Berg am Laim
Berg am Laim
State capital Munich
|Area :||6.31 km²|
|Residents :||47,000 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||7,443 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||July 1, 1913|
|Postcodes :||81671, 81673, 81735, 81825|
|Area code :||089|
Location of Berg am Laim in Munich
Crossing Kreillerstraße or Berg-am-Laim-Straße and Baumkirchner Straße
Berg am Laim (in Bavarian also Berg am Loam ) is the city district 14 of the Bavarian capital Munich . Since the reorganization in 1992, Berg am Laim has been one of the smallest urban districts in Munich in terms of population. Berg am Laim is not identical to the Munich district 25 Laim, ten kilometers to the west .
Berg am Laim is located in the east of Munich and is embedded between Haidhausen in the west, Trudering in the east and Ramersdorf in the south. The border to Bogenhausen in the north is formed by the Munich – Simbach and Munich – Rosenheim railway lines in the area of the Berg am Laim station . As a result, the former districts of Zamdorf and Steinhausen , which originally belonged to the former municipality of Berg am Laim, were added to the Bogenhausen district.
History and Development
Until the 19th century
Berg am Laim was mentioned in a document on April 23, 812 as “ad Perke” , the addition “am Laim” as “on the Laimb” for the first time in 1430. The term Laim means “ clay ” in today's German . The name describes the location on an elevation (mountain) that is located on the approximately one kilometer wide loess-loam tongue of the Munich gravel plain between Ismaning and Berg am Laim. Bricks from Berg am Laim were used for large parts of the medieval and early modern Munich city center and for the Frauenkirche . Brickworks workers settled in the area where they worked during the early days of the company. Around 1900 the brick factory perished due to the exhaustion of the clay deposits.
Berg am Laim was the seat of a Hofmark . Before secularization , the Hofmark was the personal property of members of the Wittelsbach family . The most important owner was Elector Clemens August I of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne, who had the important baroque collegiate church of St. Michael built as a knightly order and brotherhood church. The last owner of the Hofmark was Johann Wilhelm von Hompesch zu Bolheim .
Historic districts of the municipality of Berg am Laim
The parish village was first mentioned in 870 as "ad Pouminunchirihum". The name means either "Church made of tree trunks" or "Church surrounded by trees". The town center was around the Catholic branch church St. Stephan , which is one of the oldest documented churches in the Munich area. Its construction could go back to around 800, because a document from 813 reports that a church foundation was given to the diocese of Freising. In the course of the secularization of 1806 St. Stephan lost its status as parish church to the "Brotherhood Church" St. Michael Berg am Laim due to a royal decree and became a branch church itself. In 1818 Baumkirchen became part of the Berg am Laim community, and was incorporated into Munich as part of the Berg am Laim community on July 1, 1913.
The place was first mentioned in 1091 as "Erhartingin", the name means something like "possession of Erhard". It was incorporated into Munich as part of the Berg am Laim municipality on July 1, 1913.
The place was created in 1693 by Elector Joseph Clemens of Cologne , brother of Elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria . In 1701 the town was named after its builder; this is also the year it was first mentioned as "Joseph's Castle". In 1818 Josephsburg became part of the Berg am Laim municipality, and was incorporated into Munich as part of the Berg am Laim municipality on July 1, 1913.
The place was first mentioned in 1315 as "Pachem". The name is derived from the "Bach", probably the Hachinger Bach is the namesake here. The Pachem Chapel is mentioned in 1315 as a branch of St. Stephan Baumkirchen. In 1384 the place was mentioned again and was then sold.
In addition, Steinhausen and Zamdorf, which had previously belonged to the municipality of Daglfing , came to the municipality of Berg am Laim in 1875 . These two districts were assigned to the Bogenhausen district in 1937.
Development from 1900 to 1945
- The Berg am Laimer railway settlements
- The development of Berg am Laims from around 1900 was strongly influenced by the railway lines opened in 1871 from Munich towards Simbach and towards Rosenheim . As a result, a marshalling yard and a depot with the corresponding personnel requirements were built in Berg am Laim by 1924 . To the east of the Ostbahnhof and along the railway track running to the east, the first railway workers' apartments were built in multi-storey buildings before the First World War, and they were greatly expanded in the period between the two world wars. The corner house at the intersection of Berg-am-Laim-Straße / Leuchtenbergring , which still exists today, was built in 1901 and was one of the first houses in Berg am Laim to be built in apartment buildings. It is still managed today by the Munich-Hauptbahnhof eG (EBM) railway construction cooperative . Further railway houses built in 1911 and expanded in 1929, which still exist today, can be found at the intersection of Schlüsselbergstrasse and Altöttinger Strasse. Directly adjacent to today's Berg am Laim S-Bahn stop is a larger contiguous settlement of railway workers' apartments from the time between the world wars.
- Incorporation into the city of Munich
- On July 1, 1913, the municipality of Berg am Laim was the royal capital and seat of Munich incorporated . The municipal council of Berg am Laim had submitted five applications for incorporation to the city of Munich until it finally approved. He hoped for a connection to the Munich tram network , but this did not come about until 1926. The municipality of Berg am Laim had borrowed from infrastructure projects such as sewerage and road construction without being able to offset this through municipal taxes; the city of Munich now had to pay the follow-up costs.
- Access by tram
- In the late 1920s and 1930s, the image of the district of Berg am Laim, which was still predominantly rural to date, was to change to a greater extent, as the first large housing estates for social housing were now planned for many thousands of people in the Berg am Laim area. The development of the Berg am Laims district must be seen in close connection with the development of the neighboring district of Ramersdorf to the south, which was also characterized by rural and village character until the 1920s. In 1926 the tram, which had previously ended at Ostbahnhof, was extended to Berg am Laim and Ramersdorf, which was the first requirement for the planned housing construction on a larger scale.
- Neuramersdorf - The first large housing estate
- In 1928 the construction of the large housing estate Neuramersdorf began under the housing construction adviser Karl Preis , which was built north of the old Ramersdorf town center and was the first social housing estate in Munich. The municipal housing association GEWOFAG was founded specifically for this purpose in 1928. Between 1928 and 1931, the first construction phase was built around Melusinenstrasse and Piusplatz, about half of it on today's mountain in the Laimer area. Between 1936 and 1941, the settlement around Piusplatz was significantly expanded again. The residential buildings of this settlement still exist today.
- The Volkswohnungsanlage Berg am Laim
- Between 1936 and 1939, the so-called “Volkswohnungsanlage Berg am Laim”, the first of its kind in Munich, was built along Bad-Schachener-Strasse between Echardinger Strasse and St.-Michael-Strasse. For this purpose, after GEWOFAG was newly founded in 1928, the municipal housing company GWG was reactivated. The so-called “people's apartments” were, according to a concept of the National Socialist Ministry of Labor, “the cheapest rental apartments with one or more storeys”. The nickname "Maikäfersiedlung", which is still in use today, was used as a name, caricaturing the city-garden character with small front gardens and the tiny size of the apartments ("small apartments"). A comprehensive modernization program has been running in the area of the cockchafer settlement for several years. The old residential buildings from the 1930s are being pulled out step by step, demolished and replaced by new buildings. In the course of these new buildings, the infrastructure of the cockchafer settlement will also be noticeably improved through the construction of a previously non-existent supermarket, a pharmacy and several medical practices. The first construction phase on Echardinger and Bad-Schachener-Straße was completed and occupied in January 2009. The supermarket, pharmacy and the new property management offices are also located in this construction phase.
- "Home facility for Jews in Berg am Laim"
- From July 21, 1941 to March 1, 1943, the Berg am Laim assembly camp existed in the monastery of the Barmherzigen Sisters in Bavaria , known in Nazi parlance as the “home for Jews in Berg am Laim”.
1945 until today
- Social housing 1945–1970
- After 1945, due to the housing shortage in Munich due to the influx of many refugees and the extensive destruction of the war, additional housing became necessary in social housing. Therefore, as early as 1949, just four years after the end of the war, work began on expanding the existing Neuramersdorf housing estate. In the 1950s and 1960s, the entire mountain on Laimer Westen around Grafinger Strasse, Schluesselbergstrasse and Altöttinger Strasse was filled with apartments from social housing and railroad workers' homes in an extensive housing construction program by the three companies GEWOFAG , GWG and EBM . At the beginning of the 1970s, the construction work was completely completed. Since then, the aforementioned companies have only made smaller densifications again in the 1990s.
- The mountain on the east of Laimer
- In the east of Berg am Laims - that is, to the east of Baumkirchner Straße - in contrast to the western part, a loose residential development was built in the 1950s and 1960s, predominantly with owner-occupied housing estates. From the late 1970s onwards, apartment buildings began to be built in Berg am Laimer Osten, albeit mostly with condominiums, for example most recently in the early 1990s in the course of the new housing estate on Jella-Lepman-Strasse.
- Traffic development
- In order to do justice to the rapid population increase in Berg am Laims in the 1950s and 1960s, Berg-am-Laim- or Kreillerstraße, previously only narrowly developed as a country road, was expanded into a four-lane main road at the end of the 1960s. As a result, the old town center on Baumkirchner Straße was divided into two halves, both visually and in terms of traffic; historical buildings like the old Aumüllerhaus had to be demolished. In the course of this redesign, the tram was relocated to a structurally separated route in the middle of the lane and extended from the end point on Baumkirchner Straße to the eastern edge of Berg am Laims to St.-Veit-Straße. These renovations were completed in 1968.
- In the western part of Berg am Laims, the six-lane Mittlerer Ring was built as a north-south axis through the district in the 1960s . The section of the Mittlerer Ring, known as Innsbrucker Ring in Berg am Laim, also acts as a dividing aisle and can often only be crossed by pedestrians and cyclists through underpasses.
- Another road construction plan for Berg am Laim was never implemented: in the 1960s, instead of the A 99 that was actually implemented later, a motorway would branch off from the A 8 at Perlach , in a north-south direction through Perlach, Ramersdorf and Berg am Laim , and continue through Bogenhausen or Oberföhring to the A 9 in Freimann . Berg am Laim would have crossed this motorway along the Hachinger Bach or today's Else-Rosenfeldstrasse and Virgilstrasse and divided it again accordingly. The cleared lane can still be seen today opposite the Josephsburg underground station .
Population and social statistics
44,268 people live in the city district (as of May 2015). The population has been growing continuously for several years, in 2000 it was just over 37,000. The proportion of foreigners is 26.4 percent (city-wide average: 23.0 percent). At 54.3 percent, the share of single-person households is within the urban average. 24.9 percent of households are two-person households, 20.8 percent of households are inhabited by three or more people. Since the census of May 25, 1987, the population at that time has risen by around 16 percent from 34,380. This is mainly due to the new development area on Jella-Lepman-Straße that has been created since then, as well as to redensification measures in the entire district. At the end of 2006, 1,374 people were registered as unemployed in the city district.
Commercial and service structure
Mainly medium-sized industrial and commercial enterprises are based in Berg am Laim. These are mainly located in the Friedenstrasse / Mühldorfstrasse area and along Neumarkter Strasse, each adjacent to the railway body. Lately they have mainly been displaced by jobs in the service and administration area, which has permanently changed the image of the district due to the demolition of the old industrial buildings (see Bahnbetriebswerk München Ost ) and the subsequent construction of modern office buildings. On the border to the Ostbahnhof there was an industrial site, including the companies Pfanni , Optimol Ölwerke and Zündapp , where the Werksviertel has been built as a completely new residential and commercial district since the 2010s .
On Berg-am-Laim-Strasse / Dingolfinger Strasse, directly adjacent to the track structure of the railway, the new Ten Towers building , an ensemble of five identical, 14-storey and 50m high twin towers, was completed in 2005 . The towers are connected to each other on different floor levels by glass bridges. The so-called Sky Lounge , the long connecting corridor between two of the twin towers on the 14th floor, is particularly striking . The Ten Towers are mainly used by Deutsche Telekom and its subsidiaries, with around 3,000 workplaces for the group. The property was previously fallow land for decades and was used by used car dealers and, most recently, by a circus.
Shops for daily needs and supermarkets are mainly concentrated along Berg-am-Laim-Straße between Ampfingstraße and Schluesselbergstraße, at the intersection of Baumkirchner Straße / Berg-am-Laim-Straße / Kreillerstraße (district center) and on Kreillerstraße at the level of Schüleinstraße .
The central traffic artery is Berg-am-Laim-Straße, the extension of which is called Kreillerstraße, which as the B 304 not only connects Munich with Wasserburg am Inn , but also directs traffic from the eastern surrounding communities to Munich. Bad-Schachener-Straße, in its extension called Heinrich-Wieland-Straße, which roughly forms the southern border of the city district, takes on a similar function. Leuchtenbergring and Innsbrucker Ring, as part of the Middle Ring, form the most important north-south connection. The track from Munich East to Riem is underpassed by the Leuchtenberg underpass of the Mittlerer Ring and by Truderinger Straße; this creates a connection with Bogenhausen . Due to the grown, rather small-scale structure, there are no continuous residential streets of major importance.
Berg am Laim is accessible by local public transport by S-Bahn , U-Bahn , tram and bus . The Munich Ostbahnhof lies on the western edge of Berg am Laim, whereby the district directly to the regional and Fernzugnetz of Deutsche Bahn with direct connections, for example, direction Stuttgart , Frankfurt , Salzburg and Italy is connected. The development by local public transport takes place as follows:
- on the northern edge of the district runs in an east-west direction from the main S-Bahn line, opened in 1972, with Ostbahnhof station and the Leuchtenbergring (S2, S4, S6 and S8) and Berg am Laim (S2, S4 and S6) stops . The Berg am Laim stop was completely rebuilt by the beginning of 2010. In addition to a new pedestrian underpass, an elevator was also installed. This means that cyclists and pedestrians have their own passage parallel to the Berg-am-Laimer underpass, which was previously used jointly with vehicle traffic.
- the underground line U5 runs along the western and southern fringes of the district with the stations Ostbahnhof, Innsbrucker Ring and Michaelibad . At Innsbrucker Ring, the U5 is crossed by the U2 coming from Giesing , which crosses the city district in a west-east direction and goes to the stations Josephsburg (roughly in the middle of the district) and Kreillerstraße (on the eastern edge of the district). The stations Innsbrucker Ring and Michaelibad were opened with the new construction of the U2 in 1980, from 1988 the U5, which was extended from the city center, merged with the now common route to Neuperlach at Innsbrucker Ring . Since 1999 only the U5 has been running here, the U2 was instead led via a new east branch to the Messestadt Riem . The U7 amplifier line, which was introduced in 2011, comes from the city center via the U2 route and changes to the U5 route to Neuperlach at Innsbrucker Ring.
- tram line 21 runs along Berg-am-Laim- and Kreillerstraße in an east-west direction and connects Berg am Laim directly to the Ostbahnhof and the old town . The tram route from Ostbahnhof to Berg am Laim was opened on September 15, 1926 and initially ended at Baumkirchner Strasse (the turning loop was at the height of today's weekly market on Baumkirchner Strasse). The extension of the line to today's terminus St.-Veit-Straße was opened on April 21, 1968 in connection with the expansion of Berg-am-Laim- and Kreillerstraße into a four-lane main street. The tram line 19 runs coming from the Einstein street in Haidhausen S-Bahn station Berg am Laim (north).
- The local public transport system is supplemented by bus lines operated by the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft , which serve as a feeder to the rapid transit railways as well as a cross connection to the neighboring city districts. Lines 59 and 187 run from north to south, lines 190 and 191 connect Ostbahnhof and Berg am Laim station, line 185 runs eastwards from Berg am Laim station.
Berg am Laim is a district rich in public green spaces. The following green areas can be found:
- the Piusplatz as the central square of the same name GEWOFAG-large housing (social housing) in the west of the district. This square was redesigned and upgraded between 2008 and 2012 as part of the “Socially Integrative City” project.
- the so-called "Echardinger Grünstreifen", which stretches as a green ribbon along Fehwiesenstrasse and Echardinger Strasse from the level of Berg-am-Laim-Strasse to the level of Bad-Schachener-Strasse over almost the entire north-south extension of the district. In addition to a playground and an allotment garden, the Echardinger Chapel, which was rebuilt a few years ago, can be found here.
- the so-called “Behrpark” in the old town center of Berg am Laims, between Baumkirchner Straße and Bertschstraße, is probably the smallest green space in the district in terms of area.
- the Michaelianger is the largest public green space in Berg am Laim. It connects directly to the Echardinger green strip and extends from Echardinger Straße in the west to St.-Veit-Straße in the east. The western part between Echardinger Strasse and St.-Michael-Strasse was only completed a few years ago and offers a basketball court, a playground and spacious lawns. The eastern part, bordering St.-Michael-Straße, is partly fallow, but from the level of Rahel-Strauß-Weg to St.-Veit-Straße it was completed in the early 1990s as part of the new Jella-Lepman-Straße development. There is another playground and a public soccer field here. At times, a traveling circus also performed on the area of the football field.
- the western part of Berg am Laims around Grafinger Strasse, Altöttinger Strasse and Schluesselbergstrasse is largely built up with housing developments of the two municipal housing associations GEWOFAG and GWG. These are laid out with relatively generous open spaces between the individual residential buildings, so that there are countless smaller green areas with benches and playgrounds in the inner courtyards, especially away from the streets.
With the Technical Town Hall, which was completed in 2000, Berg am Laim has one of the most important municipal departments. The building with its striking, 18-storey round tower with attached wind rotor forms an interesting focal point at the western entrance to the Berg am Laim district.
In addition, the Bavarian headquarters of the Maltese should be mentioned.
Berg am Laim has its own branch of the Munich City Library at the intersection of Berg-am-Laim-Straße / Schlüsselbergstraße , which is one of the smallest branches in terms of area.
The city district has several schools, including two elementary schools, two secondary schools, a secondary school and the Michaeli-Gymnasium , built in 1971 . With 1,313 students in the 2015/16 school year, it is one of the largest grammar schools in Munich. Up until the opening of the Trudering grammar school, a considerable proportion of the students came from the Trudering and Waldtrudering districts that did not have their own grammar school.
In the far west of Berg am Laim, along the Friedenstrasse and Grafinger Strasse, lies the area of the former Pfanni and Optimol factories, which were subsequently used by the Kunstpark Ost from 1996 to 2003 and its successor, Kultfabrik from 2003 to 2016, as well as the one to the west of it The Optimolwerke club area , which existed from 2003 to 2018, and the Georg-Elser-Hallen, which was located on Rosenheimer Strasse from 2000 to 2008, became one of the largest party miles in Europe and attracted tens of thousands of night owls every weekend. On the grounds of the Kunstpark Ost and its successor, Kultfabrik, there were not only more than thirty discos and bars, but also many artist studios and small craft workshops. All of this was an "interim use" that lasted two decades: since 2010, the entire industrial site has been largely redeveloped under the project name ROST (Around the OSTbahnhof) and now under the name Werksviertel, with a mixture of residential construction, office buildings, art and gastronomy - and sports offers as well as a new concert hall are planned.
The district committee of Berg am Laim was last elected on March 15, 2020. The distribution of seats is as follows: CSU 6, Greens 6, SPD 5, FW 2, Linke 1 and FDP 1. Of the 31,616 residents in Berg am Laim who are entitled to vote, 13,966 exercised their right to vote, making the turnout 44.2 percent .
(As of December 31, residents with main residence)
Source with further data
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- Christl Knauer-Nothaft, Erich Kasberger: Berg am Laim - From the beginnings of the settlement to the modern part of Munich . Volk Verlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-937200-16-3 .
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- Archive link ( Memento of the original from October 26, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
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