Animal farm

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Animal Farm (Original title: Animal Farm ) is a dystopian fable of George Orwell , published in 1945. Content is the collection of animals an English farm exploits against the rule of its human owner who neglected and. After initial successes and the beginning of prosperity, the pigs take over more and more the leadership and finally establish a tyranny that is worse than the one the animals tried to shake off.

Due to its content, the novel was interpreted as a parable on the history of the Soviet Union , in which the popular February revolution was ultimately followed by the dictatorial rule of Stalin .

German first edition 1946, Amstutz, Herdeg & Co. Zurich (in the imprint without the year)


One night all the animals of an English farm called “Herren-Farm” gather in the large barn to listen to Old Major. The award-winning old boar had a dream in which the farm animals shake off the yoke of oppression and no longer have to work just for the incompetent and constantly drunk owner, Farmer Jones. He draws them a prosperous future and calls them to rebellion, but he cannot say when this will happen. He also teaches her the stirring and visionary song “The Animals of England”.

Shortly thereafter, Old Major dies and it seems as if everything continues to run its normal course. But the pigs, who are considered the most intelligent animals on the farm, and especially the massive Berkshire boar Napoleon, the imaginative snowball and the eloquent gossip, work the teachings of Old Major into a system of thought which they call animalism . Only three months later did the announced rebellion come as a surprise to everyone involved when Farmer Jones, once again drunk, forgets to feed the animals and, driven by hunger, they invade the feed chamber. When farmer Jones and his servants try to prevent this by force, they are chased from the farm and all signs of bondage, such as chains, halters, whips, etc., are destroyed. A counterattack by people from the nearby village can also be repulsed relatively easily. The farm now belongs to the animals, but the farmhouse itself should only be kept as a museum, and no animal should ever live in it. The farm is renamed " Animal Farm" and the Seven Commandments of Animalism , according to which all animals on the farm should live, are written on the back wall of the large barn :

  1. Anything that walks on two legs is an enemy.
  2. Anything that walks on four legs or has wings is a friend.
  3. No animal should wear clothes.
  4. No animal should sleep in a bed.
  5. No animal should drink alcohol.
  6. No animal should kill another animal.
  7. All animals are the same.

The farm work is hard and unfamiliar in the next few days, as the animals now have to do everything themselves and can hardly use any tools, but the harvest is a bigger success than you had hoped because nothing is left behind and no animal has a mouth for itself took. The animals are happy because they now only work for themselves and no longer for farmer Jones. There is no work on Sundays, and a small paddock behind the orchard is designated as a resting place for animals that have reached a certain retirement age.

Although all the farm's income is fraternally shared, the pigs claim the milk and apples obtained from the cows for themselves. Schwatzwutz justifies this with the fact that milk and apples are essential for the health of the pigs. Since the pigs have to a certain extent taken over the management of the farm, this privilege is in the interests of all animals. If the pigs were not doing well, they would not be able to do their job properly and farmer Jones would probably return and restore the old conditions.

The first tensions between Snowball and Napoleon will already appear in the coming winter. Opinions are divided on the topic of the planned windmill , which is to supply the farm with electricity to illuminate the stables, to heat in winter and to operate a circular saw and chopping machine . Suddenly nine big dogs storm into the vote, which in all probability would go in favor of Snowball's ambitious plan. They are the descendants of the farm dogs that Napoleon raised in secret and who are loyal to him. Snowball can only escape from the farm with a pinch of need.

Napoleon then abolished the joint votes and the management of the farm was taken over by a pig committee, in which he chairs. Scarce criticism is nipped in the bud by the threatening dogs, and Schwatzwutz explains what a huge sacrifice it was for Napoleon to take on this leadership as an extra task. Snowball is also denounced as a criminal who only worked for his benefit. The windmill is supposed to be built three weeks later because it was really Napoleon's idea. Therefore the animals have to work hard now. Even so, they are not doing badly, as they have about the same amount of food as in Jones' day.

A little later, the Animal Farm starts trading relationships with the hated people in order to procure certain materials that cannot be produced on the farm, such as building materials or parts for the windmill. Therefore, a stack of hay and part of the wheat harvest are sold. The renewed criticism is suppressed by the dogs and uneasiness is appeased by the propaganda of talkers. He also defended the move of the pigs to the farmhouse by stating that they needed a quieter workplace and that it was more appropriate for the dignity of the leader Napoleon. After all, the 4th commandment says: “No animal should sleep in a bed with sheets on ”, and a bed without sheets is just a place to sleep, like a simple pig pen.

Heavy autumn storms destroy the windmill. Although it is obviously due to a design flaw (the walls were too thin), Napoleon accuses Snowball of sabotage . Subsequently, every accident is blamed on the displaced person and the claim is even made that Snowball works with the people and was an agent of Farmer Jones from the start.

Autumn is followed by a hard winter - on the one hand because of the reconstruction of the windmill, on the other hand because of a shortage of food in January. Although it signals to the outside that everything is in perfect order, all eggs are now to be sold in order to procure urgently needed grain. The rebellion of the indignant hens is ruthlessly put down. At a meeting a little later, the four pigs accuse three hens who were in charge of the rebellion, and a few other animals, of voluntarily collaborating with Snowball, and have them butchered by the dogs.

Horrified and ashamed that there could be such betrayal on their farm, the animals remain silent about these acts; even then, when the song “Animals of England” is abolished because it was supposedly a song of rebellion against the people and it was ended successfully. Only shamrock asks irritated about the 6th commandment, but suddenly this is: "No animal should kill another animal without a reason ."

The whole of the next year the animals work much harder than ever before, mostly at the windmill, which means that the actual farm work often stops and the feed becomes scarce again. Nevertheless, according to the statements and statistics of Schwatzwutz, they are much better off than before. In the fall, a large pile of lumber is surprisingly sold to the neighbor Mr. Frederick, although Napoleon had previously denigrated him again and again and seemed more attached to the other neighbor, Mr. Pilkington. But that was a tactic, Schwatzwutz never tires of claiming. That changes quickly, however, when it turns out that Mr. Frederick paid with counterfeit money and shortly afterwards violently entered the animal farm and blew up the newly completed windmill. Despite his own heavy losses, the repulsion of this attack was celebrated by Napoleon as a great victory. A little later the pigs find a crate of whiskey . If the next morning it is announced that the consumption of alcohol will be punished with death, it is quickly decided to rededicate the small paddock, which was intended as a resting place for old animals, for the cultivation of barley, and once again it becomes clear that the Animals had wrongly remembered a commandment: "No animal should drink alcohol in excess ."

The next winter will be even more severe than the last, the grain rations will be cut even more, and more and more will have to be bought from outside. Nonetheless, Schwatzwutz announces that the animals are still getting more food than at the time of Farmer Jones and that everything is better than before. In April, the Animal Farm is proclaimed a republic and Napoleon is elected as the only candidate for president . Meanwhile, the old workhorse Boxer is working harder than ever before because it wants the new windmill to be completed before its "retirement". But in the event of an accident, it is seriously injured and given medical care by Kleeblatt and Benjamin. The pigs say they want to have Boxer taken to the hospital, where he can be better looked after , but let the knacker pick him up to get money for whiskey. Gossip later announced that Boxer had died in a hospital in the city despite all medical help. He claims that the car that picked up the boxer was the skinner's car as a simple mistake. The vet bought the car from the skinner and has not yet gotten around to changing the lettering.

Years later there are many more animals on the farm, but only a handful of them had witnessed the rebellion against Farmer Jones himself. The windmill is now there, but it is only used to grind grain, which makes a nice profit. Meanwhile everyone (with the exception of the pigs and dogs, who are busy with the "administration") is working hard on a second windmill, which will finally deliver electricity and the promised luxury. Nevertheless, life seems to them to be a privilege because the farm is still the only one in England that is owned by animals and so they only work for themselves because all animals are the same.

But one day all of a sudden the pigs are all walking on two legs and wearing clothes, which seems to contradict the Seven Commandments of animalism . But suddenly there is only one commandment left on the barn:

“All animals are the same,
but some are the same. "

Shortly afterwards, a delegation from the surrounding human farmers arrives, and the pigs proudly present how splendid the animal farm is and how well the animals live. The people, especially Mr. Pilkington, are deeply impressed. At an evening gala dinner, people and pigs speak out in favor of a good cooperation and cheer each other up. But when both Napoleon and Mr. Pilkington play an ace of spades in a friendly game of cards at the same time, the two parties quarrel. The other animals looking at the strange situation through a window from outside can no longer distinguish who is a person and who is a pig.

Allegories, interpretations, real models

General act

The book allegorically describes people and events in the young Soviet Union , beginning with the oppression of the people by Tsar Nicholas II (rule of Farmer Jones), the February Revolution and the October Revolution (uprising of the animals and expulsion of Farmer Jones), the development of the Socialism and communism (animalism) and its twisting into Stalinism including its subsequent tyranny (rule of pigs under Napoleon).



The pigs represent the Bolsheviks who ruled first in the council system and later in the Stalinist dictatorship.

  • Old Major (exhibition name Willingdoner Pracht or Willingdon Beauty )

The old white boar represents both Karl Marx and Lenin . He takes on an educational role in which he equips the animals (like Marx) with the general and (like Lenin) with the ideal tools related to their present situation. Old Major shows the other animals their situation and says that the animal revolution will come without question, he just doesn't know when. Just as Marx assumes that humanity is heading towards global communism with no alternative, Old Major believes that animals will have to move towards a world without people.

After Old Major's death, his skull is laid out and visited by the animals on a weekly basis, corresponding to the preparation and laying out of Lenin's corpse in the Lenin mausoleum .

  • Napoleon (in the early French versions César )

The Berkshire boar symbolizes Joseph Stalin . He operates in the background from the start and uses puppies as his secret police, with whose help he finally chases Snowballs away. Then he usurps all power, lets the truth be twisted and establishes a tyranny that is worse than the one the animals tried to shake off. In 1984 the 'Big Brother' took over this role .

  • Snowball (Engl. Snowball )

The white boar was inspired by Leon Trotsky . Together with Napoleon (Stalin) he leads the uprising and takes over the management of the farm, but tensions soon arise between the two. These culminate in the expulsion of Snowball by Napoleon's dogs (exile and murder of Trotsky). In retrospect, he is blamed for all the farm's failures and even referred to as the people's double agent , comparable to the role of Goldstein in 1984.

  • Schwatzwutz (also Quiekschnauz , English Squealer )

The small, plump pig with the great gift for speech embodies Vyacheslav Molotov and the entire propaganda apparatus of the Soviet Union, led by the daily Pravda . As Napoleon's spokesman, he justifies his decisions, discredits his opponents and counters criticism with the prospect that (Tsar) Jones could come back and everything would be even worse. In addition, Schwatzwutz twists reality in his speeches by manipulating the memory of animals and falsifying past events so that contradictions are cleared out of the way.

  • Rotäuglein (Engl. Pinkeye )

The young pig, which Napoleon's food has to taste first because he fears it might be poisoned, represents Stalin's delusional belief that there are conspiracies against him everywhere that initiated the Stalinist purges .


The horses symbolize the three social classes.

  • boxer

The strong draft horse is the symbol of the simple worker of the lower class. Moderately educated, he has more than enough strength to rebel against his exploiters (human as well as animal), but he cannot make up his mind to do so because he is very naive and thinks slowly. His two maxims are “I want to and will work even harder” and “Napoleon is always right”. Through his good nature, good faith, and blind obedience to the leadership, he works his way to death. But even from this misfortune the pigs get additional benefit by selling it to the skinner in order to get alcohol from the proceeds. Possibly Boxer also stands for the Stakhanov movement , a campaign to increase work morale in the Soviet Union, or for the exemplary "hero of the working class" Stakhanov himself. Boxer makes it all too clear that it is the workers of the Communist Party who are most exploited even though they were the real cause of the revolution.
As an equivalent in the novel 1984 Winston Smith's neighbor Tom Parsons can be seen.

  • Shamrock (engl. Clover )

The sturdy mother mare, who has not regained her old figure after her fourth foal, represents the somewhat more educated middle class. She sympathizes with Boxer (the workers) and takes care of him when he can no longer work after his accident. Although she is ashamed of not being able to remember the original seven rules after babbler changed them, she is treated with great respect by the three younger horses who replace boxers.

  • Mollie

The foolish, beautiful gray mare is in love with herself, likes to wear ribbons in her mane and loves sugar (luxury) above everything. It symbolizes the middle class ( bourgeoisie ) and the lower Russian nobility . Just like these two groups, Mollie left the farm soon after the revolution in order to pursue her accustomed and pampered life “abroad”.


The people represent the non-Soviet powers.

  • Mr. Jones

The depraved alcoholic, who neglects his farm and the animals, represents Tsar Nicholas II , who lived in luxury and did not care for his subjects, but only exploited them and let them starve to death.

  • Mr. Pilkington

The easy-going owner of the large, neglected and old-fashioned fox forest farm embodies the western powers (Great Britain and USA). Initially enemies, Pilkington and Napoleon eventually cooperate. In the end, however, there is a dispute between the two, a preview of the beginning of the Cold War between the superpowers USA and the Soviet Union.

  • Mr. Frederick

The tough and cunning owner of the smaller but well-maintained Knickerfeld farm symbolizes Adolf Hitler and what was then the Third Reich . Frederick initially does diplomatic and economic business with the farm (see German-Soviet non-aggression pact ), but later tries to take it ( Operation Barbarossa ), and in the process destroys the windmill, but is crushed ( Battle of Stalingrad ).

  • Mr. Whymper

The animal farm's liaison man unites the Western intellectuals (such as George Bernard Shaw and Lincoln Steffens ) who visited the Soviet Union in 1919 and praised what they saw.

Other named animals

  • Benjamin

The always bad-tempered and cynical donkey is the oldest animal on the farm, possibly also the wisest, because it can not only read, but is skeptical of the pigs and the revolution from the start and is also the only one to recognize what is really going on with boxers happens. He embodies the skeptical intelligentsia , which - like Benjamin with Boxer - strongly sympathizes with the working population, but does not belong to the makers of the revolution and only comments on its progress. He himself is also good-natured. He embodies a kind of Kassandra who recognizes the bad sides of the revolution very early on.

  • Muriel

The white goat can read next to the pigs and Benjamin and is therefore often asked by Kleeblatt to read her the seven rules if she can no longer remember them. It also represents the camp of intellectuals . She dies just before the end of history, just like the intellectual generation in the Soviet Union.

  • Moses

The tame black raven embodies religion and in particular the Russian Orthodox Church . At the beginning he made a pact with farmer Jones and always talks about Sugarcandy Mountain above the clouds, a kind of paradise. In this way he consoles the animals to the afterlife in times of need . Orwell, through Moses, agrees with Karl Marx's criticism of religion . ("Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the mind of a heartless world as it is the spirit of spiritless conditions. It is the opium of the people .")

Unnamed animals

  • The dogs

The puppies of the three dogs Glockenblume, Jessie, Zwickzwack (also Knicker ; English Bluebell, Jessie, Pincher ), which Napoleon trains as a personal bodyguard and with whom he drives snowball away and intimidates unpleasant critics, represent the Cheka , the state police (GPU) and the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) . They are ruthless, ruthless, and unconditionally loyal to their leader.

  • The chickens

The chickens, who oppose all their eggs being sold, represent the kulaks , farmers and farm laborers who still had personal agricultural property and were reluctant to dispossess them.

  • The sheep

The sheep are portrayed as stupid and bleating what they are told. They symbolize the uneducated common people and are misused for their own purposes by the propaganda of the leadership. Any discussion and criticism of the other animals is prevented by their bleating by repeatedly repeating the slogan "four-legged good, two-legged bad".

  • The cat

The cat is depicted as work shy and unengaged. She doesn't care who is in power, but disappears as soon as danger threatens. It stands for the criminals and the "Russian Mafia", which, regardless of the (government) system, only thinks of itself.


Flag of the farm
  • The flag

The flag which the animals hoist on their farm and which symbolizes the green fields of England with its green color and the future republic of animals with its hoof and horn is modeled on the Soviet flag . In addition, the green is the opposite color to the Soviet red.

  • The animals England (Engl. Beasts of England )

The song that Old Major teaches the other animals on the farm and that is supposed to be a model and hope for them corresponds to the International , the most widespread battle song of the socialist labor movement according to the Marxist motto "Workers of all countries, unite!"

  • The windmill

The windmill represents the strenuous attempt to industrialize the country by all means . Initially presented as a blessing and progress that was supposed to improve the living conditions of the population, it triggered an enormous famine , as more and more workers were withdrawn from agriculture and assigned to industry and more and more grain was sold abroad in order to use machinery and know-how. how to shop.


  • The riot

The uprising of the animals and the expulsion of Farmer Jones traces the February Revolution of 1917 , the October Revolution and the fall of Tsar Nicholas II .

  • The Battle of the Cowshed (Engl. The Battle of the Cowshed )

Farmer Jones' unsuccessful attempt at recapture represents the Russian Civil War , in which various groups, supported by the Western powers of the Entente and the Central Powers, tried to push the ruling Communist Bolsheviks from their position again.

  • The split between Ponzi and Napoleon

The dispute over the management of the farm alludes to the ideological break between Leon Trotsky (whose theory of permanent revolution demanded the unconditional support of the international labor movement , whose fate would decide the existence of the USSR) and Joseph Stalin (who promoted a national policy of " Socialism in one country ”and the“ neutralization of the world bourgeoisie ”).

  • Eviction and defamation of Snowball

The expulsion of Snowball and the subsequent constant fingering of blame by Napoleon trace the exile of Trotsky and his defamation by Stalin.

  • The change of the seven commandments

The change of the Seven Commandments, down to the reduction to a single one, which even contradicts the original basic idea, stands for the constant change of the ideals of communism to Stalinism by the rulers, until hardly anyone can remember them.

  • The protest of the hens

When Napoleon asks the hens to deliver all eggs, they protest and three Minorca pullets break their eggs. Many peasants in Ukraine behaved similarly when they were supposed to be expropriated in the course of forced collectivization . Quite a few burned their fields. As a result, the hen house was isolated and no longer supplied with feed. After several of them died of starvation, the hens finally gave up. Something similar happened in the Ukraine in 1932/33 (see: Holodomor ).

  • The execution of four pigs and three hens

The execution of four pigs and three hens who criticized Napoleon's decisions and publicly admitted that they had worked with the fled snowball and worked for farmer Jones, symbolizes the many show trials against supporters in the course of the Stalinist purges (Russian "Tschistka") Trotskies, critics of the regime and even members of the CPSU Politburo .

  • The Deposition of Animals of England

Glorifies the hymn animals of England and their allegory The International still the simple animal or workers and their rebellion, put their successors on the farm (Soviet Union) and on the leader Napoleon or Stalin (see: "Gimn Sowjetskowo Sojusa" / Hymne of the Soviet Union ).

  • Trade relations with Mr. Frederick

The initial negotiations between the Animal Farm and Mr. Frederick's Knickerfeld (Pinchfield) Farm reflect the German-Soviet nonaggression pact between the German Reich under Adolf Hitler and Stalin in 1939. The pile of construction timber that is being sold could represent the division of Poland .

  • Attack on the windmill

The attack on the windmill by Mr. Frederick and his people traces the breach of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact and the attack by the Third Reich on the Soviet Union under the code name Enterprise Barbarossa in 1941. Only with great effort and with heavy sacrifices this can finally be beaten back (see: Battle of Stalingrad ), but is celebrated by the leadership as a huge win.

  • Commercial relations with Mr. Pilkington

After relations with Mr. Frederick have been severed after his attack on the animal farm, Napoleon negotiates with Mr. Pilkington and finally sells the coveted pile of lumber to him. In the same way, Stalin sought connections to the Western Allies after the attack by the Third Reich and offered raw materials in exchange for armaments in the course of the lending and leasing law .

  • Absence and return of the raven Moses

As the embodiment of the Russian Orthodox Church, the raven Moses made a pact with farmer Jones ( Tsar Nicholas II ) at the beginning , but was not involved in the revolution and disappeared shortly afterwards. Only when the working conditions under the Napoleon regime became increasingly tougher did Moses return. This symbolizes the increasing influence of the church after the revolution did not bring the desired freedom.

  • Tolerating Moses

For the pigs Moses and his speeches from Kandiszuckerberg (Engl. Sugar Candy Mountain ; hereafter ) officially ridiculous, but let the ravens on the farm live without work this needs to maintain the morale of the animals. This symbolizes Stalin's attitude towards the Russian Orthodox Church during World War II , when it supported the Soviet Union's war efforts and raised the morale of the population.

  • The party with Mr. Pilkington

The celebration between Napoleon and Mr. Pilkington is a metaphor for the Tehran Conference in 1943. Here the communist Soviet Union sat together with the countries against whose capitalist system the Russian Revolution was directed, and thus betrayed their original ideals.

  • The playing of the ace of spades (Engl. Ace of Spades )

At the end of the card game between Napoleon and Mr. Pilkington, both play the ace of spades at the same time , and this leads to an argument. A look ahead to the beginning of the Cold War between the superpowers USA and the Soviet Union.


Orwell had the basic idea for this book back in 1937. However, the details did not come to his mind for a long time. It was only when he saw a ten-year-old boy driving a huge draft horse down a narrow path and beating it whenever it deviated from the path that he realized that if such animals were only aware of their strength, we had no power over them and that people exploit animals in much the same way that the rich exploit the proletariat. Orwell himself described it in the preface to the Ukrainian translation of the book.

Orwell wrote the book in late 1943 and 1944 based on his experiences in the Spanish Civil War , which he described in his book My Catalonia . He intended the book as a condemnation of what he saw as the corruption of the original socialist ideals by Stalinism. He also believed in these ideals after witnessing the betrayal of the revolution in Spain, which is particularly evident in the fact that socialism, which has degenerated into Stalinism, does not produce a completely new form of totalitarian tyranny in the novel, but "only" revives it pre-revolutionary level of capitalism is falling behind.

Upon completion, Orwell faced major difficulties with the publication: Animal Farm was rejected by four publishers. A publisher who initially appeared to accept the work rejected the publication on the express advice of the UK Department of Information.

The first edition of Animal Farm: A Fairy Story was released in the UK on August 17, 1945 and was released in the US in 1946.

In the Eastern Bloc countries, this work by Orwell, like the novel in 1984 , was on the list of forbidden books until the fall of the Wall and was only available as a samizdat edition.

"Freedom of the press"

The original script contained a foreword entitled The Freedom of the Press , in which Orwell criticized British self-censorship , the suppression of critical expressions against the then allied Soviet Union and finally the suppression of the book by the British government. The preface fell victim to precisely this censorship and was therefore not included in the first edition published in August 1945 and in most of the subsequent editions. From this foreword comes Orwell's famous quote: "If freedom means anything, it means the right to tell people what they don't want to hear."

Even after Ian Angus discovered the foreword in Orwell's personal files in 1972, the publishers refused to publish it. Exceptions to this are the Everyman's Library edition published in 1993 , the edition by Penguin Verlag (2000) and Diogenes Verlag (2002), in which it was printed in the appendix and not, as Orwell intended, as a foreword.

Orwell wrote an extra foreword for the Ukrainian edition in 1947, in which he presented biographical information and political views.

Film adaptations

After Orwell's death in 1950, the CIA bought the film rights to make it into a more anti-communist story , similar to what it later did with the 1984 film .

  • Uprising of the animals (also: Animal Farm - Uprising of the animals ) 1954 - cartoon by John Halas and Joy Batchelor . The plot is largely close to the original, but differs significantly towards the end: The pigs do not start to make common cause with people, but can trigger an “animal world revolution”, during which the pigs start on every farm gain power and set a goal of making the other animals work more and more with less and less food. In the very last scene of the film, however, the suppressed animals finally start a second revolution, this time against the rule of the pigs.
  • Animal Farm 1999 - A television film by John Stephenson , in which real animals - using the same technology that was already known from the film A Pig called Babe - were made to "talk" in computer animation. Here the plot was changed significantly bytaking into accountthe collapse of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc in 1989, including a child-friendly happy ending , where after years of pig rule, new people take over the farm again and this from the animals with “... and finally we were free! “Is commented. The bitch Jessie takes on the narrative role here.

Radio plays


current issues
  • Animal Farm - Sources, texts, works, translations, media on Wikilivres (also known as Bibliowiki ) - original text (English).
  • George Orwell: Animal Farm. A fairy story. School book, with materials. Klett , Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 978-3-12-573802-7 (English text edition from Penguin Books , see also: Penguin, London 2008, ISBN 978-0-14-103613-7 ).
  • George Orwell: Animal Farm. A fairy tale. Illustrated by Friedrich Karl Waechter (Original edition: Animal Farm. A Fairy Story. ) Newly translated by Michael Walter and with a newly discovered foreword by the author [as an afterword]. 45th edition, Diogenes pocket book detebe 20118, Zurich 2005 (first edition 1972), ISBN 978-3-257-20118-5 .
Reading aids

Individual evidence

  1. Karl Marx: On the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right . Introduction , MEW ( Vol. 1, pp. 378–391 )
  2. George Orwell: Animal Farm. Ffm. Ed. 1958, p. 6.
  3. Foreword Orwell's
  4. ^ The Freedom of the Press
  5. George Orwell: The Freedom of the Press - Orwell's Proposed Preface to 'Animal Farm'. 1945.
  6. ^ The Freedom of the Press. everything2.
  7. ^ George Orwell: Preface to the Ukrainian Edition of Animal Farm. March 1947.
  8. How the CIA Played Dirty Tricks With Culture ” by Laurence Zuckerman in The New York Times
  9. Animal Farm - Rise of the Animals in the Internet Movie Database (English)

Web links