Schwabing is a district in the north of Munich that achieved literary and artistic fame as the bohemian quarter of the Prince Regent's time and is now one of the trendy districts of the Bavarian capital. Since the reorganization of the city area in 1992, Schwabing has included the city district 4 ( Schwabing-West ) and parts of the district 12 ( Schwabing-Freimann ). With around 100,000 inhabitants, Schwabing is the most populous district in Munich.
In the south, Schwabing is bordered by Maxvorstadt from Georgenstrasse / Siegestor , in the east by the Isar , in the west along Lothstrasse through Neuhausen and in the north from Petuelpark through Milbertshofen and northwest of Leopoldstrasse to the Nordring railway through Freimann . Only two small sections south of the tracks of the Nordring do not belong to Schwabing, but to Freimann: One of these is west of the tram tracks of Tram 23 and north of Domagkstraße and the second is east of Ungererstraße and north of Crailsheimstraße and west of Rohmederstraße. The northern part of the English Garden is largely located in the Schwabing area. An expanded Schwabing term results from the fact that many Schwabing key addresses from the time of the Schwabing Bohème are de facto in the Maxvorstadt district.
The village of Schwabing (the founding of Svapinga a Svapo) was mentioned in a document as early as 782 and is therefore documented considerably earlier than Munich itself (the city was first mentioned in the 12th century). Presumably a Swabian who had traveled here had settled here and gave the place its name; his successor bequeathed the indebted property to Schäftlarn Monastery - against the express expectation that he would be spared purgatory. Later descendants built a small castle that soon fell into disrepair. The village was about 2½ km north of Munich and consisted of several buildings around the later Feilitzschplatz (since 1947 " Münchner Freiheit "). In Suresnes Castle , which was built at the beginning of the 18th century on a previous building by Elector Max Emanuel for his noble cabinet secretary, and in a number of other castles, Schwabing has long been the elegant residence of high-ranking personalities ( cf.An Jackl packst am End on a stick , "From the village to the city"). Schwabing was created as an elegant rural idyll for cultural idleness and intellectual life: consequently the Maximilians- and Ludwigs-Vorstadt of Munich with the buildings erected in 1840 for the university and the later added art academy emerged on the arterial road to this place , while Schwabing moved to the extra-academic spiritual center developed. In 1886 Schwabing was raised to the status of a city and incorporated into Munich on November 20, 1890.
Coat of arms of the former city of Schwabing
In the course of the town elevation, on December 29, 1886, Prince Regent Luitpold , communicated by the government of Upper Bavaria, Chamber of the Interior, awarded his own city coat of arms from January 8, 1887: It shows twelve golden ears of corn in the blue shield, the stalks of which are silver a loop intertwined ribbon are held together.
After the incorporation into the royal capital and residence city of Munich in 1890, the city council of the state capital of Munich has all rights to use and manage the coat of arms.
Schwabing and his big time
With the relocation of the University of Landshut to Munich in 1826 and the re-establishment of the Art Academy in 1885 by the Bavarian kings, Munich developed into an intellectual center and finally into an “art city” (the “painter princes” Friedrich August von Kaulbach , Franz von Lenbach or Franz von Stuck are to be mentioned), in the wake of this later Schwabing and the adjacent Maxvorstadt to the artists' quarter of Munich. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, painters such as Max Nonnenbruch , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Lovis Corinth , Ernst Oppler and Paul Klee and from the painters 'association “Blauer Reiter” Wassily Kandinsky , Alexej Jawlensky , Gabriele Münter and Marianne von frequented the artists' bars Werefkin and Franz Marc . At the end of the 19th century, a bohemian scene had developed in Schwabing that was comparable to that in Paris, Berlin and Vienna. Since the middle of the 19th century writers have also been to be found here in particularly large numbers: Gottfried Keller had already studied here (and later described a Schwabing carnival festival in his novel The Green Heinrich ). King Max II even gathered a whole circle of poets around him, the " The Crocodiles ".
The following (alphabetical) list shows the better-known writers who have spent at least part of their lives in Schwabing since the district played the role described. Most of them made clear reference to Schwabing and Munich in their narrative, culturally critical or autobiographical works or even in their poetry (titles in which Schwabing and Munich play an essential role are attached in brackets).
Peter Paul Althaus ( In der Traumstadt , 1951), Paul Alverdes , Alfred Andersch ( The father of a murderer , 1980), Anonymus ( The way into the new realm , 1913), Anita Augspurg , Hugo Ball , Johannes R. Becher ( Munich in mine Poem , 1946), Leo Benario ( The New Religion , 1912), Margarete Beutler ( Farewell, Bohème , 1911), Otto Julius Bierbaum ( Prince Cuckoo , 1908), Helene Böhlau ( Half Animal , 1899), Bertolt Brecht , Lena Christ ( Memories of a Superfluous , 1912), Michael Georg Conrad ( Was die Isar rushes , 1888), Anna Croissant-Rust , Albert Daudistel ( Die lame Götter , 1924), Max Dauthendey , Ludwig Derleth ( Proclamations , 1904), Otto Falckenberg ( The book von der Lex Heinze , 1900), Lion Feuchtwanger ( Success , 1930), Leonhard Frank ( Die Räuberbande , 1914), Friedrich Freksa ( The Red Föhn , 1925), Alexander Moritz Frey ( Solneman the Invisible , 1920), Ludwig Ganghofer , Stefan George , Marie Amelie von Godin ( Our Brother Cain , 1919), Claire Goll ( The stolen heaven , 1962), Oskar Maria Graf ( We are prisoners , 1927), Wilhelm Herbert ( Stehauferl , 1922), Hans von Gumppenberg , Johannes von Günther , Max Halbe ( The Elixirs of Happiness , 1942), Hans von Hammerstein ( February , 1914), Ernst Heimeran ( teachers we had , 1954), Franz Hessel ( Der Kramladen des Glücks , 1913), Alfred Walter Heymel , Paul Heyse ( Im Paradiese , 1875) Rolf von Hoerschelmann ( Life without everyday life , 1947), Ludwig Hollweck ( From Wahnmoching to Dream City , 1969), Friedrich Huch , Ricarda Huch , Norbert Jacques ( Dr. Mabuse the player , 1922), Hermann Jaques ( Munich's end , 1903), Erich Kästner , Bernhard Kellermann ( Yester and Li , 1904), Eduard von Keyserling ( Beate and Mareile , 1909), Klabund ( Marietta , 1920), Ludwig Klages , Wolfgang Koeppen ( Tauben im Gras , 1951), Annette Kolb ( Daphne Herbst , 1928), Maximilian Krauss ( Unter den Frauentürmen 1901), Alfred Kubin ( The Other Side , 1909), Isolde Kurz ( Vanadis , 1931), Gustav Landauer ( call on socialism , 1919), Heinrich Lautensack , Gert Ledig ( Faustrecht , 1957), Mechtilde Lichnowsky ( Der Lauf der Asdur , 1936), Josef Maria Lutz ( The sky-blue window , 1948), Carl Georg von Maassen ( Der Grundgescheute Antiquarius , 1920 ff .), Heinrich Mann ( The Hunt for Love , 1925), Thomas Mann ( Doctor Faustus , 1947), Kurt Martens ( Novel from Décadence , 1897), Ret Marut (= B. Traven ) ( The Brick Maker , 1917–1921) , Gustav Meyrink , Christian Morgenstern , Erich Mühsam ( names and people , 1949 posthumously), A. de Nora ( Na zi Semmelbacher's honeymoon , 1910), Oskar Panizza ( Farewell to Munich , 1897), Anton von Perfall ( The Painting School , 1907), René Prévot ( Seliger Zweiklang Schwabing / Montmartre , 1946), Georg Queri , Irmgard Prestel ( Peperl and the Frauentürm , 1935), Friedrich Percyval Reck-Malleczewen ( Bockelson , 1937), Hans Reiser ( Yatsuma , 1926), Gabriele Reuter ( From a good family , 1895), Fanny Gräfin zu Reventlow ( Mr. Dames' records , 1913), Rainer Maria Rilke , Joachim Ringelnatz ( My life up to the war , 1931), Roda Roda ( Schwabylon or the storm-free bachelor , 1921), Eugen Roth , Josef Ruederer ( The Awakening , 1916), Oscar AH Schmitz ( When we women awaken , 1913), Benno Rüttenauer ( Diary a lady , 1907), Rudolf Alexander Schröder , Alfred Schuler , Ina Seidel ( Three Cities of My Youth , 1960), Willy Seidel ( Jossa and the Bachelors , 1930), Walther Siegfried ( Tino Moralt, Struggle and End of an Artist , 1890), Sigi Sommer ( And nobody cries me after , 1953), Edgar Steiger , Ludwig Thoma ( Munich women , 1923), Ernst Toller ( A Youth in Germany , 1933), Karl Valentin , Jakob Wassermann ( The Story of Young Renate Fuchs , 1901), Frank Wedekind , Wilhelm Weigand ( Wunnihun , 1920), Karl Wolfskehl , Ernst von Wolzüge ( The Third Sex , 1899).
Not a single one of those named was born in Schwabing, only a few were born in Munich or old Bavaria. The vast majority came from the other parts of the country Bavaria from the Reich or abroad in that time particularly attractive Schwabing.
Many of the best-known artists' pubs are included in “Schwabing” and the associated attitude towards life, but are located in Maxvorstadt , which is closer to the city center , in the Latin Quarter around the university. For example, the pub " Simplicissimus " in Türkenstrasse, which was very well known in the period before the First World War , is still in the same place today under the name "Alter Simpl" - Joachim Ringelnatz was the "house poet" there - or the Café Stefanie in Amalienstraße ( no longer available today).
Schwabinger satirical magazine Simplicissimus (1896) from the publisher of Albert Langen with his signet, red bulldog, became a symbol of biting criticism of political and social relations, Thomas Theodor Heine , Olaf Gulbransson , Bruno Paul , Eduard Thöny , Rudolf Wilke were the most famous artists working there, Thomas Mann for a while editor.
The cultural magazine Jugend , also from 1896, published by Georg Hirth , gave the German version of Art Nouveau , the Jugendstil , its name. Some of the splendid Art Nouveau houses in the district bear witness to this revolutionary art movement.
With both sheets, Munich during the Prince Regent's time was, due to its Schwabing suburb in the age of authoritarian censorship, the most liberal place in Germany for many, especially in comparison with Berlin, even if Schwabing brought about numerous criminal trials, be it for blasphemy, lese majesty (of the German emperor) or deviation of the prevailing sexual morality. The most famous figure of the classic Schwabing was the "Holstein Venus", Fanny Countess zu Reventlow (1871-1918, her life dates mark the exact beginning and end of the newly established German Empire) from Husum. Your 1913 published novel "Mr. Dames records or incidents from a strange neighborhood" describes and caricatured using the Kosmikerkreises landlines and public culture as emerging conflicts in the Bohème. The Schwabing conditions have otherwise led to numerous literary adaptations, often in the form of the key novel. Fanny Reventlow, whom Schwabing called "Wahnmoching" in her novel, put it: "Schwabing [is] not a district, but a spiritual movement." (Letter to Paul Stern in June 1912)
The revolutionaries of the Bavarian Soviet Republic , which was defeated in 1919 , such as Erich Mühsam and Edgar Jaffé, and Ret Marut , who later became known in Mexico as the novelist B. Traven , also lived in Schwabing. Traven / Marut lived in Clemensstrasse and published the anarchist magazine Der Ziegelbrenner there . Some say it was all the artists who hatched the whole revolution in Café Stefanie . Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, who called himself Lenin for the first time in Schwabing, went into hiding here for some time as a middle-class Mr. Meier with his wife Nadeschda Krupskaja . With her and some loyal followers, he founded Iskra magazine . The later GDR Minister of Culture, Johannes R. Becher , also lived in Schwabing . Adolf Hitler also tried his hand at painting here, albeit unsuccessfully. He attended the funeral of the murdered Prime Minister Kurt Eisner as a mourning guest and, initially unsuccessfully, staged a coup in 1923 as a revolutionary ( march on the Feldherrnhalle ). Later he set up the party headquarters of the NSDAP not far from Schwabing near Königsplatz, which is now a comprehensive documentation center.
The Schwabing bohemian scene came to an abrupt end with the outbreak of the First World War. Nevertheless, the district remained a famous place - with numerous events: for example, in 1929 the 13-year-old Yehudi Menuhin gave his very first concert in shorts in the Tonhalle on Türkenstrasse and played Johann Sebastian 's solo sonata in C major, which had never been heard before Brook . In the 1920s, Schwabing was the scene of political disputes between communist and national socialist groups. During the rule of the National Socialists, many Schwabingers were persecuted, imprisoned, expropriated, forced into exile, deported and murdered because of their Jewish faith or because of their political, sexual or religious identities. After the Second World War , in 1951, the volume of poetry In der Traumstadt by Peter Paul Althaus was published , who saw Munich-Schwabing in a new poetic aura. The now renowned Schwabing Art Prize was established. The " Münchner Lach- und Schießgesellschaft " in the heart of Altschwabing, with its most famous member Dieter Hildebrandt , was one of the two / three most famous cabarets of the time after the Second World War. And the first literary work by the writer and cabaret artist Gerhard Polt , the radio play As if one were a badger in his building (1977), was created in the Latin Quarter around the university.
The wave of nostalgia that set in after the Second World War, which old Schwabing tried to glorify and at the same time to exploit commercially, made Schwabing a fashion district for the in-crowd, which drove rental and catering prices into horrific heights. In the 1960s, the Munich artist group SPUR lived and worked here, and the so-called “ Schwabing riots ” occurred among the student youth on Leopoldstraße , Schwabing's main axis. They were the first prelude to the Europe-wide youth revolt of the 1960s , which was directed against the ruling political structures and economic boom: events that, true to the old spirit, had to take place in Schwabing. In numerous films such as Zur Ding, Schätze , Engelchen or The Jungfrau von Bamberg and Der Bettenstudent or: What do I do with the girls? the Schwabing image was cultivated in this regard.
In the 1960s and 1970s Schwabing was considered a center of nightlife in Germany with internationally recognized clubs such as Big Apple, PN hit-house, Domicile, Hot Club, Piper Club, Tiffany, Germany's first large-capacity disco Blow Up and the underwater disco Yellow Submarine , as well other pubs and trendy bars such as Schwabinger 7 , Schwabinger Podium or the drugstore. Schwabing also set architectural standards during this period with some of the modern discos and buildings such as the futuristic Schwabylon department store , the “most monumental building of the flower power era in Munich”.
The opening of the first women's bookstore in West Germany , Lillemors Frauenbuchladen , in 1975 on Arcisstraße (actually Maxvorstadt ), today Barer Straße, and the founding of West Germany's first author's bookstore in 1973 on Wilhelmstraße also fit in with the Schwabinger spirit .
The so-called Corso Leopold takes place on Leopoldstrasse on two weekends a year . In recent years the event has become one of the best-attended in Munich.
From the 1980s onwards, other districts of Munich, such as Haidhausen , Glockenbach- and Gärtnerplatzviertel Schwabing, contested the status as trendy districts, and the nightlife moved mainly to the districts of Berg am Laim and Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt . The Westend also developed in this direction, while Schwabing increasingly became an object of historical research. The gentrification process in Schwabing is now largely complete. As the last relics of the legendary Schwabing, the bar Schwabinger 7 (2011) and the former underwater disco Yellow Submarine (2013) had to give way to new buildings after unsuccessful public protests.
On August 27, 2012, construction workers discovered a 250-kilogram aerial bomb from the Second World War on the site of the demolished Schwabinger 7 pub , which was soon classified as highly dangerous. Around 2,500 residents were evacuated from their homes and taken to emergency shelters. On August 28, 2012, the bomb was detonated in a controlled manner at 9:54 p.m. local time after the initially planned defuse had failed.
In the 2010s, the new districts Schwabinger Tor , Parkstadt Schwabing and Domagkpark were built on former commercial and barracks areas . But at the end of the 1980s, Schwabing was given a new urban quarter, the so-called Berlin Quarter, on the site of the former Schwabing freight station with the artificially created Schwabinger See .
Population and social statistics
In January 2009 there were 42,166 people in 24,697 households in the Schwabing district of Munich. In 2013 there were around 70,000 inhabitants. The proportion of foreigners in Schwabing is 23%, which is the Munich average. 54.4% of households are 1-person households, which corresponds to the urban mean. 2-person households make up 29.8%. 15.8% of households are inhabited by 3 or more people. Around 9.2% of all households in the Schwabing district are classified as “Double Income No Kids”. The average household income (net) in January 2009 was 4169.00 euros, which is well above the overall average in Munich; the unemployment rate was 4%, well below the average.
- Galli Theater, Hesseloherstrasse 6
- OFF-OFF Theater, Potsdamer Strasse 13
- Rationaltheater , Hesseloherstrasse 18
- Reithalle Munich , Heßstrasse 132
- TamS - Theater am Sozialamt, Haimhauser Straße 13a
- Tatwort improvisation theater, Floriansmühlstraße 5
- Theater 44 , Hohenzollernstraße 20 (closed since May 2009)
- Theater in Leopoldstrasse, Leopoldstrasse 17
- Seidlvilla , Nikolaiplatz 1b
- SchauBurg , Franz-Joseph-Strasse 47
- Club house, Occamstrasse 8
- Lustspielhaus, Occamstrasse 8
- Münchner Lach- und Schießgesellschaft , Ursulastraße 9
- St. Sylvester , Biedersteiner Str. 1
- St. Ursula , Kaiserplatz 1A
- Erlöserkirche , Ungererstraße 15
- Catholic Academy in Bavaria , Kardinal-Wendel-Haus, Mandlstrasse 23
- Munich adult education center in the Seidlvilla , Nikolaiplatz 1b
- Munich Adult Education Center and Seniors Adult Education Center Schwabing, Römerstraße 14 Rgb
- Seidlvilla , Nikolaiplatz 1b
- Munich City Library , Schwabing District Library , Hohenzollernstr. 16
- Maximiliansgymnasium , Karl-Theodor-Straße 9
- Oskar-von-Miller-Gymnasium Munich , Siegfriedstrasse 22
- Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich , Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1
- Munich Clinic Schwabing , Kölner Platz 1
- List of architectural monuments in Munich / Schwabing
- List of architectural monuments in Munich / Schwabing-West
Parks and green spaces
- Leopold Park
- Luitpoldpark and Bayernplatz
- English garden
- Biotope at the Ackermannbogen
- Central park in Domagkpark
- Central park in Parkstadt Schwabing
- Schwabinger See
- Kristian Bäthe : Who lived where in Schwabing? Signposts for walks in Schwabing. Munich: Süddeutscher Verlag 1965.
- Gerhard J. Bellinger and Brigitte Regel-Bellinger : Schwabings Ainmillerstrasse and its most important residents. A representative example of Munich's city history from 1888 to today. Norderstedt 2003, ISBN 3-8330-0747-8 ; 2nd edition 2012, ISBN 978-3-8482-2883-6 ; E-Book 2013, ISBN 978-3-8482-6264-9 .
- Gernot Brauer: Munich Schwabing - A state of affairs with an essay by Brigitta Rambeck about the water lily circle and 8 tours through Schwabing. Munich: MünchenVerlag 2010, ISBN 978-3-937090-45-0 .
- Dirk Heißerer : Where ghosts wander . A topography of the Schwabing bohemians around 1900. Munich: Diederichs, 2001, ISBN 3-424-01170-3 .
- Helmuth Stahleder : From Allach to Zamilapark. Names and basic historical data on the history of Munich and its incorporated suburbs. City archive Munich, ed. Munich: Buchendorfer Verlag 2001, ISBN 3-934036-46-5 .
- Ilse Macek (ed.): Marginalized - disenfranchised - deported. Schwabing and Schwabinger fates 1933 to 1945. Munich: Volk Verlag 2008, ISBN 978-3-937200-43-9 .
- Edda and Michael Neumann-Adrian: Munich's lust for Art Nouveau - houses and people around 1900 , 3rd edition, with chapter and city walk to Art Nouveau houses in Schwabing. Munich: MünchenVerlag 2009, ISBN 978-3-934036-93-2 .
- PDF file of the Schwabing-Freimann Culture History Path of the City of Munich
- Schwabing - official portal of the state capital Munich
- Historical map: Schwabing in the north of Munich
- City limit.de: Castle and Park Biederstein, Munich-Schwabing
- allitera.de: An Jackl grabbed the stick at the end. ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 601 .
- Johannes Mahr (ed.): The crocodiles. A Munich group of poets. Reclam, Stuttgart 1987
- See also Walter Schmitz (Ed.): Die Münchner Moderne . Stuttgart (Reclam) 1990
- See also Joachim Ringelnatz 'autobiography Mein Leben bis zum Krieg
- Anna-Jutta Pietsch: Jakob-Klar-Straße 1 - Olga Benario's parents' house. In: Ilse Macek (Hrsg.): Excluded, disenfranchised, deported: Schwabing and Schwabinger fates: 1933 to 1945 . Volk Verlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-937200-43-9 .
- Ilse Macek (Ed.): Excluded, disenfranchised, deported: Schwabing and Schwabinger fates: 1933 to 1945 . Volk Verlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-937200-43-9 .
- Mirko Hecktor, Moritz von Uslar, Patti Smith, Andreas Neumeister: Mjunik Disco - from 1949 until today . Blumenbar Verlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-936738-47-6 .
- Discos shape the wild era: The 70s in Munich: Loud, shrill, wicked. In: tz . April 26, 2016. Retrieved October 28, 2019 .
- Joachim Goetz: Built Utopias: 70s cult in Schwabing. In: Design Show. MCBW, March 2019, accessed October 28, 2019 .
- Article at Merkur Online , accessed on August 29, 2012
- Article in the Süddeutsche Zeitung , accessed on August 29, 2012
- http://www.muenchen.de/stadtteile/schwabing.html .