to operate as a sea freight service provider in the USA, Amazon dared to take a step towards further reducing the cost structure of its logistics department. Amazon Web Services (AWS) has been developing infrastructure services for other companies since 2006 . From 2012, these services were also offered to private users using cloud computing technology . In July 2009, Amazon took over the online shoe store Zappos for around $ 850 million . Amazon announced that it would pay the purchase price with its own shares worth $ 807 million, plus $ 40 million in cash for Zappos employees.

In 2011, Amazon took over the online bookseller The Book Depository Ltd. and thus the largest competitor in Great Britain. In addition to corresponding offers on its own platform, Amazon is also active in the used book market through AbeBooks . AbeBooks was acquired by Amazon in 2008. In 2011 AbeBooks also took over the Central Directory of Antiquarian Books (ZVAB). This is supplemented by the predecessor companies of the online publisher , which was taken over in 2005 and has its headquarters in North Charleston (USA) as an " Independent Publishing Platform " since 2009, the self-publication of books as print and e-book editions as well as data carriers for Offered music and film recordings. Since the end of 2018, the services within have been transferred to Kindle Direct Publishing . As things stand, the CreateSpace brand does not seem to be used any more. has been a subsidiary of Amazon Online since May 2011. Javari was a premium supplier of shoes, handbags and accessories. The Javari range was integrated into the fashion range on June 25, 2014. Javari should be established as a competitor to the online trading platform Zalando.

In March 2012, Amazon acquired Kiva Systems, a warehouse automation company, for $ 775 million. In August 2012 it became known that Amazon had founded a company called Amazon Game Studio , whose purpose is the development and marketing of browser games . At the same time, the first game called Living Classics was published on Facebook . Users have to track down numerous moving objects in animated landscapes, which in turn are designed in the style of a cartoon . In the spring of 2013, the Internet book club Goodreads was also taken over for 150 million US dollars.

On December 2, 2013, Jeff Bezos announced in a CBS interview that Amazon was planning to deliver orders with rotor drones ( logistics drones ) under the Prime Air label . The intended octocopter could transport a maximum payload of 2.5 kilograms. The range would be 16 kilometers. According to experts, this is neither technically nor legally feasible as things stand. In Germany, the use of civil drones outside the pilot's range of vision is not permitted under the current legal situation. Nevertheless, the announcement was followed by a great deal of media coverage.

In late August 2014, it was revealed that Amazon had acquired Twitch for $ 970 million.

In mid-January 2017, Amazon announced that it would increase its workforce in the United States by 100,000 to more than 280,000 by mid-2018. In June 2017, it was announced that it would take over the world's largest organic supermarket chain Whole Foods Market . In November 2018, it was announced that the company was planning two more headquarters on the US east coast, including one in Long Island City in the New York borough of Queens .

In December 2020, Amazon and Sky entered into a partnership. Sky will integrate the Amazon Prime Video app on all platforms and devices with Amazon Fire TV will support the Sky Ticket streaming service.

In January 2021, Amazon acquired eleven Boeing 767-300s in order to expand its own aircraft fleet, which until then consisted of leased cargo planes.

At the end of May 2021, it was announced that Amazon was taking over Hollywood studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) for $ 8.45 billion . This gives the company the rights to around 4,000 films such as Ben Hur , Rocky and James Bond . In May 2021, following an advance announcement in February 2021, it was also specifically announced that Bezos would resign from his position as CEO on July 5, 2021 (the day the company was founded). He will be succeeded by Bezos' confidante Andy Jassy . However, Bezos will remain Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors.

Business and employee development
year Employee Sales
in million US $
Net income for the year
in US $ million
2004 6,921 588
2005 8,489 359
2006 10,713 190
2007 17,000 14,838 476
2008 20,700 19,171 645
2009 24,300 24,512 902
2010 33,700 34,203 1,152
2011 56,200 48,082 631
2012 88,400 61.092 −39
2013 117,300 74,452 345
2014 154,100 88,988 −278
2015 230,800 107.006 618
2016 341,400 135.987 2,467
2017 566,000 177,866 3,027
2018 647,500 232,887 10,073
2019 798,000 280,522 11,588
2020 1,298,000 386.064 21,331

International presence and other locations

Insight into the Spanish logistics center of Amazon España in San Fernando de Henares near Madrid (2013)

Amazon has localized websites for the USA (.com), for the United Kingdom (, France (.fr), Canada (.ca), Germany (.de, see Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein ), Italy (.it), Spain (.es), Netherlands (.nl), Australia (, Brazil (, Japan (, China (.cn), India (. in), Mexico (, Singapore (, Turkey (, Sweden (.se) and Poland (.pl). The marketplaces in China (amazon .cn ) and in India (amazon .in ) are currently only accessible to dealers based in these countries. The creation of a localized site in Sweden (.se) was announced in August 2020.

Amazon Marketplaces (international)
region country domain introduction
Asia People's Republic of China amazon .cn September 2004
India amazon .in June 2013
Japan .jp November 2000
Singapore .sg July 2017
Turkey .tr September 2018
United Arab Emirates amazon .ae May 2019
Europe France amazon .fr August 2000
United Kingdom .uk October 1998
Germany amazon .de October 1998
Italy amazon .it November 2010
Netherlands amazon .nl November 2014
Spain amazon .es September 2011
Sweden amazon .se October 2020
Poland amazon .pl March 2021
North America Canada amazon .approx June 2002
Mexico amazon .mx August 2013
United States amazon .com July 1995
Oceania Australia .au November 2017
South America Brazil .br December 2012
An Amazon Books Store in Tigard, Oregon (2017)

The corporate headquarters are in Seattle in the US state of Washington , while the European corporate headquarters and administrative headquarters are in Luxembourg .

Amazon has had a software development center in Iași (Romania) since 2005, and in July 2011 Amazon opened a seller support center in Bratislava ( Slovakia ).

Merchants in Europe can use Amazon's sales and warehouse network for a fee with Amazon's FBA (Fulfillment by Amazon) services.

In the fall of 2013 it was announced that Amazon three new logistics centers in Poland plans - one near Poznan (Poznań) (POZ1, since autumn 2014) , the other two in Breslau (Wrocław) (WRO1 / WRO2, since autumn 2014) . In addition, two distribution centers were to be built in the Czech Republic, one in Brno and the other near Prague Airport . In March 2014 it became known that the construction of the logistics center in Brno was likely to have failed due to the vote of the city council, the opponents of the project argued that the expected high load from truck traffic.

In June 2014, Amazon started redirecting deliveries of goods for Germany via the new Polish and Czech logistics centers. The storage of goods in Poland and the Czech Republic is known as the “Central Europe” shipping program and is advertised by Amazon Services Europe with € 0.50 lower Amazon fulfillment fees per unit. The hourly wage in the Czech Republic is 110 kroner, equivalent to € 4.26 gross.

In 2017, Amazon in Poland opened its fourth logistics center in Kołbaskowo and a fifth logistics center in Sosnowiec . A new return center was also set up in Slovakia.

Locations of Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) - shipping program "Central Europe"
Type of location Location country Abbreviation In operation surface Employees
Logistics center Bielany Wrocławskie
(near Wroclaw )
Poland WRO1
WRO1 (2014)
WRO2 (2014)
WRO3 (2015)
WRO4 (2015)
2 × 95,000 m²
Logistics center Sady (near Poznan ) POZ1 2014 95,000 m²
Logistics center Kołbaskowo (near Szczecin ) SZZ1 2017 161,000 m² 1000
Logistics center Sosnowiec (near Katowice ) KTW1 Q4 2017 135,000 m² 3000
Software development center Danzig
Headquarters Prague-Dejvice Czech Republic PRG10 2015 5,800 m² 2000
Return center Dobrovice (near Prague ) PRG1 2013-2018 25,000 m² 1000
Logistics center Dobrovice (near Prague ) PRG2 2015 95,000 m² 5000
Headquarters Bratislava Slovakia BTS1 2011 850
Return center Sereď BTS2 Q3 2017 60,000 m² 1000

A list of worldwide locations can be found on Wikipedia.


Amazon locations in Germany
KSZ: Customer service center
LZ: Logistics center
EZ: Development center

The German-language website is operated by Amazon EU S.à rl in Luxembourg and went online on October 15, 1998. The development department of the website in Munich was closed in mid-2004 and most of the employees were laid off. Country-specific adjustments are now being made by the British subsidiary in Slough or directly in Seattle . The head of the German branch of Amazon EU S.à rl has been Ralf Kleber, a business economist, who has been with the company since 1999.

Germany is the most important foreign market for Amazon: The turnover of Amazon's Germany business ( amounted to 19.9 billion dollars in 2018 and 16.9 billion dollars in 2017. In 2018 that was 17 percent more than in 2017. In 2018, Germany accounted for 8.5 percent of Amazon's total sales, which amounted to 232 billion dollars. A direct comparison with the total turnover of German online retail in 2018, which according to the Federal Association of E-Commerce and Mail Order Germany was 65.1 billion euros and according to figures from the German Retail Association at 53.6 billion euros, is not directly possible because The figures published by Amazon include not only retail sales, but also sales from other corporate divisions such as Amazon Web Services and internal sales from the commission business of the marketplace business. The share of total sales should therefore be significantly higher than the arithmetical value.

A fulfillment center opened in Mönchengladbach in August 2019. In the second half of 2019, further sorting and parcel distribution centers are to be opened in Schönefeld near Berlin, Bremen, Wunstorf near Hanover, Völklingen, Nuremberg, Eggolsheim, Potsdam, Eschweiler, Borgstedt and Nützen. Amazon is also one of the partners in the "Cyber ​​Valley" research initiative for research on artificial intelligence, which is located in Tübingen and Stuttgart.

Amazon has the following locations in Germany:

Amazon Germany locations
Type of location Location Abbreviation Installation surface Employee
Headquarters (Amazon Germany) Munich - Schwabing MUC2 2010
Customer service center regensburg REG1 1998
Customer service center Berlin center BER1 July 2011
Logistics center Achim BRE1 May 2021 47,000 m² about 1000
Logistics center Bad Hersfeld FRA1
1999 (FRA1)
2009 (FRA3)
42,000 m² (FRA1)
110,000 m² (FRA3)
approx. 4000 (FRA1 + FRA3)
Logistics center Leipzig LEJ1 August 2006 75,000 m² 1900
Logistics center Werne EDE4


2010 (EDE4)
2011 (EDE5)

September 2017 (DTM1)

60,000 m² (EDE4)
70,000 m² (EDE5)

100,000 m² (DTM1)

Logistics center Rheinberg DUS2 2011 110,000 m² 1900
Logistics center dig MUC3 September 2011
Logistics center Koblenz CGN1 September 2012
Logistics center Pforzheim STR1 Fall 2012 1000 + 2000 seasonal workers
Logistics center Brieselang BER3 October 2013 65,000 m² 671 + 2000 seasonal workers
Logistics center Dortmund DTM2 September 2017 45,000 m² 1000
Logistics center Winsen (Luhe) HAM2 June 2017 64,000 m²
Logistics center Frankenthal (Palatinate) FRA7 August 2018 50,000 m² 2000
Logistics center Dortmund DTM3 January 21, 2019 2000
Logistics center Mönchengladbach DUS4 August 2019 110,000 m² 1000
Logistics center Oelde PAD1 July 2020 110,000 m² 1000
Logistics center Sülzetal Fall 2020 1200
Fulfillment ( DHL ) Ludwigsau XDEB
Fulfillment ( Hermes Fulfillment ) Melle XDEF
Fulfillment ( Kuehne + Nagel ) Rennerod XDEH
Fulfillment ( GEODIS Logistics Germany ) New Wulmstorf XDEI
Fulfillment ( Baur Versand ) Sun field XDEJ
Fulfillment ( DHL ) Bremen XDEK
Fulfillment ( GEODIS Logistics Germany ) Malsfeld XDET September 2016
Package distribution center Berlin (North) DBE1 15,000 m² 40
Package distribution center Berlin (South) DBE2 2019
Package distribution center Olching DMU1 September 2015 80 + 60 seasonal workers
Package distribution center Munich - Daglfing DMU2 May 2017 60 + 40 seasonal workers
Package distribution center Bochum DNW1 March 30, 2017 8,300 m² 60
Package distribution center Dusseldorf DNW3
Package distribution center Raunheim DHE1 February 2018
Package distribution center Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld DBW1 September 2018
Package distribution center Erfurt DTH1 End of September 2019 22,000 m² 100
Package distribution center Bremen DHB1 October 2019 7,800 m²
Package distribution center Cloppenburg DNM6 October 2019 8,000 m²
Package distribution center Knüllwald DHE8 October 2019
Package distribution center Wunstorf-Luthe DNM1 23 October 2019 200
Package distribution center Lampertswalde DSY2 November 2019
Package distribution center Neuwied DRP2 November 2019
Package distribution center Echzell-Grund-Schwalheim Fall 2020 8,500 m² 130
Sorting center Krefeld DTM8 Summer 2017
Sorting center Garbsen HAJ8 September 2018
Sorting center Dormagen CGN9 Q4 2018
Sorting center Gernsheim FRAX August 2019
Sorting center Eggolsheim NUE9 September 2019
PrimeNow Fulfillment Berlin-Charlottenburg UDE1
PrimeNow Fulfillment Munich UDE3
Software development center Berlin center BER12 May 2013
Software development center Berlin center BER13
Software development center Dresden May 2013
Sorting center Witten DTM9 November 2020

Amazon Logistik GmbH in Bad Hersfeld and Amazon Koblenz GmbH received Big Brother Awards 2015 for violating applicable data protection and labor law .

Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein

Customers from Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein can use the services of Amazon Germany, in the case of Switzerland also Amazon France or Amazon Italy, but the prices are adjusted (due to significantly different sales tax rates ), content is localized and the services are coordinated.

Amazon also occupies an important position in these sales markets, although in 2016 it was only third in Switzerland in terms of sales with CHF 475 million, behind with CHF 602 million and Zalando with CHF 534 million. However, so far the offer has been severely limited. However , this changed somewhat between the end of 2017 and the beginning of 2018, thanks to a collaboration with Swiss Post . It should be noted that and redirect directly to Contrary to Swiss legislation, the higher Germany prices (different tax rate) are therefore also displayed - these prices are only reduced at the step of the payment process as long as a delivery address in Switzerland or Liechtenstein is specified. In 2019, Amazon was still in third place with an estimated turnover of CHF 700 million.

In 2016, Amazon achieved the highest sales in Austria in the online business (€ 556.0 million), with which the company generated more than three times as much sales as the second-placed retailer Zalando (€ 174.3 million) and almost half of the total sales the top 10 online retailers. It should be noted that redirects directly to Contrary to Austrian legislation, Germany prices (different tax rate) are displayed - these prices are only updated at the step of the payment process. Even when listing items as a private seller, all Austrian items are only available to German customers for the first time; There is no such thing as an attitude just for Austrians - if you want to sell your used items to Austrians as an Austrian, this is only possible if you allow the entire EU area. More and more articles are not being delivered to Austria because free return via the Austrian Post is too expensive.

In October 2018, Amazon opened its first distribution center in Austria in Großebersdorf . In August 2020, Amazon's second distribution center in Austria, in the 23rd - southernmost - Viennese district of Liesing with a 7,900 m 2 hall went into operation.

As of January 1, 2019, and no longer deliver to addresses in the Swiss customs area .

Services offered

In addition to the main business, classic book sales, Amazon operates numerous other services such as the online video library Amazon Video , the audio book provider Audible , the analysis tool Alexa Internet and the film database IMDb . In addition, Amazon is developing its own search algorithm called A9 , which is used for the search function on Amazon.

Amazon Marketplace

In addition, Amazon offers the private or commercial sale of used or new goods. These offers via Amazon are listed as alternatives to the “official” Amazon product (Amazon Marketplace) and generate the majority of the operating result. For each item sold, Amazon retains a commission of up to 45 percent of the sales price and an additional EUR 0.99 for private sellers as well as a shipping transaction fee that depends on the product group and buyer country, for books to Germany, for example, EUR 1.16. This fee is also charged by Amazon if the item is sold (and shipped) privately. In Germany, the buyer pays 3 euros per item for books, DVDs, CDs and the like, which covers shipping costs and commission, even if the individual item costs only 0.01 euros. There are also other aids for suppliers of articles. Amazon Advantage gives companies and natural persons the opportunity to offer their products via the Amazon product catalog. Amazon Logistik GmbH takes care of the dispatch on demand ("on demand"). In contrast to Amazon Marketplace (where the seller organizes shipping and logistics), Amazon takes the items from the seller on commission and stores them in the logistics center. The articles are listed in the "normal" Amazon catalog, i. H. not via the other available platforms such as shops, auctions or the marketplace. Since April 2004, has also been selling its own products under various brands such as Strathwood for garden furniture, Pinzon for the living area and Pike Street as a cheap brand. Amazon became popular among others. also through the use of recommendation engines ("Customers who bought / searched for product A also bought B!").

Amazon Marketplace gives the individual retailer who sells their products via Amazon Marketplace only little freedom of design. This often means that it is difficult or even impossible for sellers on Amazon to adhere to the applicable legal provisions, so that trading via Amazon remains associated with warning risks for sellers .

Prime Video has been offering a DVD rental company Lovefilm since 2005. From mid-September 2006 it started selling FSK-18 DVDs; Initially, the mail-order company did not plan to lend adult titles. In 2008 Amazon transferred this division to Lovefilm (own spelling LOVEFiLM).

In January 2011 it was announced that Amazon will take over Lovefilm completely. In March 2013 it was reported that Amazon wants to produce its own television series , which are to be marketed exclusively on its own streaming offerings. In February 2014, the entire Lovefilm offering was implemented on the Amazon platform. Since then, the streaming service has been called Amazon Instant Video.

On February 26, 2014, a video-on-demand offer, limited to Germany, went online under the name Amazon Instant Video , which includes the offer from Lovefilm . The Lovefilm brand was dissolved in this context. The option of renting films and series is still available with the “Lovefilm DVD Rental” offer under Amazon Instant Video for 7.99 euros per month. The Prime offer has been expanded to include the “Prime Instant Video” function. At the same time, the annual fee was increased by 20 euros. It is no longer possible to use Prime in the previous way.

From September 2015, the provider shortened the name to Amazon Video - initially in the USA and later worldwide .

Since February 2018, Amazon has been marketing all video content, regardless of free or paid offers, under the name "Prime Video".

Amazon Music

In September 2007, Amazon started the public beta phase of the music download shop Amazon Music (formerly Amazonmp3 ) in the USA and thus entered the competition for online music services . The more than two million titles from over 180,000 performers from the partners EMI , Universal and numerous independent labels are offered DRM- free in MP3 format at 256 kBit / s. By dispensing with copy protection , the MP3 files can be played on almost all digital music players and burned to CD without restriction . Selected songs contain digital watermarks that identify the files as Amazon Music. The single tracks cost between 89 and 99 US cents, albums between 5.99 and 9.99 US dollars . The MP3 download service began in Germany in April 2009. The service offers some of the CDs for sale on Amazon as digital MP3 downloads at a sometimes lower price. On September 17, 2019, Amazon Music announced the launch of Amazon Music HD, a new level of lossless music with more than 50 million songs in high definition (16 bit / 44.1 kHz) and millions of songs in ultra high definition (24) Bit) / 44 (kHz), 24/48, 24/96, 24/192), the streaming audio with the highest quality available.

Amazon Pay

At the beginning of August 2007, Amazon started a beta version of the online payment function Flexible Payments Service (FPS). Amazon Payments is a service with which Amazon customer accounts can also be used in online shops that do not belong to Amazon, without the payment data having to be disclosed. Billing is done either by credit card , debit card or direct debit . The service, which has been available from German retailers since April 27, 2011, is free of charge for customers, while retailers have to pay a fee per transaction. As of February 2017, Amazon Payments was renamed Amazon Pay . In November 2018, the Wall Street Journal reported that Amazon Pay may soon be deployed in restaurants and gas stations. In November 2018, Amazon entered into a cooperation with .

Amazon Prime

Delivery by amazon prime

The Amazon Prime service has also been available in Germany since November 2007 , for which, after paying an annual membership fee (initially 29 euros, later 49 euros, since 2017 69 euros in Germany and in the USA 79 US dollars, since 2014 99 US dollars Dollars), a large number of orders can be delivered the next day - or even faster with discounted express delivery - at no additional cost. In addition, as a Prime customer, you can stream an unlimited number of films and series episodes (via Amazon Video ) and music (via Prime Music ).

According to research by the analyst Morningstar , Amazon had around 10 million Prime customers in the United States alone at the beginning of 2013, which together generated around a third of its operating profit. Amazon itself announced at the end of 2015 that there are Prime customers in the "double-digit million range"; Amazon's 2017 annual report said it had more than 100 million Prime customers worldwide.

Amazon offers all customers the opportunity to test “Amazon Prime” as part of a free 30-day trial membership; then the trial membership changes to a paid membership.

In November 2014, Amazon announced that the Prime offer would now also be available in Austria. There you can use the same services as in Germany - only the Morning and Evening Express shipping options are not available. The pricing is identical to that in Germany.

According to a study published in July 2019 by the German retail research institute IFH, 17.3 million Germans are Amazon Prime customers.

The fifth Amazon Prime Day took place from July 15 to 16, 2019 and lasted two days for the first time. More than 175 million products have been sold worldwide for over $ 5 billion. Independent sellers achieved sales of around two billion US dollars.

In January 2020, Jeff Bezos announced there were over 150 million paying Prime subscribers worldwide. In the spring of 2021, Prime had over 200 million subscribers.

Amazon Vine

Amazon set up the Amazon Vine - Club of Product Testers program in 2007 in the USA and the UK, and in Germany in 2010 . Selected Amazon customers receive various products that then have to be reviewed. The reviews are published - just like other user reviews - on the respective product pages, but are marked as a Vine review . The product testers are selected directly by Amazon and invited to do so. Vine members always receive the products free of charge and can keep them after six months. Originally, the products were awarded in a twice-monthly newsletter. In August 2014, Amazon changed the allocation process so that the product range is now regularly updated according to specific categories. Only so-called vendors, i.e. dealers who sell their goods directly to Amazon, can participate in the Amazon Vine program. In order to rule out influencing the retailers on the reviewers, Amazon acts as a kind of middleman at Vine. The product samples are sent by a retailer to the Amazon warehouse and from there independently forwarded to qualified product testers. However, there is a restriction that a maximum of 30 samples per product can be forwarded to product testers. As a result, a maximum of 30 reviews can be generated by Vine for each offer.

The consumer advice center North Rhine-Westphalia criticized the program because positive reviews often distorted the rating system.

Amazon Dash

Amazon Dash, here for a detergent

At Amazon Dash is a wireless, battery-operated device that can order for customers of Amazon Prime at your fingertips a product of daily use on Amazon. The data transfer takes place via WLAN ; the user also needs an Amazon app and a smartphone . The dash buttons are available for a fee, but the purchase price will be refunded with the first order. The service started on September 1, 2016 in Germany when there were around 40 different products that could be ordered. When ordering, the customer neither looks for product alternatives nor does he compare prices with other suppliers. One push of a button sets the entire supply chain in motion. If a requested product cannot be delivered at short notice, a suitable replacement item of the same product type and brand, but with a slightly different fill quantity, for example, will be automatically delivered.

In order to avoid accidental multiple orders, the dash button is blocked by default after an order until it has been delivered. This block can, however, be deactivated via opt-in , so that multiple orders are then triggered without confirmation when the button is pressed. In the standard setting, when setting up the dash button, the WiFi password is not only transmitted from the app to the dash button, but also to the Amazon server, which is also used when setting up additional dash buttons in the same wireless network Available. The user can deactivate this function by opting out in the app. The standard setting therefore does not meet the requirements for data avoidance and data economy .

In addition, since the information required in electronic commerce is missing on the button of the button that a chargeable order is triggered immediately at the touch of a button, and since information about the total price and the essential properties of the product must be communicated immediately before the order is placed, for example Amazon Dash also did not take place, Amazon was warned in Germany by the consumer advice center North Rhine-Westphalia shortly after the market launch. The device, including the non-rechargeable battery, is fully bonded and becomes obsolete or electronic scrap after it has been drained .

The microphone built into the device is apparently only used for acoustic communication with iPhones if there are problems with the configuration via WLAN .

The dash button can also be used for purposes other than the order function provided by Amazon. For this third-party use, the signals sent in the WLAN are intercepted and any other functions are triggered. For example, it can be used to switch wireless radio sockets, send SMS or control home automation systems, among other things.

Some courts have declared the service (use Dash for orders) to be illegal in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, for example the Munich Regional Court. The Munich Higher Regional Court ordered that this practice be omitted.

At the end of February 2019 it was announced that Amazon would stop selling dash buttons worldwide. At that point, Amazon wanted to continue supporting the dash buttons that were already sold. At the beginning of August 2019, however, Amazon announced that it would deactivate the ordering function of the physical dash buttons and continue to only support virtual dash buttons on the website and in apps. However, Amazon will continue to sell the AWS IoT Button , which is capable of running programs over the cloud.


AmazonFresh is a delivery service that requires Amazon Prime . Amazon offers a 30-day trial membership for the program. The subscription will then be extended for € 7.99 per month. Membership can, however, be canceled on a monthly basis. The product selection is limited to 85,000 items. Delivery costs are incurred for orders below the shopping cart value of a total of 40 euros for the cities of Hamburg, Berlin and Potsdam and 50 euros for the city of Munich: These are currently 3.99 euros per delivery. A time window of two hours is advertised for the delivery time, within the time from 5:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. In Germany , the delivery area is limited to sections of Berlin , Potsdam , Hamburg and Munich . For deliveries in Germany, Amazon uses the parcel and letter express service DHL . Worldwide, AmazonFresh can also be used in some cities in the United States , Japan, and the United Kingdom . The company is thus in competition with local retailers and with companies such as Edeka and Rewe , which serve the same market with Bringmeister and Rewe Online. With the latter, you don't have to take out a paid membership, but pay per order.

Branch of Amazon Go in Seattle

Amazon Go

Amazon Go is a supermarket that does not have a checkout area . The first store opened in Seattle at the end of 2016 , initially for employees only . The Amazon Go market has also been accessible to customers since 2018. According to Bloomberg , Amazon wanted to open around 3,000 more stores by 2021. As of 2020, 27 were in operation.


In 2016, Amazon opened the AmazonSmile portal on the websites, and . For certain goods that Amazon customers buy from AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase amount , minus discounts, shipping, handling, gift packaging fees and sales tax to a non-profit organization that the Amazon customer can preset. The Amazon customer would be offered the same products and prices that he would “see” with “conventional” Amazon access. The customer can change the organization selected by him within his Amazon user account at any time.

Despite the apparent benefits to the beneficiary organizations, the program is still controversial.

Amazon Advertising

One of the fastest growing businesses for Amazon is its advertising business, Amazon Advertising . Amazon offers advertisers a variety of solutions and advertising formats (Pay Per Click, Display, Video) to reach users on and outside of the Amazon platform. According to the stock exchange report, the division with "other activities", which consists primarily of advertising, increased sales in 2018 to 10.1 billion dollars. In the USA, Amazon is the third largest digital marketer after Google and Facebook.

Experts estimate that Amazon has a turnover of around 500 million euros per year in the DA-CH region . Experts from major media agencies predict that Amazon advertising sales will double to around US $ 20 billion by 2020. The growth with advertising is apparently at the expense of other digital advertising marketers, especially Google (Demokratie) and Facebook (FB). In 2018 as a whole, the “Other Activities” division, which consists primarily of advertising sales, grew by 95% compared to 2017.

Development of the business fields

An Amazon Locker in a shopping center in Gloucester, UK (2016)

Via a so-called partner program ( affiliate marketing ), website operators can set links to Amazon; If a purchase is made via this, the links are traced and the website operator receives a commission . In addition to the partner program, Amazon has been offering access to its product database via Amazon Web Services since summer 2002.

In 2005, Amazon took over the digital book printer Booksurge and thus entered the print-on-demand business . also operates the retail portals for companies and organizations such as Target , the NBA , Sears Canada, Bebe Stores, Timex , Marks & Spencer , Mothercare and Lacoste . Since November 2, 2005, the beta version of the new Amazon Mechanical Turk Internet service , a marketplace for simple work over the Internet, has been activated as part of Amazon Web Services .

Amazon has been offering online services under the title Amazon Web Services since 2006 .

Since 2007 it has been possible to set up your own Amazon shop. “Amazon astore” is a partner program with which website operators can bring the Amazon shop with selected products or entire product categories directly to their own website.

Since 2009 Amazon has also been selling products such as notebook bags , batteries or computer and audio / video cables under its own brand AmazonBasics . Since May 2009 Amazon has been running a publishing company with Amazon Publishing .

Since July 1, 2010 you can also order groceries on . So far this has only been possible in the United States and the United Kingdom .

Since March 22, 2011 Amazon has been running its own Amazon Appstore .

Since April 17, 2012, users in Germany can also download video games and software from . The Amazon Appstore , which was launched in the USA in March 2011 , has also been available in Europe since August 31, 2012.

Starting in the USA, Amazon entered the delivery business with Amazon Logistics . In 2015, this service was expanded to Germany, where Amazon organizes deliveries in Munich and Berlin using local courier services . Amazon Logistics also started setting up its own parcel machines in Munich and Berlin, and in February 2017 there were already 55 so-called Amazon Lockers.

On August 12, 2014, the limit on free shipping was increased from the previous minimum order value of EUR 20.00 to EUR 29.00 and came into effect with immediate effect in Germany, Austria, Belgium, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland.

On April 4, 2019, it was announced that Amazon was developing a constellation of communications satellites under the name Project Kuiper . The online magazine Geekwire calculated a total of 3236 satellites based on approval documents.

In 2019, Amazon participated in a financing round in Deliveroo and discontinued its own delivery services Amazon Restaurant and Daily Dish.

Kitchen and household goods are mainly offered under the Solimo private label . As of February 2019, the Indian government severely restricted the sale of Solimo and AmazonBasics due to possible violations of antitrust law.

On November 17, 2020, Amazon announced that the company was launching its own internet pharmacy in America. Customers can now also order prescription drugs and have them delivered to their homes. To this end, Amazon bought the Pillpack online pharmacy and the associated sales licenses for around $ 750 million two years ago .

Techniques and Patents

In September 1997 the "1-Click" function was introduced. With it, based on the cookie technology, the process of ordering is possible with just one click. On September 28, 1999, Amazon had this feature patented in the United States ( US Patent No. 5,960,411). Amazon successfully sued other companies in the USA, whose websites also allowed products to be ordered with just one click, even though cookies were originally developed by Netscape and, according to popular opinion, the one-click technology is a so-called trivial patent . Such a patenting is not permitted in Germany.

The company has received another patent for a user review system , in which the purchase and use experiences of the purchased products are to be published by customers for customers. The online bookseller has also patented a rating system that allows customers to rate reviews according to their quality with a click of the mouse.

Controversy and criticism

Allegation of abuse of market power

Amazon charges higher fees than other providers ( e.g. eBay ), puts pressure on sellers who also offer their goods cheaper on other portals and threatens to withdraw their authorization to sell on Amazon if the same final price is not offered despite the higher fees. Some journalists criticize the fact that many publishers use the Internet platform, although there is, for example, a fixed book price in Germany and therefore the price is always the same for the customer. So initially there is no advantage for the customer. Rather, it is just an additional advertising platform. In return, the company's questionable practices would be accepted. This fixed book price only applies to new books from publishers.

Amazon used a sales obstruction as leverage against publishers. Those who do not comply with the requirements will have their books delivered later, although the respective titles would be in stock without any problems. 820 independent booksellers and publishers from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Luxembourg, who have united in the branch group "Buchhandelstreff", formulated a critical statement:

“The exploitation of market power, the deliberate delay in the delivery of titles from selected publishers in order to build up pressure in order to be able to enforce conditions, is not only a threatening sign for the book industry, but also a clear affront to book readers and buyers. The fast procurement of books as a cultural asset is the basic task of the book trade. Anyone who torpedoes this in order to force business advantages makes it clear how he intends to deal with growing market power. "

In August 2014, 909 writers, including Stephen King , John Grisham, and Paul Auster , signed an open letter of protest against Amazon, which appeared as a full-page advertisement in the Sunday edition of the New York Times . It was criticized that Amazon put the Hachette publishing house under pressure to accept Amazon's terms and conditions. This sparked debates about Amazon's increasing monopoly .

Another problem for other industries is that Amazon benefits from fixed book prices in Germany. The company can buy cheaply due to its market power, but does not pass low prices on to consumers because of the fixed book prices. According to estimates, Amazon should have received a benefit of up to EUR 500 million by the end of 2013. The only advantage for the customer is the possibility of having the book delivered free of charge.

Amazon forced sellers who wanted to sell their products through Amazon by accepting a corresponding clause not to offer their products anywhere cheaper than on Amazon. German supervisory authorities saw this as an illegal obstacle to competition. After Amazon was able to benefit from this illegal behavior for more than three years and thus significantly supported its reputation for being the cheapest provider, Amazon stopped this practice in 2013 in order to forestall antitrust proceedings.

In the summer of 2019, the EU Commission initiated antitrust proceedings against Amazon for preferring its own products.

The Bundesverband Onlinehandel (BVOH) surveyed almost 1,000 marketplace retailers in 2021. 60 percent of those questioned answered "no trace of partnership" and 18% with "difficult cooperation". Many of them are economically dependent on selling on Amazon. The President of the Cartel Office, Andreas Mundt, has announced that he will take a close look at the data collected during the survey.

Distribution of neo-Nazi literature

Until 2009 Amazon Germany distributed the neo-Nazi literature of the German voice publishing house of the NPD . Even after the Tagesspiegel published the cooperation in 2009, a spokeswoman for the company defended it against the Handelsblatt : You don't sell banned books, and everything else would amount to “censorship that contradicts the right to freedom of expression”. The cooperation with the "National Network Diary - this is where the NPD speaks" will be checked for compliance with the conditions for the partnership program. Amazon was not of the opinion that the content contradicted the Amazon terms and conditions and was "discriminatory content based on race, gender, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation, or age". The books that were driven out included Rudolf Hess - Märtyrer für den Frieden , SS -Sturmbataillon 500 am Feind and We don't want to break the word - Die Waffen-SS 1935–1945 . After further protests, the company terminated its business relationship. In the official sales criteria, the note was added that "items that glorify or downplay National Socialism " may not be sold. At the same time, however, a spokeswoman said that Amazon was “a retailer, not a regulatory institution”, so customers would “continue to find titles with us in which dubious content regarding National Socialism is expressed”.

In 2020, the news site ProPublica published an article that revealed that large amounts of right-wing extremist literature are sold on Amazon's self-publishing platform and advertised using the platform's algorithms.

Praising disinforming and ideological conspiracy literature

In September 2020, criticized Amazon for promoting conspiracy narratives , anti-Semitism and disinformation as well as scientifically based literature. Amazon doesn't just have conspiracy literature in its range, it is also presented to customers in a targeted manner using algorithms. That was the result of an investigation of the Amazon recommendations, for example on the keyword " Holocaust lie " as well as by titles on the coronavirus , where books had already appeared on the first page that "doubt the virus" and "sometimes speak of a lie". Particularly flashy titles would be prominently placed in order to generate clicks. Customers would also be directed to literature that is anti-vaccination or hostile to vaccination . Whoever browses Amazon, so the allegation, lures the platform "possibly straight into a rabbit hole". Daniel Laufer, one of the authors, questioned the effectiveness of the ethical guidelines at Amazon.

Tax avoidance

With the principle of “ Double Irish With a Dutch Sandwich ”, Amazon largely avoided domestic income tax payments and redirected its German corporate profits to the low-tax country of Luxembourg. To this end, the group founded Amazon Services Europe SARL , Amazon Europe Holding Technologies SCS and Amazon EU SARL , currently based in Luxembourg, in 2003 and 2004 . Over time, Amazon managed to save over two billion US dollars tax-free there. According to press reports, the pre-tax profit in Germany in 2012 was only 10.2 million euros and taxes 3.2 million euros. In contrast , Amazon Europe Holding Technologies , based in Luxembourg, posted a profit of 118 million euros in 2012, but did not pay any taxes there due to Luxembourg tax laws.

To prevent a new tax in Seattle, the construction of an office tower was stopped and threatened not to put a high-rise building under construction into operation.

In 2018, Amazon apparently paid no taxes on profits of $ 11.2 billion in the US. By taking advantage of tax credits and tax exemptions, the company received a tax allowance of $ 129 million in 2018. According to a report in the Washington Post, this resulted in an effective tax rate of around minus one percent.

In November 2014, the so-called Luxembourg leaks revealed that had optimized its tax situation in Luxembourg with the help of the consulting company PricewaterhouseCoopers .

In May 2015, Amazon announced that it would change its tax policy and tax profits from sales in in Germany.

In 2021, a British research team published a study on how Amazon minimizes taxes.

Reviews of articles

Like comparable online services, Amazon also uses a rating system for goods sold. Buyers will be emailed to rate their product some time after delivery. So-called rating service providers had to mark their reviews as such by inserting the phrase that their tester had received the article free of charge. This clause was abolished in November 2016. The reader of a review cannot see how neutral and independent it is. According to independent estimates, the proportion of untrustworthy reviews is in the double-digit percentage range. In addition, the already high number of fake reviews seems to be growing.

Amazon sellers are no longer allowed to offer the product to a potential buyer at a lower price if he or she agrees to write a review in return.

Access to e-book readers

Amazon temporarily deleted e-books legally acquired by customers from Kindle readers for no apparent reason. This affected, for example, the novel 1984 and the fable Farm of the Animals George Orwell from the Kindle, since the publisher allegedly lacks the rights to publish as an e-book . A student who by his comments to 1,984 lost, paid Amazon in 2009 as part of an out of court settlement 150,000 USD .

Counterfeit products

The shoe manufacturer Birkenstock has stopped selling on Amazon. Birkenstock complained several times that counterfeit products were being offered. This violated Birkenstock's trademark rights and deceived consumers. Amazon had not acted vigorously enough against the misuse of the Birkenstock logo. Therefore, the business relationship would end on January 1, 2018. Deliveries to Amazon USA were stopped in January 2017. In 2019, Amazon announced that it would take action against counterfeit products. The package of measures called “Project Zero” aims to reduce the number of counterfeit products on the platform with the help of artificial intelligence and proprietary product codes.

Recognition program for face recognition

The Rekognition program is sold cheaply to security agencies. It is estimated that the program has access to the pictures of 117 million Americans. With access to internal police surveillance technology ( body cams , surveillance cameras), individual surveillance can be carried out and movement profiles created. The police in Orlando, Florida want to check whether one can recognize "interesting people" in public places with Recognition, in order to then possibly inform the police. Following protests against police violence following the death of George Floyd , Amazon announced that it would not provide the police with facial recognition services for a year.

Criticism of working conditions

Amazon Germany has repeatedly been in the media because of the working conditions in German shipping centers. Similar criticism also accumulated about offshoots of the trading house in other countries. B. 2009 in Great Britain . and 2019 in Italy .

In April 2017, there was criticism of bonuses for rare sick leave of entire work groups, because in order to receive the highest possible bonus of 10 percent of the gross monthly salary in this system, not only the sick days of the individual employee count, but also the sick leave of his team. In addition, an attempt was made to award delivery orders to drivers with private cars.

The media have criticized the fact that cameras installed in the locker rooms and above the conveyor belts of the logistics centers provide constant surveillance at the workplace or at least give the workers the impression of such constant surveillance, which is a legally unacceptable psychological problem Pressure to adapt.

At a networking meeting in April 2019 in Berlin, Amazon employees from numerous countries accused the Internet mail order company of unfair behavior. Amazon is trampling on the rights of employees, according to Ver.di board member Stefanie Benefitberger. Representatives of employees from more than 15 countries, including Brazil, Pakistan, the USA, Poland and Argentina, came together in the capital. Amazon employees want to coordinate their strategies under the umbrella of the international trade union alliance Uni Global Union (UNI) . UNI General Secretary Christy Hoffmann accused the US group of "entrepreneurial greed". The company must be reformed.

In April 2021, an attempt in Alabama to establish a company union representation in an Amazon company for the first time in the USA failed . The project, which met with great international interest, failed, and the No camp won a clear majority.

Amazon denied reports in March 2021 that its delivery staff were forced to urinate in bottles due to lack of access to sanitary facilities. However, an internal memo sent to the Guardian shows that the company has known the problem for at least several months. Documents provided by Amazon employees to the Intercept (a confidential information site also offered by the Guardian) showed that an email sent in May 2020 admonished employees to urinate in bottles and in bags while on the job empty.

The ver.di union is demanding a collective agreement with higher wages from Amazon. The approximately 16,000 employees of the US retailer in Germany are paid as is customary in the collective bargaining agreement for the logistics industry. However, ver.di has been calling for collective bargaining regulations since 2013, as are customary in retail and mail order. Since April 9, 2013, there have been multiple strikes at different locations. Further strikes followed in May and September 2014. During the 2018 Christmas season, there were warning strikes at the Leipzig and Werne locations for a collective bargaining agreement.

At the end of December 2013, a signature campaign signed by 1,018 employees at the Leipzig and Bad Hersfeld locations was published in which the signatories "distanced themselves from the current goals, arguments and statements (...) Verdi [s]". The employees emphasized that the “negative public image” created by the union haunted them “into their private life”. Verdi's representations correspond "not to reality and not to our daily work life". ver.di described the campaign as dubious, signatures were made under pressure or under the supervision of management and some of the signatures came from seasonal workers who are no longer employed by Amazon.

Criticism of the Vine program

The Amazon Vine product tester program has faced various criticisms. Amazon is accused of primarily wanting to generate positive reviews by distributing products free of charge to the test community. The actual test aspect takes a back seat, especially since most of the testers are not able to professionally check a product for strengths and weaknesses. In addition, the selection criteria for reviewers are opaque and not always comprehensible. The consumer advice center North Rhine-Westphalia assumes that the free delivery of the products already biases the test result into positive and has issued a corresponding warning.

Destruction of new products

According to Frontal21 and Wirtschaftswoche , returns and unsold products are disposed of in large quantities in Amazon's German logistics warehouses. Amazon also disposes of unsold or returned goods from external providers. The goods, including refrigerators, washing machines and dishwashers, cell phones, tablets, mattresses and furniture, are put together on so-called “Destroy pallets ” and dumped in garbage or scrap presses. This has been criticized by environmental organizations such as Greenpeace.

The t3n business editor Jochen G. Fuchs defended the criticized behavior of Amazon as a common practice in retail. He refers to a research by, according to which 99% of the returns at Amazon are fed into the product cycle. The recyclable materials would be removed from the destroyed returns by a recycling company and fed into the production cycle.

Criticism of Amazon Echo ("Alexa")

In April 2018, Amazon Alexa received the German Big Brother Award in the consumer protection category . Laudator padeluun found it to be a bugging interface that disguises itself as an alarm clock, for example, but is an omniscient butler in the service of others who can be carried into the bedroom by me personally and connected to the worldwide surveillance network .

In April 2019 Bloomberg published that Amazon Echo ("Alexa") secretly records conversations from its users. The recordings are also said to have happened when Amazon Echo had not started at all. Amazon Echo recorded sensitive information about name and bank accounts, as well as singing and baby cries. The first name, Amazon account number and device number were identified by transcribing the recordings.

Misuse of the name of the Fridays for Future movement

The name "Fridays for Future" (FFF) is not legally protected. A company affiliated with Amazon sells T-shirts that suggest a reference to Fridays for Future. The profit goes to the company. The movement distances itself from this and assumes that the company does not produce the t-shirts fairly or sustainably . It advertises fast fashion that pollutes the environment and contradicts the goals of the FFF movement.

Criticism from Greenpeace of the sustainability of Amazon hardware products

In its 2017 report on the sustainability of smartphones, tablets and laptops, Greenpeace criticized the hardware products manufactured by Amazon and gave it the worst rating (F). The evaluation consisted of the ecology of the energy (D), the reusability of the materials (and whether they had already been recycled before) (D-) and the use of harmful chemicals (F); The ability to repair the products was also included in the assessment.

Secret recordings of the Amazon "Cloud Cam"

In October 2019, Bloomberg published that Amazon is using the security camera Cloud Cam to take secret recordings of its customers and has them evaluated by employees in Romania and India , including recordings from the bedroom. According to Bloomberg, recordings were also passed on to outsiders. Amazon denies the allegations.

Criticism from former executives

Shel Kaphan, the first employee of the group and most recently the technical manager, agreed in an interview with the station PBS to the "characterization of Amazon as a ruthless corporation" and described the company management as "aggressive". He also expressed concerns about the great market power of the group and saw the only possibilities of restriction in social action.

Tim Bray , then Vice President of Amazon Web Services, left the company in May 2020 to protest the dismissal of warehouse workers who had reported fears of the spread of COVID-19 among the workforce. During an interview as part of the Rosa Luxemburg Conference 2021, he criticized the working conditions at Amazon and spoke out in favor of “breaking up” large corporations.


Selection list in chronologically descending order of appearance:

  • Brad Stone : Amazon unstoppable. How Jeff Bezos creates the most powerful company in the world. Ariston, Munich 2021, ISBN 978-3-424-20225-0 .
  • Alec MacGillis: Delivered. America under the control of Amazon. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2021, ISBN 978-3-10-397456-0 .
  • Johannes Bröckers : Alexa, I'll break up with you! Westend, Frankfurt am Main 2020, ISBN 978-3-86489-297-4 .
  • Brad Stone: The seller of everything. Jeff Bezos and the Empire of Amazon. Translated from the English by Bernhard Schmid. 2nd, expanded new edition. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2019, ISBN 978-3-593-51062-0 .
  • Johannes Bröckers: Shut up, Alexa! Westend, Frankfurt am Main 2018, ISBN 978-3-86489-251-6 .
  • Scott Galloway: The Four. The secret DNA of Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google. Plassen, Kulmbach 2018, ISBN 978-3-86470-487-1 (American original edition: The Four. The Hidden DNA of Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google. Portfolio / Penguin, New York 2017, ISBN 978-0-73521-365 -4 ).
  • Daniel Leisegang: amazon. The book as prey . Butterfly, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 3-89657-068-4 .
  • Carsten Knop: Amazon already knows you. From a shopping paradise to a data processor . Frankfurter Societät, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-89981-301-2 .
  • James Marcus: Amazonia. With employee 55 at the epicenter of the dot-com revolution . Black Friday, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-937623-24-8 .
  • Rebecca Saunders: The quick way to get big (the key to understanding ecommerce. Netinvestor) . FinanzBook, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-932114-49-3 .
  • Robert Spector: Get Big Fast. Jeff Bezos and the Revolution in Commerce . Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-421-05425-8 .



  • World power Amazon. The realm of Jeff Bezos. By James Jacoby, 104 minutes, WGBH Educational Foundation 2020. (ZDFinfo on September 18, 2020; ZDF Mediathek until May 5, 2021 )
  • Data octopus Amazon. The dark side of the online giant. By Matthew Hill, 29 minutes, BBC 2020. (ZDF on September 9, 2020)
  • Amazon. The whole world in a cardboard box. By Adrien Pinon and Thomas Lafarge, 43 minutes. (ZDFinfo on December 12, 2019; ZDF Mediathek until August 28, 2021 )
  • Amazon out of control? Script and direction: Claus Hanischdörfer and Jörg Hommer, Germany 2019, 45 minutes. (ARD on March 18, 2019)
  • The unstoppable rise of Amazon. Script and direction: David Carr-Brown, Germany 2018, 90 minutes. (Arte on December 11, 2018)
  • The Amazon system. The merciless struggle in online trading. Script and direction: Andreas Bernardi and Jörg Hommer, Germany 2017, 45 minutes. (3sat on December 14, 2018)

Web links

Commons :  - collection of images

Individual evidence

  2. a b c, Inc .: Announces Financial Results and CEO Transition., Inc., February 2, 2021, accessed February 2, 2021 .
  3. [1] In: handelszeitung . February 3, 2021, accessed February 19, 2021.
  4. History & Timeline from Amazon Corporate IR from July 2012
  5. Josh Spiro: The Great Leaders Series: Jeff Bezos, Founder of at, October 23, 2009
  6. World's Largest Bookseller Opens on the Web at from October 4, 1995
  7. Jeff Bezos - A biography shows the Amazon founder as Mister Gnadenlos ,, article from November 11, 2013, accessed on July 25, 2014.
  8. whois - . Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  9. ^ Gary Rivlin: A Retail Revolution Turns 10 . In: The New York Times, July 27, 2012
  10. AMAZON COM INC - AMZN Securities Registration Statement (simplified form). October 1, 2007, archived from the original on October 1, 2007 ; accessed on April 5, 2019 .
  11. Michael Hufelschulte: officially opens its homepage. In: Computerwoche , October 15, 1998.
  12. Amazon ups investment in China online shopping site . June 5, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  13. Amazon enters the ocean freight industry. ( Memento from January 26, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) January 18, 2016
  14. AWS | What is cloud computing? - Amazon Cloud Services. Retrieved April 5, 2019 .
  15. Amazon swallows internet shoe retailer Zappos. In: , July 22, 2009.
  16. Chally Kacelnik: Amazon has eaten our beloved Book Depository . In: , July 9, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  17. Amazon completes acquisition of Abebooks. In: Börsenblatt , December 2, 2008, accessed on February 17, 2013.
  18. Abebooks is taken over by the ZVAB. In: Börsenblatt , March 2, 2011, accessed on February 17, 2013.
  19. About CreateSpace On the development and history of CreateSpace (English)
  20. Help. In: Archived from the original on May 4, 2011 ; Retrieved May 4, 2011 .
  21. Amazon closes Javari shoe shop. May 16, 2014, accessed March 23, 2019 .
  22. ^ Evelyn M. Rusli: to Acquire Manufacturer of Robotics . In: The New York Times , March 19, 2012 (English).
  23. Thomas Freund: Amazon: Development studio for social games founded. In: netzwelt . August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012 .
  24. Iris Alanyali: Book Club "Goodreads": As if Amazon were buying Marcel Reich-Ranicki . April 3, 2013 ( [accessed April 5, 2019]).
  25. Deutsche Post is planning to use drones like Amazon. December 2, 2013, accessed December 3, 2013 .
  26. Amazon announces 100,000 new jobs in the US . Welt Online, January 12, 2017.
  27. New headquarters: Amazon chooses New York and Virginia . In: FAZ.NET . ISSN  0174-4909 ( [accessed November 13, 2018]).
  28. Florian: Sky: Partnership with Amazon brings Prime Video to your Sky device. December 19, 2020, accessed January 11, 2021 .
  29. For better delivery of goods: Amazon is buying its own aircraft for the first time. In: DER SPIEGEL. Retrieved January 6, 2021 .
  30. ssu / AFP / dpa: New home for James Bond. Amazon buys famous Hollywood studio MGM. In: Der Spiegel. May 26, 2021, accessed May 26, 2021.
  31. Bezos hands over to Jassy in July , In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of May 28, 2021
  32. Balance Sheet, Profit and Revenue | Annual Report | 906866. Retrieved October 21, 2018 .
  33. Topic page: Amazon. Retrieved October 21, 2018 .
  34. a b Selling worldwide on Amazon: These marketplaces exist. In: Amzkey. July 6, 2020, accessed August 16, 2020 .
  35. World's largest online retailer: Amazon comes to Sweden Report by the daily newspaper Rheinische Post on August 4, 2020, accessed on August 5, 2020
  36. Fulfillment by Amazon: FBA Experiences - Retrieved January 20, 2020 (German).
  37. Amazon is relocating 6,000 logistics jobs to Poland ,, article from September 30, 2013, accessed on December 19, 2013.
  38. Amazon is outsourcing to Poland , Zeit Online, article from October 7, 2013, accessed on December 19, 2013.
  39. Amazon is planning new logistics centers in Poland , Spiegel Online, article from October 7, 2013, accessed on December 19, 2013
  40. After Poland, Amazon is now targeting the Czech Republic ( memento from December 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), Wirtschaftsblatt, article from October 22, 2013, accessed on December 19, 2013
  41. Amazon is not allowed to build a logistics center near Brno. In: Der Standard , March 19, 2014, accessed March 19, 2014.
  42. Brno foregoes 1500 jobs through Amazon ( Memento from March 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Wirtschaftsblatt, article from March 19, 2014, accessed on March 19, 2014.
  43. Amazon in the Czech Republic: More likely to be yes in Prague, more likely to be no in Brno , Radio Prague, article from March 19, 2014, accessed on March 19, 2014.
  44. Relocation of logistics to new delivery warehouse - Amazon delivers to German customers via Poland ,, article from June 20, 2014, accessed on June 23, 2014.
  45. Germany: Amazon is relocating logistics to Poland ,, article from June 23, 2014, accessed on June 23, 2014.
  46. Poland: Amazon - opening of new distribution centers in Poland . In: amavat . April 1, 2016 ( [accessed June 19, 2018]).
  47. Dispatch-by-Amazon-Extension-Des-Logistiknetzwerks-Programm-Mitteleuropa-FAQ. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  48. Dispatch-by-Amazon-Extension-Des-Logistiknetzwerk-Programm-Mitteleuropa. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  49. ^ A b Daniel Kortschak: Four euro job at Amazon. In: Frankfurter Rundschau . Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  50. LOGISTIK HEUTE editorial team: Logistics real estate : Amazon return center in Slovakia. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  51. ^ Poznan, Poland. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  52. Login - DVZ. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  53. German corporations rely on Polish warehouses | Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  54. Amazon is planning a fifth logistics center in Poland. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  55. VerkehrsRundschau: Amazon is increasingly relying on Poland. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  56. Reuters Editorial: Amazon to open its fifth logistics center in Poland . In: US ( [accessed June 19, 2018]).
  57. ^ Sosnowiec, Poland. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  58. a b Prague, Czech Republic. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  59. Opening of Amazon Corporate Office in Prague - Czech & Slovak Leaders . In: Czech & Slovak Leaders . June 24, 2015 ( [accessed June 19, 2018]).
  60. Growing workforce: Amazon strengthens its presence in the Czech Republic. Retrieved June 19, 2018 .
  61. Amazon to Open New Logistics Center in Sered | News Now. Retrieved June 19, 2018 (American English).
  62. The book seller who became an 800-pound gorilla: 20 years ,, article from October 15, 2018.
  63. Amazon boss Ralf Kleber on allegations of exploitation and cartel , Spiegel Online, article from February 21, 2013, accessed on December 21, 2013
  64. GmbH - Imprint . Retrieved December 21, 2013
  65. Amazon's 2018 annual results: Amazon continues to grow in the advertising business , In: REVOIC February 2, 2019, accessed February 4, 2019
  66., Inc .: Announces Fourth Quarter Sales up 20% to $ 72.4 Billion., Inc., January 31, 2019, accessed February 2, 2019 .
  67. BEVH: ALSO DOUBLE-DIGIT E-COMMERCE GROWTH IN 2018 , In: BEVH January 22, 2019, accessed February 4, 2019
  68. HDE: number mirror 2018 , In: HDE number mirror 2018, accessed February 4, 2019
  69. Jeffrey P. Bezos: Annual Report 2019. (PDF, 0.7 MB) In: Amazon Investor Relations., Inc, January 31, 2019, p. 66 , accessed July 23, 2019 .
  70. Amazon comes to Mönchengladbach: apply now! May 23, 2019, accessed on July 13, 2019 .
  71. Birger Nicolai: Competition for DHL: How Amazon is building its own parcel service. In: The world. September 9, 2019, accessed September 12, 2019 .
  72. see homepage of the "Cyber ​​Valley
  73. Amazon's global career site. Retrieved April 5, 2019 .
  74. ^ Locations Europe, Germany
  75. Locations - Where we are ,, Retrieved December 21, 2013
  76. Amazon opens development center in Dresden ( Memento from December 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). sz-online. Article dated May 2, 2013, accessed December 21, 2013
  77. Amazon opens software development centers in Germany . Hot. Article dated May 2, 2013, accessed December 21, 2013
  78. With the opening of the logistics center in Achim in summer 2021, Amazon will create more than 1,000 jobs. Retrieved March 29, 2021 .
  79. ^ Logistics center FRA 1 Bad Hersfeld. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  80. ^ Logistics center FRA 3 Bad Hersfeld. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  81. Leipzig logistics center. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  82. Werne logistics centers. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  83. Location manager Lars Krause on the new building in Werne: "We're looking forward to the move!" In: Amazon logistics centers. October 7, 2016, archived from the original on March 20, 2017 ; accessed on March 20, 2017 .
  84. ^ Rheinberg logistics center. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  85. Graben logistics center. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  86. Koblenz logistics center. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  87. Pforzheim logistics center. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  88. Brieselang logistics center. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016 ; accessed on August 12, 2016 .
  89. This is where Amazon invests - new logistics center in Dortmund. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on October 26, 2016 ; Retrieved October 26, 2016 .
  90. New Amazon logistics center: 1,000 new jobs will be created in Winsen from 2017. In: Amazon logistics centers. December 13, 2016, archived from the original on December 13, 2016 ; accessed on December 13, 2016 .
  91. This is where Amazon invests - new logistics center in Frankenthal. In: Amazon logistics centers. Archived from the original on December 13, 2016 ; accessed on December 13, 2016 .
  92. ^ Ronny Marx: Amazon logistics centers in Germany and Europe. In: intomarkets. May 30, 2018, accessed September 12, 2019 .
  94. Nathalie Arendt: Amazon opens goods distribution center in Bochum . March 30, 2017 ( [accessed March 30, 2017]).
  95. DVV Media Group GmbH: Login . In: DVZ . ( [accessed on March 30, 2017]).
  96. Amazon Logistics in Erfurt-Stotternheim - Amazon Logistics distribution center. Retrieved October 30, 2019 .
  97. An Amazon distribution center in Wunstorf? March 1, 2019, accessed September 12, 2019 .
  98. NDR: Wunstorf: Amazon builds distribution center. Retrieved September 12, 2019 .
  99. Wolfram Ahlers: Amazon builds distribution center in Echzell. In: . Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH, accessed on March 9, 2020 (German).
  102. heise online: Amazon officially opens Garbsen sorting center. Retrieved March 24, 2019 .
  103. This is how it looks at Amazon in Garbsen. Retrieved September 12, 2019 .
  104. Klaus-Dieter Schumilas: Dormagen: Amazon with sorting center on the B 9. Accessed on March 24, 2019 .
  105. , accessed on December 12, 2020
  106. The BigBrotherAward 2015 in the working world category , accessed on June 30, 2015.
  107. Thorsten Wiesner: Amazon expands offer for Austria and Switzerland: Country-specific offers now also for German-speaking neighboring countries on from August 16, 2000
  108. Infographic: The top 10 online shops in Switzerland. Retrieved January 2, 2018 .
  109. Now Amazon is coming to Switzerland! In:, November 23, 2017, accessed on November 23, 2017.
  110. Matthias Daum: Amazon: Buy locally, also online. In: January 22, 2021, accessed January 23, 2021 .
  111. Infographic: The top 10 online shops in Austria. Retrieved October 19, 2017 .
  112. How Amazon is limiting its supply in Austria , Kleine Zeitung on April 25, 2017
  113. Amazon moves competition from Lower Austria on the fur . Article dated February 12, 2019, accessed February 12, 2019.
  114. Amazon starts its own delivery in Vienna, in future also on the day of the order - Retrieved November 18, 2019 (Austrian German).
  115. Second Amazon distribution center in operation. In: Vienna. . August 19, 2020, accessed August 20, 2020 .
  116. Sylviane Chassot, Thomas Schürpf: Amazon no longer delivers from the USA to Switzerland. In: NZZ. December 4, 2018, accessed January 19, 2020 .
  117. Christian Kolbe: How to bypass the Amazon blockade. In: look. July 17, 2019, accessed January 19, 2020 .
  119. Frank Patalong: Amazon's offshoot: The secret manufacturer. In: Spiegel online. September 24, 2009. Retrieved September 24, 2009 .
  120. Clemens Pfitzer: Warning trap Amazon. December 17, 2014, accessed January 13, 2015 .
  121. Amazon starts DVD rental. In: Manager Magazin . June 23, 2005. Retrieved March 20, 2009 .
  122. : LoveFilm takes over DVD rental service from Amazon Europe , February 4, 2008
  123. Amazon produces television series for the network. March 18, 2013, accessed March 18, 2013 .
  124. LOVEFiLM becomes amazon instant video. February 26, 2014, accessed February 26, 2014 .
  125. Taylor Soper: Amazon drops 'Instant' from 'Instant Video,' streamlining its streaming brand . GeekWire . Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  126. Renaming: "Prime Video" now describes all video content from Amazon., February 5, 2018, accessed on February 5, 2018 .
  127. Amazon Music Unlimited. Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  128. Amazon launches Amazon Music HD with lossless audio streaming. In: TechCrunch. Retrieved May 24, 2021 (American English).
  129. Amazon Flexible Payments Service Getting Started Guide ( Memento of February 8, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  130. Accepted payment methods. In: Retrieved December 24, 2018 .
  131. Amazon Payments Blog: Checkout by Amazon Now Available in Germany , , accessed on October 23, 2011
  132. FAQ on Amazon Pay., 2017, accessed January 4, 2018 .
  133. Apple Pay threatens new competition. In: . November 22, 2018. Retrieved November 22, 2018 .
  134. Katharina Schneider: Fintech "Barzahlen" - How to pay with cash at Amazon. In: . November 29, 2018, accessed December 3, 2018 .
  135. Amazon Prime is 20 euros more expensive . Vodmag, November 9, 2016
  136. Amazon Prime To Cost $ 99 A Year. In: TechCrunch. Retrieved April 26, 2020 (American English).
  137. Retrieved September 16, 2013 from Amazon Prime
  138. Peter Tischer: Amazon Prime has 10 million members. Reported by on March 13, 2013.
  139. Achim Sawall: Amazon Prime with over 100 million customers. In: . April 19, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018 .
  140. Help: Use the Prime Free Period. Retrieved May 16, 2020 .
  141. Amazon Prime is now also available in Austria , accessed on November 20, 2014
  142. E-Commerce: Depending on Amazon - customers would even pay to use it. Retrieved July 2, 2019 .
  143. Bargain Hunt: Amazon's Prime Day trumps Black Friday and Cyber ​​Monday. In: July 19, 2019, accessed August 13, 2019 .
  144. Online retailer: Prime Day brings Amazon sales record - albeit with a bitter aftertaste. In: Handelsblatt. July 18, 2019, accessed August 13, 2019 .
  145. Lisa Eadicicco: Amazon had the most successful Prime Day of all time - at the worst possible time. In: Business Insider. July 18, 2019, accessed August 13, 2019 .
  146. Amazon celebrates Prime as a successful model. In: Der Spiegel. January 31, 2020, accessed January 31, 2020.
  147. Ingo Pakalski / dpa: Amazon has over 200 million Prime customers. In: April 16, 2021, accessed April 16, 2021.
  148. a b c d Amazon Vine Club: The club of great poets. Consumer advice center NRW, October 9, 2013. ( Memento from March 15, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  149. Amazon Vine: Information on the product tester program. Retrieved September 5, 2014 .
  150. New Amazon guideline: Product testers are no longer allowed to review. In: Retrieved October 4, 2016 .
  151. a b Amazon Dash Buttons: Buy at the push of a button - no clean matter , from October 12, 2016, accessed on October 13, 2016
  152. Amazon's dash buttons block the view of the price , verbü from November 10, 2016, accessed on November 17, 2016
  153. Dash button: Consumer advice center NRW takes legal action against Amazon , consumer advice center North Rhine-Westphalia from September 15, 2016, accessed on October 13, 2016
  154. Amazon Dash in the test: No eavesdropping with microphone , from September 16, 2016, accessed on October 13, 2016
  155. Amazon Dash Button controls WLAN radio socket , accessed on July 24, 2017
  156. Munich Higher Regional Court forbids Amazon's "dash buttons". Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  157. Dash Buttons: Munich Higher Regional Court forbids Amazon's WLAN order buttons . In: Spiegel Online . January 10, 2019 ( [accessed November 18, 2019]).
  158. Court bans Amazon's "Dash Buttons". Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  159. Higher Regional Court Munich: Court forbids Amazon's WLAN order buttons. January 10, 2019, accessed November 18, 2019 .
  160. Amazon stops selling Dash buttons , from September 18, 2019, accessed on March 23, 2019
  161. apr / dpa: Amazon disconnects "Dash" buttons. In: Spiegel Online. Spiegel Online GmbH & Co. KG, August 2, 2019, accessed on August 3, 2019 .
  162. Amazon: AWS IoT Button (2nd generation). In: Amazon product description. Amazon Inc., accessed August 3, 2019 .
  163. Amazon Fresh starts in Hamburg: Behind the scenes of grocery shipping . Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  164. heise online: Amazon Fresh starts in Munich. Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  165. Alexandra Hilpert: Amazon Go is leading the revolution in the supermarket - a startup from Israel could erode its business. In: . November 19, 2018. Retrieved November 22, 2018 .
  166. 3 more Amazon Go stores on the way in Seattle and Chicago, bringing total footprint to 17 locations. July 22, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2019 (American English).
  167. Stephanie Mlot 15 Dec 2020, noon: Amazon to Open Another Go Store in Seattle. December 15, 2020, accessed January 6, 2021 (UK English).
  169. Via Amazon, accessed June 12, 2017 .
  170. Nicolai Kwasniewski: How Amazon saves on donations. In: Spiegel Online . November 12, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2017 .
  171. Jan Grossarth: Amazon donates to organizations that neither know nor want to. In: . June 12, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017 .
  172. Sample of Amazon's new donation portal "Smile": Minus for a good cause. In: Consumer advice center NRW. February 20, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017 .
  173. Amazon Advertising. Retrieved February 26, 2019 .
  174. Announces Fourth Quarter Sales up 20% to $ 72.4 trillion. Retrieved February 26, 2019 .
  175. Amazon Is Now the No. 3 Digital Ad Platform in the US. Retrieved February 26, 2019 .
  176. 500 million euros in advertising sales in Germany? - "Amazon is taking money from Google right now". October 16, 2018, accessed February 26, 2019 .
  177. a b Amazon Agency: Advertising grows to USD 20 billion. February 8, 2019, accessed February 26, 2019 .
  178. Amazon will print itself in the future . In: Manager Magazin , April 5, 2005, accessed February 17, 2013.
  179. Jürgen Kuri: Amazon starts online food trade , heise online , July 1, 2010
  180. Food at the click of a mouse - Amazon starts online food trade , news from Tagesspiegel on July 2, 2010
  181. : Amazon starts online food trade , accessed on August 8, 2010.
  182. Download portal for games and software launched , netzwelt, April 17, 2012. Accessed April 19, 2012.
  183. Daniela Zimmer: Amazon delivers in Munich on its own -, October 20, 2015, accessed on August 7, 2016 .
  184. The pressure on DHL is growing: More than 50 Amazon lockers in Berlin and Munich are already online . In: . February 14, 2017.
  185. Amazon: About free shipping , accessed on August 12, 2014.
  186. ^ Alan Boyle: Amazon to offer broadband access from orbit with 3,236-satellite 'Project Kuiper' constellation. In: Geekwire . April 4, 2019, accessed April 14, 2019 .
  187. Delivery: Amazon withdraws from restaurant business. In: June 17, 2019, accessed June 23, 2019 .
  188. Shweta Ganjoo New DelhiFebruary 1, 2019UPDATED: February 2, 2019 11:10 AM Is: No Amazon Basics, no Solimo: Today you can't buy some best products on Amazon India, blame Modi govt for this. Retrieved October 6, 2019 .
  189. Roland Lindner: Amazon becomes a pharmacy in America. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. November 18, 2020, p. 20. Online version. November 18, 2020, accessed November 18, 2020.
  190. Patent US5960411 : Method and system for placing a purchase order via a communications network. Released September 28, 1999 .
  191. Amazon defends 1-click patent , notification on December 3, 1999
  192. Amazon receives a patent for an incentive system for useful customer reviews . Heise-Online, October 7, 2008.
  193. Christian Onnasch: Amazon receives a patent for the ratings of customer reviews . Handelskraft, October 8, 2008.
  194. Hendrik Ankenbrand: Criticism of the mail order company: The omnipotence of Amazon , FAZ , February 24, 2013.
  196. ^ FAZ, Andreas Platthaus: Amazon blocks book publishers in Europe ,, May 15, 2014.
  197. Andreas Platthaus: Amazon's Practices: An Affront for Buyers , FAZ, May 21, 2014.
  198. ^ ZEIT ONLINE: Book trade: 909 authors against Amazon . In: The time . August 10, 2014, ISSN  0044-2070 ( [accessed November 18, 2019]).
  199. By Iris Radisch: Buchhandel: Do we need Amazon? Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  200. How Amazon is subsidized by fixed book prices,
  201. Federal Employment Agency: Violations in the use of temporary workers at Amazon . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . February 20, 2013, ISSN  0174-4909 ( [accessed August 16, 2016]).
  202. Price parity: Cartel Office closes proceedings against Amazon in: Heise from November 26, 2013; accessed on January 10, 2014
  203. Ann-Kathrin Nezik: US tech companies: As in the age of the oil barons and railroad tycoons. In: October 14, 2020, accessed October 24, 2020 .
  205. April 18, 2021: Marketplace traders issue Amazon with devastating testimony
  206. Amazon now without NPD - but still with anti-Semitic propaganda and right-wing rock. . In: Störmelder , July 31, 2009.
  207. Ava Kofman, Francis Tseng, Moira Weigel: The Hate Store: Amazon's Self-Publishing Arm Is a Haven for White Supremacists. In: ProPublica. April 7, 2010, accessed April 14, 2010 .
  208. Daniel Laufer in conversation with Andrea Gerk: Some algorithms recommend disinformation, September 14, 2020
  209. Sebastian Meineck, Daniel Laufer: Amazon recommends the sale of conspiracy literature, September 2, 2020
  210. The tax tricks from Apple and Amazon. In: Hamburger Abendblatt . November 26, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012 .
  211. Small taxes on Amazon & Co . A contribution by Henry Bischoff on behalf of WDR television for the infotainment magazine Current Hour from November 6, 2012, 2:31 min.
  212. ^ Branch in Luxembourg. How Amazon expresses itself about tax figures in: Wirtschaftswoche from December 7, 2012; Retrieved February 14, 2013
  213. ZEIT ONLINE, Reuters, sc: Mail order company: Amazon hardly pays taxes in Germany. In: . July 13, 2013, accessed February 11, 2015 .
  214. How Amazon is saving taxes in Luxembourg , NZZ, January 16, 2015
  215. Kathrin Werner: Amazon opposes poor tax. In: . May 8, 2018, accessed October 13, 2018 .
  216. Report of the "Washington Post": Amazon is said to have not paid taxes on multi-billion dollar profits . In: Spiegel Online . February 16, 2019 ( [accessed March 1, 2019]).
  217. Christopher Ingraham: Amazon paid no federal taxes on $ 11.2 billion in profits last year. In: The Washington Post. February 16, 2019, accessed March 1, 2019 .
  218. ^ Luxembourg Leaks Database. In: International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, accessed November 6, 2014 .
  219. Bastian Brinkmann: Luxembourg Leaks: How Amazon saves taxes in Luxembourg. Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  220. Bastian Brinkmann: Amazon is radically changing its tax strategy. Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  221. Tax haven Luxembourg - Amazon saves taxes with this method. Retrieved on May 22, 2021 (German).
  222. Zachary Crockett: 5-star phonies: Inside the fake Amazon review complex , The Hustle, April 13, 2019
  223. Amazon 'flooded by fake five-star reviews' - Which? report , BBC, April 16, 2019.
    Amazon's Fake Review Problem Is Getting Worse ,, April 16, 2019
    Both sources cite the same report from a consumer group called Which?
  224. Christian Wölbert: Just keep it up. Amazon's new rules for reviews are more lax than expected. in: c't 26/2016
  225. see also Fake reviews on Amazon Marketplace (broadcast on May 5, 2020) and A data leak shows how Amazon reviews are bought
  226. Amazon pays $ 150,000 for deletion of e-books. Heise online, October 2, 2009, archived from the original ; accessed on November 12, 2020 .
  227. Deceiving consumers by offering counterfeit products on the Amazon Marketplace In:, December 11, 2017, accessed on December 11, 2017.
  228. Amazon also wants to take action against counterfeit products in Europe. In: heise online. August 5, 2019, accessed October 6, 2019 .
  229. Face recognition for the police. How Amazon is promoting the surveillance state. sz-online, May 23, 2018.
  230. DER SPIEGEL: Amazon forbids US police to use facial recognition software for the time being - DER SPIEGEL - Netzwelt. Retrieved June 11, 2020 .
  231. Revealed: Amazon staff punished for being ill . Times Online Article - accessed October 23, 2009
  232. One flu is enough for the focus article, accessed on October 23, 2009
  233. Daniel Kortschak: Working at Amazon can make you sick. In: . November 26, 2013, accessed December 12, 2013 .
  237. heise online: Sharp criticism of group health bonus for Amazon employees. Retrieved December 15, 2017 .
  238. Martin Scheele: Gold for healthy people . In: . 2017, ISSN  0174-4917 ( [accessed December 15, 2017]).
  239. Die Zeit: Delivery service: Deliver Amazon parcels by private car. November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2017 .
  240. Meike Baars: Control and cameras in the logistics center. How Amazon monitors employees in Lower Saxony. In: Osnabrück newspaper. December 13, 2017. Retrieved December 18, 2017 .
  241. Kaveh Kooroshy: Amazon: Violations of employee rights. In: December 12, 2017. Retrieved December 18, 2017 . See the video “Amazon: Violations of Employee Rights”, 7:18 am to 8:48 am.
  242. SPON: Amazon trade unionists from Poland to Pakistan are networking. April 29, 2019
  243. SPON: Union formation at Amazon in the USA failed. April 9, 2021 (accessed April 10, 2021)
  244. Leaked memo shows Amazon knows delivery drivers resort to urinating in bottles. The Guardian, March 26, 2021 (accessed March 28, 2021)
  245. Reuters: Verdi extends strikes on Amazon. In: . December 16, 2013, accessed February 11, 2015 .
  246. a b tariffs: Verdi calls for strikes on Amazon again. Retrieved December 17, 2018 .
  247. First strike at the online retailer Amazon. Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  248. Sandra Münch: Over 1,000 signatures: Employees call for action. Amazon logistics blog, December 20, 2013, archived from the original on January 6, 2014 ; accessed on January 6, 2014 .
  249. Burkhard Ewert: A protest against Verdi is forming at Amazon. Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung , January 6, 2014, accessed on January 6, 2014 .
  250. Eva Völpel: Everything entirely voluntary? In: taz. January 6, 2014, accessed April 26, 2020 .
  251. ver.di: Signatures against collective bargaining: Dubious action on Amazon., January 8, 2013, accessed January 11, 2014 .
  252. Daniela Kuhr: Amazon's dubious asterisks. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , October 12, 2013, accessed on September 5, 2014.
  253. Amazon destroys new goods on a large scale Spiegel Online from June 8, 2018.
  254. "Frontal 21": Amazon destroys masses of returns and new products. Environment Ministry: "A huge scandal - Amazon has to clear up allegations" ZDF Presseportal, June 8, 2018.
  255. «Slap in the face of climate protection» - Amazon (still) destroys so many new goods. In: . December 24, 2019, accessed December 26, 2019 .
  256. Jochen G. Fuchs: The Amazon scandal that wasn't: Returns destruction is standard in retail. In: June 11, 2018, accessed July 13, 2019 .
  257. Consumer protection: Amazon Alexa | BigBrotherAwards. Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
  258. Amazon employees listen to Alexa recordings. April 11, 2019, accessed April 12, 2019 .
  259. Patrick Beuth: Why Amazon also notes baby cries. In: Spiegel Online . April 12, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2019 .
  260. Amazon Workers Are Listening to What You Tell Alexa. April 10, 2019, accessed April 12, 2019 .
  261. Pia Seitler bento: How Amazon makes money on "Fridays for Future". Retrieved March 24, 2019 .
  262. Greenpeace environmental ranking: There are almost only losers. October 18, 2017, accessed August 30, 2020 .
  263. a b Amazon Workers May Be Watching Your Cloud Cam Home Footage. In: Bloomberg. October 10, 2019, accessed October 25, 2019 .
  264. a b Madeline Jäger: "Cloud Cam" surveillance camera: Do Amazon employees watch customers having sex? In: October 14, 2019, accessed October 25, 2019 .
  265. Amazon employees also evaluate camera recordings - even from the bedroom. In: October 11, 2019, accessed October 25, 2019 .
  266. Marcus Schuler: World Power Amazon. on hr-info , December 22, 2020 ( ), accessed on December 31, 2020
  267. Amazon manager resigns in protest against the dismissal of whistleblowers. In Die Zeit from May 6, 2020 ( ), accessed on January 15, 2021
  268. Amazon should be smashed. In Junge Welt from January 11, 2021, p. 12 ( ), accessed on January 15, 2021

Coordinates: 47 ° 37 '22 "  N , 122 ° 20' 10"  W.