Claire Goll

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Claire Goll (born Clara or Klara Aischmann, born October 29, 1890 in Nuremberg ; † May 30, 1977 in Paris ) was a Franco-German writer and journalist and the wife of the poet Yvan Goll .

life and work

Clara Aischmann was the daughter of a Jewish hop trader whose family moved from Nuremberg to Munich in 1892. In 1911 she married the later publisher Heinrich Studer and lived with him in Leipzig. In May 1912 their daughter Dorothea Elisabeth (called Doralies) Studer was born. In Leipzig she also began studying philosophy. In 1916 she emigrated to Switzerland as a pacifist , where she studied at the University of Geneva , became involved in the peace movement and began to work as a journalist. In 1917 she met the poet Yvan Goll, who was also of Jewish origin. At the end of 1918 she had an affair with Rainer Maria Rilke . She remained on friendly terms with him until his death.

In 1918, her first volume of poetry, Mitwelt, and the volume of short stories The Women Awaken, appeared . She went to Paris with Yvan Goll in 1919, where they married in 1921. The shared apartment served as a meeting point for artistic life; there perverse among others Chagall , Léger , Delaunay , Picasso , Jawlensky , Braque , Joyce , Audiberti , Malraux , Breton and Gide . In 1926 she published her first novel The Negro Jupiter robs Europe . Her stories, poems and novels were also published in French; conversely, she translated some of her husband's works into German. She wrote her volumes of poetry Poèmes d'amour (1925), Poèmes de la jalousie (1926) and Poèmes de la vie et de la mort together with her husband as an alternating song of love .

Claire and Yvan Goll lived apart at times in the 1930s. In 1939, at the beginning of the Second World War , both fled the Nazis into exile in New York. They did not return to Paris until 1947, where Yvan Goll died in 1950.

After Yvan Goll's death, Claire Goll devoted herself more and more to her husband's work - it has been proven that she manipulated texts and forged data (visible on the estate in the German Literature Archive in Marbach). Her autobiographical novels The Stolen Heaven (1962) and Dream Dancer (1971) received little attention. However, her quarrel with Paul Celan , known as the "Goll Affair" , caused a stir . Claire Goll accused Celan of plagiarizing Yvan Goll, which turned out to be untrue. Claire Goll's memoir I Forgive No One also caused quite a stir . A literary Chronique scandaleuse of our time ( La Poursuite du Vent , 1976), which also appeared in the GDR in 1980 with an afterword by Klaus Schuhmann .

Claire Goll died in 1977 and was buried next to her husband in the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris . The common gravestone bears a drawing by Marc Chagall . Since her death, literary scholars and contemporary historians have devoted themselves increasingly to her work.


Part of Goll's estate is in the German Literature Archive in Marbach . Parts of it can be seen in the permanent exhibition of the Modern Literature Museum in Marbach.

Works (selection)

German-language titles

  • Claire Studer: The women are awakening. Novellas. Huber & Co., Frauenfeld 1918
  • Claire Studer: Mitwelt. Poems. Publishing house of the weekly Die Aktion, Berlin 1918
  • Claire Studer: The glass garden. Two novellas (series “The New Series”, Volume 17). Roland-Verlag, Munich 1919
  • The negro Jupiter robs Europe. Novel. Rhein-Verlag, Basel 1926
  • A person is drowning. Novel. Tal, Leipzig / Vienna 1931
  • Arsenic. Novel. Bergis, Paris / Vienna 1933
    • Under the title Every victim kills his murderer edition of the 2, Berlin 1977
  • Diary of a horse. With four drawings by Marc Chagall . Pflugverlag, St. Gallen 1950
  • The dove widow. With four drawings by Antoni Clavé . Pflugverlag, Thal / St. Gallen 1952
  • Claire and Yvan Goll: New Flowers of St. Francis (“Books of the Harvest” series). Pflugverlag, Thal / St. Gallen 1952
  • Ivan and Claire Goll: Ten Thousand Dawns. Poems of a love. With four drawings by Marc Chagall. Limes, Wiesbaden 1954
  • Complaint for Ivan. Poems. (= Poetry of our time , vol. 15). Limes, Wiesbaden 1960
  • The stolen sky. Novel. List, Munich 1962
    • New edition with an afterword by Anna Rheinsberg (= The woman in literature ). Ullstein, Berlin 1988
  • Memoirs of a Sparrow of the Century. Stories and poetry. With 16 illustrations by Chagall, Clavé, Delaunay, Hélion, Masson, Villon. Limes, Wiesbaden 1969
  • Dream dancer. Years of youth. With bibliography of all works by Claire Goll, including those written together with Yvan. Paul List Verlag, Munich 1971
  • Circus of life. Stories. With an afterword by Erhard Schwandt. edition der 2, Berlin 1976, ISBN 3-921347-02-5
  • I don't forgive anyone. A literary chronique scandaleuse of our time. Only authorized translation from French by Ava Belcampo . Scherz, Bern / Munich 1978

French-language titles

  • Journal d'un Cheval. Les Mémoires d'un Moineau. Editions du Rhin, Basel / Strasbourg 1925.
  • Claire et Ivan Goll: Poèmes d'amour. Avec 4 dessins de Marc Chagall [= Collection surréaliste]. Jean Budry & Cie, Paris 1925.
  • Claire et Ivan Goll: Poèmes de jalousie. Avec une eau-forte originale de Foujita . Jean Budry & Cie, Paris 1926.
  • Claire et Ivan Goll: Poèmes de la vie et de la mort. Avec deux radiographies. Jean Budry & Cie, Paris 1927.
  • Yvan et Claire Goll: Dix milles Aubes. Huit designs by Marc Chagall. Falaize, Paris 1951.
  • Rilke et les femmes, suivi de Lettres de Rainer Maria Rilke. Falaize, Paris 1955.
  • Claire & Yvan Goll: Nouvelles petites fleurs de Saint François d'Assise. Avec des dessins de Salvador Dalí . Éditions Émile-Paul, Paris 1958.
  • Yvan et Claire Goll: Duo d'Amour. Poèmes d'Amour (1920 à 1950) avec une couverture et douze illustrations de Marc Chagall. Seghers, Paris 1959.
  • Poètes d'aujourd'hui. Par Georges Cattaui edmée de la Rochefoucauld Armand Lanoux. Choix de textes, bibliography, portraits, facsimilés. Éditions Seghers, Paris 1967.

As a translator into German

  • The new world. An anthology of recent American poetry. Edited and translated by Claire Goll. S. Fischer, Berlin 1921 ( digitized in the Internet Archive ).
  • René Maran : Batuala. A real Negro novel. (= The soul of Africa. Volume 1). Rhein-Verlag, Basel / Zurich / Leipzig / Paris / Strasbourg 1922.
  • Red moon - white game. Songs of the Indians. Translated and with an afterword by Claire Goll. With eight graphics based on Indian templates by Fritz Faiss . Wolfgang Rothe, Heidelberg 1955.


  • Claire Goll, Iwan Goll: Sounds of my soul. The literary document of a life between art and love recorded in her letters. Florian Kupferberg Verlag, Mainz 1966.
    • Newly edited and commented by Barbara Glauert. Scherz, Mainz et al. 1978.
  • "I long for your blue letters very much". Rainer Maria Rilke. Claire Goll. Correspondence. On behalf of the Fondation Yvan et Claire Goll, Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, edited by Barbara Glauert-Hesse. Wallstein, Göttingen 2000, ISBN 3-89244-404-8 .
  • Claire Goll, Yvan Goll, Paula Ludwig : "Only one more time will I be unfaithful to you". Correspondence and records 1917–1966. Edited and with an afterword by Barbara Glauert-Hesse. Wallstein, Göttingen 2013, ISBN 978-3-8353-1046-9 .
  • Claire Goll, Lothar Klünner: Coral Night. Selected letters 1955–1960. With linocuts by Serge Dimitroff, woodcuts by Felix Martin Furtwängler, etchings by Heike Stephan, screen prints by Klaus Zylla. Edited by Malte Barck u. Ilona Stumpe-Speer. Edition Maldoror, Berlin 2014.
  • Sandra Quadflieg & Ulrich Tukur read Claire and Yvan Goll. Nothing is missing - except you. The story of an overwhelming love. Letters & diary entries (2 CDs, 157 min.). Random House Audio, 2017, ISBN 978-3-8371-3788-0


  • Michaela Karl: Claire Goll: Femme fatal. In: Bavarian Amazons - 12 portraits. Pustet, Regensburg 2004, ISBN 3-7917-1868-1 , pp. 116-131.
  • Franziska Meister: Goll, Claire. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  • Susanne Nadolny: Claire Goll. “I don't live, I love.” A biographical and literary collage with texts, images and photographs by Claire Goll, Yvan Goll, Rainer Maria Rilke, Paula Ludwig, Franz Werfel, Paul Celan, Kurt Wolff, Kurt Pinthus, Hans Arp, Marc Chagall, Alexej Jawlensky. Edition Ebersbach, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-934703-47-X .
  • Jürgen Serke : Claire Goll. “I think I've lived enough”. In: The Burned Poets. With photos by Wilfried Bauer . Reports, texts, pictures of a time. Beltz & Gelberg , Weinheim 1977, pp. 64-83. ( Digitized version of the 3rd edition from 1978 in the Internet Archive ).
  • Hartmut Vollmer (Ed.): Claire Goll (short biography and bibliography German and French title, 62 mentions). In: "The sun dances itself to death in red shoes". Poetry by expressionist female poets. Igel Verlag, Hamburg 2011, pp. 238–240 ( preview of the book on Google Books )
  • Barbara Wiedemann (Ed.): Paul Celan - the Goll affair. Documents on an "infamy". Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-518-41177-2 .
  • Complete bibliography of female authors (German and French title, 99 mentions) in: Ulrike Stadler-Altmann: Das Zeitgedicht der Weimarer Republik. With a source bibliography. (= Germanistic texts and studies ). Georg Olms, Hildesheim 2001, ISBN 3-487-11466-6 , pp. 457-461.
  • Eric Robertson, Robert Vilain (Eds.): Yvan Goll - Claire Goll. Texts and Contexts. Rodopi, Amsterdam / Atlanta (GA) 1997, ISBN 90-420-0189-5 ( preview of the book on Google Books ; from it: Moray McGowan: Black and white? Claire Goll's novel 'Der Neger Jupiter raubt Europa'. PDF, 1, 1 MB ).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Gisela Brinker-Gabler, Karola Ludwig, Angela Wöffen: Lexicon of German-speaking women writers 1800–1945. dtv Munich, 1986, ISBN 3-423-03282-0 , p. 109 ff.
  2. Press photos of the new permanent exhibition. ( Memento from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  3. Brief content in: August Buck (Ed.): Der Europa-Gedanke. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1992, p. 34, note 61 ( preview of the book on Google Books).
  4. Katharina Teutsch: You have to be impulsive! Review. In: FAZ . June 18, 2013, p. 26.