Christian Otto Josef Wolfgang Morgenstern (born May 6, 1871 in Munich ; † March 31, 1914 in Untermais , Tyrol , Austria-Hungary ) was a German poet , writer and translator . His comic poetry achieved particular fame, but it only constitutes part of his work.
Christian Morgenstern was born in 1871 at Theresienstraße 12 in Munich in the Schwabing district not far from the university . His mother was Charlotte Morgenstern, née Schertel, his father Carl Ernst Morgenstern , son of the painter Christian Morgenstern . Like the famous grandfather, from whom Morgenstern got his first name, the father and the mother's father were landscape painters . The names Otto and Josef go back to other relatives, Wolfgang to the mother's admiration for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart .
Childhood and adolescence
In 1881 his mother Charlotte died of tuberculosis . Morgenstern had obviously been infected with her. Soon afterwards, without having received regular school lessons in early childhood, he was entrusted to his godfather Arnold Otto Meyer, an art dealer in Hamburg , for upbringing, but he suffered as a result. A year later he returned to Munich and went to a boarding school in Landshut . There was corporal punishment used, and he learned bullying by his classmates.
The father married Amélie von Dall'Armi and was appointed to the Royal Art School in Wroclaw in 1883 . Christian went to Breslau and attended the Maria-Magdalenen-Gymnasium . Here, at the age of 16, he wrote the tragedy Alexander of Bulgaria and Mineralogia popularis , a description of minerals . Both texts have not been preserved. He also designed a fist poem and dealt with Arthur Schopenhauer . At the age of 18 he met Friedrich Kayssler and Fritz Beblo at the Magdalenen High School . Lifelong close friendships developed from this.
From the autumn of 1889 on, Morgenstern attended a military pre-vocational school because his father wanted him to be an officer. After six months, Morgenstern left the school and from then on attended a grammar school in Sorau . Here began a friendship with Marie Goettling, who later emigrated to America. He corresponded with her while he was still studying economics in Wroclaw. Here Felix Dahn and Werner Sombart were among his most important lecturers. Morgenstern and friends founded the magazine Deutscher Geist under the motto “He often gets the furthest who doesn't know where he's going”, a quote attributed to Oliver Cromwell .
In 1893 he wrote Sansara , a humorous study. He spent the first summer semester with Kayssler in Munich. However, because of his tuberculosis, he could not stand the climate there and went to Bad Reinerz for a cure . When he returned to Breslau, the father had separated from his second wife. A recovery period in Sorau followed. Since he could not continue his studies, friends would have been willing to pay for a spa stay in Davos . However, the father rejected this, as well as an offer by Dahn to finance the studies up to the trainee lawyer. Morgenstern now decided to live as a writer. After his father's third marriage, the relationship with him largely broke up.
Move to Berlin
In April 1894, Morgenstern moved to Berlin , where, with the help of his father, who was partly seeking reconciliation, he found a position at the National Gallery . He dealt with Friedrich Nietzsche and Paul de Lagarde and worked for the magazines Daily Rundschau and Freie Bühne , he wrote articles for the magazines Der Kunstwart and Der Viewer .
In the spring of 1895 Morgenstern's first book was published, the cycle of poems In Phanta's Schloss . He sailed on the Müggelsee and toured Helgoland , Sylt and Salzburg in 1895 and 1896 . In the summer of 1897 he was commissioned to translate (from the French translation) the autobiographical notes Inferno by August Strindberg . In October 1897 Morgenstern signed a contract with S. Fischer Verlag , which concerned the translation of Henrik Ibsen's works , although he did not yet speak the Norwegian language . The translation of Das Fest auf Solhaug should already be finished in February 1898 . Morgenstern traveled to Norway from May 1898 to autumn 1899 , mainly to learn the language, where he also met Ibsen several times.
In 1900 a cure followed in Davos, then Morgenstern toured Lake Lucerne , Zurich , Arosa , Milan , Rapallo , Portofino , Florence , Wolfenschiessen and Heidelberg . In December 1902 he visited Rome and returned to Berlin in May 1903. During this time he translated Knut Hamsun and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson .
From 1903 he was literary editor in the publishing house of Bruno Cassirer , with whom he was on friendly terms. There he supervised and promoted, among other things. Robert Walser . Before that he was dramaturge at Felix Bloch Erben . In 1905 he traveled to Wyk and had a stay in a sanatorium in Birkenwerder , which did not lead to the desired success. In addition, his gallows songs appeared that year and he read Fyodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski . A year later, for health reasons, he traveled to health resorts in the Bavarian , Tyrolean and Swiss Alpine landscapes, to Bad Tölz , Längenfeld , Obergurgl , Meran , Obermais , St. Vigil and Tenigerbad and dealt with Jakob Böhme , Fechner , Fichte , Hegel , Eckhart von Hochheim , Fritz Mauthner , Spinoza and Tolstoy .
Margareta Gosebruch from Liechtenstern
In July 1908, Morgenstern met Margareta Gosebruch von Liechtenstern in Bad Dreikirchen . After her departure he stayed in lively correspondence with her. When Margareta fell ill in October, Morgenstern went to see her in Freiburg im Breisgau . But since the stay of a fiancé with a sick woman was contrary to social mores, he avoided Strasbourg . In November he went to Berlin like Margareta who had recovered.
Contact to theosophy and anthroposophy
In January 1909 he made a close and lasting friendship with Rudolf Steiner at lectures in Berlin . In the same year he traveled to Düsseldorf , Koblenz , Kristiania , Kassel and Munich to hear Steiner's lectures . In May, one month after Margareta, he joined the German section of the Theosophical Society led by Steiner . When this corporation was split up in 1912/1913, he remained on Steiner's side and became a member of the Anthroposophical Society . In 1909 he also translated Knut Hamsun, attended the International Theosophical Congress in Budapest and his father in Wolfshau, and traveled with Margareta to the Black Forest and Obermais. There he fell ill with severe bronchitis , probably as a result of his numerous trips . A doctor already indicated the imminent death. Morgenstern's condition improved, however, and so he and Margareta married on March 7, 1910.
Italy and Switzerland
From May to August he stayed in Bad Dürrenstein in the Dolomites until he went to Bern to give a lecture by Steiner . Morgenstern's wife only attended lectures in Basel , about which she reported to him afterwards. After a stay in Munich, he traveled in October via Verona , Milan and Genoa to Palermo and finally to Taormina . In the same year he began working with the publisher Reinhard Piper , which lasted until the end of his life. Christian Morgenstern had previously worked with four other publishers, namely with Richard Taendler , Schuster & Loeffler , Samuel Fischer and Bruno Cassirer . However, a permanent business relationship had not been established.
Morgenstern actually wanted to spend six months in Taormina with Margareta; But since he became seriously ill again, as soon as he was able to do so in the spring of 1911, he went to the German Hospital in Rome and then to the Arosa Forest Sanatorium , where he saw his father and Margareta's mother, who initially disagreed with the marriage was. After several months of rest cure, he was able to leave the sanatorium and moved into an apartment in Arosa with Margareta.
In 1912 he received a donation of one thousand marks from the German Schiller Foundation. Soon afterwards he went to Davos. Margareta attended Steiner's lectures in Munich for him. Still ill, he left the sanatorium and went to Zurich with Margareta, where he met Steiner in October. Then he returned to Arosa. He wrote a letter in which he wanted to propose Rudolf Steiner for the Nobel Peace Prize , but did not send it off.
From the spring of 1913 he stayed in Portorose , where he translated the poems of Frederick the Great from French and made Michael Bauer , who also had lung disease, a friend. After a trip to Bad Reichenhall , where he met Friedrich and Helene Kayßler, he heard Steiner's lectures in Munich, which he followed in November to Stuttgart and in December to Leipzig. In both Stuttgart and Leipzig, Marie von Sivers , who later became Steiner's wife, recited Morgenstern's works, who considered the last of the two lectures on New Year's Eve to be the most important day of his life.
In Munich, the Morgensterns could not reach their doctor and therefore went to a sanatorium in Arco (Trentino), which Morgenstern did not accept in order to avoid dying patients. After a short stay in a sanatorium near Bolzano , he moved to the Villa Helioburg in Untermais ( incorporated into Merano since 1924 ), where he was still working on the printed sheet for the collection We found a path . He had written to Michael Bauer: "Now I am lying down again and cannot get up ... we want to go to Hartungen in Meran." Bauer drove to Meran to Morgenstern, who on March 31, 1914, around five o'clock in the morning, was being looked after by his Doctor Christoph Hartung von Hartungen died in the Villa Helioburg. On April 4th he was cremated in Basel. Rudolf Steiner kept the urn until it was placed in the new Goetheanum . The urn has been buried on the Goetheanum site since 1992.
Part of Morgenstern's estate is in the German Literature Archive in Marbach . Parts of it can be seen in the permanent exhibition of the Modern Literature Museum in Marbach, especially the originals of the gallows songs .
Aftermath and reception
After the poet's death, his widow published many of his works, some of which she rearranged and added previously unpublished parts of the estate (only about half of his work had been published during Morgenstern's lifetime). His so-called serious poetry never found the resonance that Morgenstern had always hoped for, and was largely ignored by research. Morgenstern only became known (and popular) to a larger readership with his humorous poetry. Morgenstern unfolds his amiable, astute linguistic wit, especially in his gallows songs , whose meaning often requires “a second and third glance”. Morgenstern's humoresques, which are often misunderstood as literary nonsense in research, are by no means mere gimmicks, but, in the words of the poet, “toys and serious things”. Three examples of Christian Morgenstern's special comedy language:
- "Once upon a time there was a picket fence with a space in between to look through it" ( Der Pattenzaun )
- "The water ran with zasch and hiss" ( The whale fish )
- "Even as a clock, with its times, it does not want to ride principles" ( Palmström's clock )
The end of the poem The Impossible Fact (from Palmström ) became a catchphrase :
And he comes to the conclusion:
The experience was only a dream.
Because, he concludes with razor sharpness
, what cannot be cannot be.
His Nasobēm inspired the zoologist Gerolf Steiner to create the (fictional) order of the Rhinogradentia , a scientific-satirical joke that spread internationally and later found its best-known imitation in Loriot's stone louse .
In Germany some schools bear the name of the poet. So in Berlin, Hamburg and Herrsching am Ammersee .
On December 8, 1998 the asteroid (9764) Morgenstern was named after Christian Morgenstern.
On the 100th anniversary of the poet's death in March 2014, the Christian Morgenstern Literature Museum opened on the so-called Galgenberg in Werder (Havel) near Potsdam , where the gallows songs are said to have originated. Also on the 100th anniversary of his death, the Munich German scholars Markus May and Waldemar Fromm presented newer results of Morgenstern research on October 25, 2014 in the Lyrik Kabinett in Munich, in particular on Morgenstern's precursor role for the great humorists of the 20th century such as Robert Gernhardt and Ernst Jandl . As far as their “bureaucracy criticism” is concerned, so Fromm, Franz Kafka and Morgenstern are brothers in spirit: “Morgenstern is already building pre-Kafkaesque worlds to show the absurdity of a managed life.” An example:
Korf authority receives
an armored form from the police office stating
who he is and how and where.
What place he was up to now,
what status and generally ,
where he was born, day and year.
Whether he is even allowed
to live here and for what purpose,
how much money he has and what he believes.
Conversely, if you were to
seduce him into arrest on the spot , and
underneath it says: Borowsky, Heck.
Korf replied briefly and roundly :
to personal findings, a
high-ranking director presents himself and describes himself
as a non-existent person in the proper sense of
Korf. (To the district authority in -.) “The
boss concerned reads it in amazement.
Appeared during Morgenstern's lifetime
- In Phanta's castle . A cycle of humorous and fantastic poetry. Taendler, Berlin 1895
- In many ways . Poems. Schuster & Loeffler, Berlin 1897
- Horatius Travestitus . A student joke. (Later editions with binding drawings by Karl Walser .) Schuster & Loeffler, Berlin 1897
- Me and the world . Poems. Schuster & Loeffler, Berlin 1898
- A summer . Verses. S. Fischer, Berlin 1900
- And a wreath is formed . S. Fischer, Berlin 1902
- Gallows songs (with cover drawing by Karl Walser ). Bruno Cassirer, Berlin 1905
- Melancholy . New poems. Bruno Cassirer, Berlin 1906
- Easter book (cover title: 'Hasenbuch'). Children's verse with 16 plates by K. F. Edmund von Freyhold. Bruno Cassirer, Berlin 1908; New editions: Inselbuch 1960 and Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 1978 ISBN 3-937801-16-2
- Palmström (with cover drawing by Karl Walser). Bruno Cassirer, Berlin 1910
- Contemplation . Poems. Piper, Munich 1910
- I and Thou . Sonnets, ritornelles, songs. Piper, Munich 1911
- We found a path . New poems. Piper, Munich 1914
Editions edited, expanded or modified from the estate
- Palma Kunkel (with cover drawing by Karl Walser ). Bruno Cassirer, Berlin 1916.
- Margareta Morgenstern, Michael Bauer (Ed.): Steps. A development in aphorisms and diary notes . Piper, Munich 1918.
- The whole Gingganz (with cover drawing by Karl Walser). Bruno Cassirer , Berlin 1919.
- Margareta Morgenstern (Ed.): Epigrams and Proverbs . Piper, Munich 1919.
- Horatius travestitus: A student joke. 4th edition. Piper Verlag, Munich 1919 
- The message tree (poem). The history of the "message tree". Two school years from the life of Christian Morgenstern (essay by "Ger. Trud", d. I. Gertrud Isolani ). AR Meyer, Berlin-Wilmersdorf 1920.
- In Many Ways (3rd edition , expanded and unified with Ich und die Welt ). Piper, Munich 1920.
- About the gallows songs . With comments from Dr. Jeremias Müller. Bruno Cassirer, Berlin 1921.
- A wreath (2nd edition associated with One Summer ). Piper, Munich 1921.
- Little Irmchen. A children's song book . With drawings by Josua Leander Gampp . Bruno Cassirer, Berlin 1921.
- Margareta Morgenstern, Michael Bauer (Ed.): Mensch Wanderer. Poems from the years 1887–1914 . With two photo portraits. Piper, Munich 1927.
- The sound mill. Grotesques and parodies . With four silhouettes by Christian Morgenstern's hand. Piper, Munich 1928.
- Selection . 113 poems with an afterword by Michael Bauer. Piper, Munich 1929.
- All gallows songs (= gallows songs , Palmström , Palma Kunkel and Gingganz ). Expanded with 14 poems from the estate and edited by by Margareta Morgenstern. Bruno Cassirer, Berlin 1932.
- My love is as big as the big wide world. Selected poems (extended new edition of selection ). Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. With an introduction by Michael Bauer. Piper, Munich 1936.
- Bohemian fair (new, enlarged and modified version of the sound mill ). Piper, Munich 1938.
- If you don't know your destination, you can't have the way . A foreword for every day of the year. Compiled by Margareta Morgenstern. Piper, Munich 1939.
- Time and eternity . Selected poems (partly unpublished). Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. Insel ( Insel-Bücherei , Volume 112), Leipzig 1940.
- The enlightened moon sheep . 28 gallows songs and their commonly understood interpretation by Jeremias Mueller. Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. Insel, Leipzig 1941.
- Klaus Burrmann, the wildlife photographer . With pictures by Fritz Beblo . Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg 1941.
- All the gallows songs . Insel-Verlag, Leipzig 1941.
- Dear sun, dear earth. A children's song book . With pictures by Elsa Eisgruber (modified new edition by Klein Irmchen ). Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg 1943.
- Easter fairy tale . With colored pictures by Willi Harwerth. Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg 1945.
- Silent ripening. New selection . Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. Piper, Munich 1946.
- One must go from one light to the other. A book of sayings . Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. Piper, Munich 1948.
- Egon and Emilie . New edition of the grotesques and parodies. With a foreword by Margareta Morgenstern. Piper, Munich 1950.
- Sausebrand and mouse barber. A children's song book (again modified new edition by Klein Irmchen ). With pictures by Martin Koser and Ruth Koser-Michaëls . Gerhard Stalling, Oldenburg 1951.
- I hear the sources of life singing within me. The selected poems part two . Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. Piper, Munich 1951.
- A life in letters . Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. Insel, Wiesbaden 1952.
- From the revealed secret. Aphorisms . Selected from steps by Margareta Morgenstern. Piper (Piper-Bücherei 73), Munich 1954.
- The game spirit. Verse and prose . With drawings by Hanns Erich Köhler . Torchbearer Verlag / Schmidt-Küster-Verlag, Hanover 1960 
- Collected works in one volume . Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. Piper, Munich 1965.
- The gathering of nails . Edited by Margareta Morgenstern. Piper, Munich 1969.
- Palmstrom . With wood engravings by Hans Peter Willberg . Sigbert Mohn Verlag, Gütersloh around 1970.
- Selected works . Edited by Klaus Schuhmann . Insel-Verlag, Leipzig 1975.
- All the gallows songs . With colored drawings by Dieter Kliesch . Gutenberg Book Guild, Frankfurt am Main / Vienna / Zurich 1984.
- All the gallows songs . With an afterword by Leonard Forster and an editorial note by Jens Jessen . Manesse Verlag, Zurich 1985, ISBN 3-7175-1696-5 .
- O horror! O horror! O utterly abominable! Ax and horseshoe of the executioners and gallows brothers . Edited and with an afterword by Karl Riha . Urachhaus publishing house, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-87838-607-9 .
- Poems in one volume . Edited by Reinhardt Habel. Insel, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 978-3-458-17169-0 .
- The ducks are skating . Verses by Christian Morgenstern and Marianne Garff , pictures by Ute Gerstenmaier . Verlag frei Geistesleben & Urachhaus, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-8251-7446-8
- The mousetrap . With pictures by Peter Schössow . Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich / Vienna 2006, ISBN 978-3-446-20695-3 .
- The Morgenstern reading book . With illustrations by Karsten Teich. Weltbild Buchverlag, Augsburg 2009, including CD with 76 selected poems, speaker Armin Berger, ISBN 978-3-86800-142-6 .
- Morgenstern for pleasure . With 9 illustrations. Edited by Frank Möbus . Reclam's Universal Library No. 18929. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2009, 2014, ISBN 978-3-15-018929-0 .
- Lust for life with Christian Morgenstern , selected by Thomas Kluge, Insel Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-458-35326-3 .
- A weasel sat on a pebble and other poems by Christian Morgenstern . Illustrated by Christine Sormann. Lappan Verlag, Oldenburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8303-1181-2 .
- All the poems. Special edition for the 100th birthday after the Stuttgart edition of the works and letters . Edited by Martin Kießig . 3 volumes. Urachhaus, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-8251-7872-7 .
- Christian Morgenstern for young and old. Poems . Edited and illustrated by Reinhard Michl . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-423-28024-2 .
- All the gallows songs . Graphics by Hans Ticha . Book Guild Gutenberg, Frankfurt am Main / Vienna / Zurich 2014, ISBN 978-3-7632-6652-4 .
- The three sparrows . Illustrated by Anke am Berg . Eulenspiegel Kinderbuchverlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-359-02336-4 .
- The moon sheep stands on a wide field. Poems and sayings . marixverlag, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-86539-351-7 .
- Love poems . Selected and ed. by Jean-Claude Lin. 2nd Edition. Urachhaus publishing house, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-8251-7886-4 .
- The Nachtschelm and the Siebenschwein , with 13 pictures by Daniela Drescher , Urachhaus Verlag, Stuttgart, 2nd edition, ISBN 978-3-8251-7878-9 .
- The great Lalula . Illustrated by Ann Cathrin Raab. Prestel Verlag, Munich / London / New York 2016, ISBN 978-3-7913-7248-8 .
- When God created the dear moon The most beautiful poems , selected by Kim Landgraf, Anaconda Verlag, Cologne 2017, ISBN 978-3-7306-0533-2 .
- Easter book , illustrated by Konrad Ferdinand Edmund von Freyhold , Walde + Graf Verlagsagentur und Verlag GmbH, Berlin 2019, 1st edition, ISBN 978-3-946896-40-1 .
Transfers in other languages
- Das Mondschaf - The Moon Sheep . A selection from the gallows songs. Authorized English Version by AEW Eitzen. Insel (Insel-Bücherei 696), Wiesbaden 1953.
- Palmstroem e altri gallows songs . Translated by Anselmo Turazza. Libreria Antiquaria Palmaverde, Bologna 1955.
- The Gallows Songs: a selection , Transl., With an introd., By Max Knight , University of California Press, Berkeley, LosAngeles 1964, 
- Gallows songs . Translated by WD Snodgrass and Lore Segal. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1967.
- Gallows songs and other poems. Gallows Songs and other Poems , selected and translated into English by Max Knight. Piper, Munich 1972.
- Cantares patibularios . Translated by J. Francisco Elvira-Hernandez. Ediciones Sexifirmo, 1977.
- Songs from the Gallows: Gallows songs . Translated by Walter Arndt. Yale University Press, New Haven 1993.
- Christian Morgenstern speaks six languages . Thirty cheerful poems translated into English, French, Hebrew, Italian and Spanish. With 30 graphics by Igael Tumarkin . Edited by Niels Hansen . Urachhaus, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8251-7476-X .
- Me and you (Toi et Moi) - We found a path ( Nous trouvâmes un sentier ). Two Christian Morgenstern volumes translated into French by D.Blumenstihl-Roth, Peleman Verlag, 2014, ISBN 2-9522261-1-3 .
- De Galgenliederen en other grotesque poems . Bilingual edition of all gallows songs, translated by Bèr Wilbers. Uitgeverij Ijzer, Utrecht 2006, ISBN 90-74328-97-0 .
- Palmŝtrojmo de Kristiano Morningŝterno . Translation by Rikardo Ŝulco. Esperanto-Centro Paderborn, Paderborn 1983, ISBN 3-922570-36-4 .
- Carmina lunovilia - Das Mondschaf , selected, translated into Latin by Peter Wiesmann, Patmos Verlagsgruppe, Albatros Verlag, Mannheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-538-07601-3 .
Translations by Christian Morgenstern
- August Strindberg: Inferno . Georg Bondi, Berlin 1898.
- Knut Hamsun: Afterglow. Drama in three acts . Langen, Munich 1904.
- Björnstjerne Björnson: Poems . In German translation by Max Bamberger, Ludwig Fulda , Cläre Mjöen, Christian Morgenstern and Roman Woerner, ed. by Julius Elias . Langen, Munich 1908.
- Henrik Ibsen: All works in German . Reviewed and introduced by Georg Brandes , Julius Elias, Paul Schlenther . Translated by Christian Morgenstern (among others), 10 volumes. S. Fischer, Berlin 1898-1904.
- The great dramas . Translated by Christian Morgenstern and Emma Klingenfeld. Afterword by A. Viviani. Artemis & Winkler, Zurich 2006, ISBN 978-3-538-06311-2 .
Complete and annotated work edition
Stuttgart edition of the Urachhaus publishing house , Stuttgart, ed. under the direction of Reinhardt Habel.
- Volume 1: Poetry 1887–1905 , ed. by Martin Kiessig , 1988, ISBN 3-87838-501-3 .
- Volume 2: Poetry 1906-1914 , ed. by Martin Kiessig, 1992, ISBN 3-87838-502-1 .
- Volume 3: Humorous Poetry , ed. by Maurice Cureau, 1990, ISBN 3-87838-503-X .
- Volume 4: Epic and Dramatic , ed. by Reinhardt Habel and Ernst Kretschmer, 2001, ISBN 3-87838-504-8 .
- Volume 5: Aphorisms , ed. by Reinhardt Habel, 1987, ISBN 3-87838-505-6 .
- Volume 6: Critical Writings , ed. by Helmut Gumtau, 1987, ISBN 3-87838-506-4 .
- Volume 7: Correspondence 1878–1903 , ed. by Katharina Breitner, 2005, ISBN 3-87838-507-2 .
- Volume 8: Correspondence 1905–1908 , ed. by Katharina Breitner, 2011, ISBN 978-3-87838-508-0 .
- Volume 9: Correspondence 1909–1914 , ed. by Agnes Harder, 2018, ISBN 978-3-87838-509-7 .
Morgenstern's works on sound carriers (selection)
- Morning star in the evening . Gert Fröbe recites Christian Morgenstern. Kein & Aber Records, Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-906547-31-0 .
- The midnight mouse . Christian Morgenstern, presented by Monica Bleibtreu and Uwe Ochsenknecht. Patmos Verlag, Düsseldorf 2006, ISBN 3-491-24123-5 .
- Lyrical Christian Morgenstern . A composition of music and poetry with Christian Kaiser & Hans Kemner. L&M Literature and Music, Leuberg Edition, 1988.
- The parrot won't tell you a word . Katharina Thalbach speaks Christian Morgenstern, Audiobuch Verlag OHG, Freiburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-89964-771-6 .
Morgenstern's poems have been set to music by many composers. Detailed overviews can be found in the Digital Christian Morgenstern Archive and in the Lied, Art Song, and Choral Texts Archive . Some examples:
- Paul Graener : Nacht- und Spukgesänge , Opus 79, 2 booklets, Bote & Bock, Berlin, Wiesbaden, 1927 and 1955.
- Yrjö Kilpinen : Songs about Death , Opus 62, Bote and Bock, Berlin, Wiesbaden, 1934 and 1962.
- Yrjö Kilpinen: Songs of Love , Opus 60/61, Bote & Bock, Berlin, Wiesbaden, 1934 and 1962.
- Franz Tischhauser (composer) : Das Nasobem , for mixed choir a capella, 1950, world premiere in St. Gallen 1951.
- Michael Bauer : Christian Morgenstern's life and work . Piper, Munich 1933 (Completed by Margareta Morgenstern and Rudolf Meyer. With contributions by Friedrich Kayssler and others). (Reissued 1985 by Urachhaus, Stuttgart).
- Martin Beheim-Schwarzbach: Christian Morgenstern . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1964, ISBN 3-499-50097-3 (Rowohlt's monographs, volume 97).
- Maurice Cureau: Christian Morgenstern humoriste. La création poétique dans "In Phanta's Castle" et les "Gallows songs" . Peter Lang, Bern 1986 (European University Papers, Series I / Vol. 949). ISBN 3-261-03577-3 ,
- Herbert Gumtau: Christian Morgenstern . Colloquium, Berlin 1971 (Heads of the XXth Century, Volume 66).
- Reinhardt Habel: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 18, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-428-00199-0 , pp. 104-108 ( version ). In:
- Ueli Haldimann (Ed.): Hermann Hesse, Thomas Mann and others in Arosa - texts and images from two centuries . AS Verlag und Buchkonzept, Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-905111-67-5 , pp. 65–71.
- Friedrich Hiebel: Christian Morgenstern. The turn and departure of our century . A. Francke, Bern 1957.
- Ernst Kretschmer (Ed.): Christian Morgenstern. A wandering life in text and pictures . Quadriga, Weinheim and Berlin 1989. ISBN 3-88679-180-7 ,
- Bernd-Udo Kusch: Christian Morgenstern. Life and work. His way to anthroposophy . Novalis, Schaffhausen 1982. ISBN 3-7214-0116-6 ,
- Rudolf Meyer: Christian Morgenstern in Berlin . Urachhaus, Stuttgart 1959.
- Reinhard Piper: Memories of my collaboration with Christian Morgenstern . Piper, Munich 1978 (Christmas gift for friends of the publisher).
- Heiko Postma : "... for the sake of rhyme" About the poet Christian Morgenstern . JMB Verlag, Hannover 2015, ISBN 978-3-944342-61-0 .
- Jochen Schimmang : Christian Morgenstern: a biography . Residenz Verlag , St. Pölten 2013, ISBN 978-3-7017-3263-0 .
- Peter Selg : Christian Morgenstern - His path with Rudolf Steiner . Free Spiritual Life & Urachhaus publishing house, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-7725-1914-7 .
- Albert Steffen : From the spiritual path of Christian Morgenstern . Verlag für Schöne Wissenschaft, Dornach 1971.
- Anthony T. Wilson: About the gallows songs of Christian Morgenstern . Königshausen and Neumann (= Epistemata - Würzburg Scientific Writings. Series Literary Studies, Vol. 448), 2003, ISBN 978-3-8260-2490-0 .
- Literature by and about Christian Morgenstern in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Christian Morgenstern in the German Digital Library
- Literature by and about Christian Morgenstern in the bibliographic database WorldCat
- Works by Christian Morgenstern at Zeno.org .
- Works by Christian Morgenstern in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Works by Christian Morgenstern in Project Gutenberg ( currently usually not available for users from Germany )
- Christian Morgenstern in the Internet Archive
- Christian Morgenstern in the Bavarian literature portal (project of the Bavarian State Library )
- Works by and about Christian Morgenstern at Open Library
- Life and work of Christian Morgenstern Biography, interpretations, brief contents, bibliography
- We found a path. New Poems (1914) (Bielefeld University Library)
- Christian Morgenstern - life and work - poems, biography, contemporary history 1871–1914
- Poems on zgedichte.de
- Settings in The LiederNet Archive
- Evidence of settings of Morgenstern's poems
- Christian Morgenstern Literature Museum
- Digital Christian Morgenstern archive
- According to the Stuttgart edition , the apostrophe does not go back to Morgenstern's will, but was added by the publisher. It was removed from the Stuttgart edition.
- Kurt E. Becker : Anthroposophy - Revolution from within. Guidelines in Rudolf Steiner's thinking . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1984, ISBN 3-596-23336-4 , pp. 73 .
- Report on the new exhibition in the Badische Zeitung.
- Anthony T. Wilson: About the Galgenlieder Christian Morgensterns , Königshausen and Neumann (= Epistemata - Würzburg scientific writings. Series Literary Studies, Volume 448), 2003, p. 20.
- Anthony T. Wilson: About the Galgenlieder Christian Morgensterns , Königshausen and Neumann (= Epistemata - Würzburg scientific writings. Series literary studies. Volume 448), 2003, p. 38.
- So Christian Morgenstern on the 15th edition of the Galgenlieder . Quotation in / see: Anthony T. Wilson: About the gallows songs by Christian Morgenstern , Königshausen and Neumann (= Epistemata - Würzburg scientific writings. Literature series. Volume 448), 2003, p. 38.
- Harald Stümpke: Construction and Life of Rhinogradentia , with illustrations and an afterword by Gerolf Steiner. Heidelberg 1961, reprint 2011, ISBN 978-3-8274-1840-1
- Morgenstern primary school in Berlin-Spandau
- Christian Morgenstern Elementary School Hamburg
- Christian Morgenstern elementary school
- Freundeskreis Bismarckhöhe in Werder , accessed on May 24, 2020
- Dieter Manz & al .: Ruf vom Galgenberg. Christian Morgenstern Literature Museum Werder (Havel), March 31, 2010, accessed on December 7, 2017 .
- Morgenstern in the evening . Reading in the Lyrik Kabinett. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , 2014, accessed on October 25, 2014
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Morgenstern, Christian Otto Josef Wolfgang (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German poet, writer and translator|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 6, 1871|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Munich|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 31, 1914|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Untermais , Tyrol , Austria-Hungary|