Yehudi Menuhin

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Yehudi Menuhin (1976)
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Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin , OM , KBE (born April 22, 1916 in New York ; † March 12, 1999 in Berlin ) was an American by birth , Swiss from 1970 and British violinist , violist and conductor from 1985 . He is one of the most important violin virtuosos of the 20th century. In addition to his work as a soloist and conductor, Menuhin founded institutions and projects in various countries from 1957 to promote music.



The father: Moshe Menuhin

Yehudi Menuhin's father Moshe Mnuchin (1893–1983) was born in Homel in what is now Belarus as a descendant of Hasidic rabbis and spent his youth in Palestine . In 1913 he came to the United States to study at New York University . In 1914 he married Marutha Sher (approx. 1892–1996), who also came from Russia and had lived in Palestine. Yehudi was born in 1916. The mother had chosen his first name - Yehudi means “Jew” - out of defiance of an anti-Semitic comment by a landlady.

In 1918 the family moved to San Francisco , where Moshe Mnuchin worked as a Hebrew teacher. When the family was naturalized in 1919, she changed her family name to Menuhin . In the following years, Yehudi's sisters were born: Hephzibah (1920–1981) and Yaltah (1921–2001). Both sisters, like their brother, proved to be highly musical in early childhood and became pianists. The fact that the sisters could also be considered child prodigies is reflected in a saying by the pianist Marcel Ciampi. After Hephzibah and then the five-year-old Yaltah had played him in Paris, he spontaneously shouted: “Mais le ventre de Madame Menuhin est un véritable conservatoire” (“Madame Menuhin's belly is a real conservatory ”). Hephzibah Menuhin was her brother's preferred musical partner for nearly fifty years.

Both parents aspired to make brilliant musicians out of their children. Her ambition was mainly directed towards her son Yehudi. The mother in particular intervened purposefully and authoritatively in the children's lives. The father worked as his son's manager and agent during his son's early career , planning performances, negotiating fees and accompanying him on his concert tours. Perhaps in order to be able to sell him even better as a child prodigy, Moshe Menuhin always gave January 22, 1917 as his son's birthday. This falsification of nine months meant that Menuhin's age was often given insufficiently one year in contemporary reports. It wasn't until 1938, when he was 22 years old and already married, that his father admitted the hoax.

childhood and education

At the age of four, Yehudi Menuhin got a cheap sheet metal violin and a bow from his parents. He reacted to the unsightly sound of the instrument with a fit of anger and threw it on the floor. With financial support from his grandmother in Palestine, his mother bought him half a wooden violin . From 1921 he received his first lessons for two years from the Austrian violinist Sigmund Anker, who ran a violin school in San Francisco. In February and April 1922 he appeared publicly with individual pieces, each at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco, and in June 1922 he was heard on a local radio station. On November 9, 1922, he played Accolay's one-movement violin concerto in A minor with piano accompaniment in the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco . According to Menuhin's biographer Humphrey Burton, this performance can be regarded as Menuhin's debut because it was the first time there was a serious reception: the respected music critic Redfern Mason praised Menuhin and wrote that he could already be recognized as the future master. In February 1923 he performed Bériot's Violin Concerto No. 9, again with a positive response.

From July 1923 Menuhin was tutored by Louis Persinger , who had been concertmaster of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra since 1916 . A performance in the Oakland Auditorium on February 29, 1924 is usually cited as Menuhin's professional debut . Accompanied on the piano by Persinger, he performed Bériot's Scène de ballet and, as an encore, Sarasate's Gypsy tunes . Two weeks later he played the same program in San Francisco in front of at least 6,000 school children as an audience, as part of a concert by the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra in the Civic Auditorium. Promising reviews followed. On March 30, 1925, accompanied by Persinger, he performed a full recital for the first time in the Scottish Rite Auditorium , including Mendelssohn's violin concerto - biographer Philip Bailey regards this performance as Menuhin's debut. Redfern Mason wrote another gushing review on the San Francisco Examiner .

Persinger moved to New York in the winter of 1925/26; the Menuhins followed him so as not to lose the valuable instruction. There the boy received theoretical music lessons for the first time at the Institute of Musical Art, which later became the renowned Juilliard School . On January 17, 1926, Menuhin made his New York debut at the Manhattan Opera House. At that time he was still playing a seven-eighth violin.

On Persinger's advice, and supported by the patron Sidney Ehrman, the Menuhins decided to move to Paris in 1926 . From there Menuhin and his mother first traveled to Persinger's former teacher Eugène Ysaÿe in Brussels . Ysaÿe was 68 years old at the time and could no longer stand because of a foot disease. When Menuhin was introduced to him, he overcame the enormous difficulties of Edouard Lalo's Symphonie espagnole with ease. But it failed when Ysaÿe then asked him to play an A major arpeggio over four octaves. As Menuhin later admitted, he had not practiced scales or etudes as a child. Persinger had written down such exercises for him, but he had ignored them because he felt an aversion to this "abstract technique". Ysaÿe advised him: "Practice would be good for you."

Menuhin felt repulsed by the atmosphere in Ysaÿe's apartment and declined his offer to teach him. Instead, he wanted to learn from George Enescu in Paris what he had been saying for a year. Enescu agreed to teach Menuhin. Before the lessons could begin, Enescu went on a concert tour for a few months. Meanwhile, Menuhin made his Paris debut in two acclaimed appearances with the Orchester Lamoureux under the baton of Paul Paray . He played for the first time on an original large violin. On February 6, 1927, Lalo's Symphonie espagnole was first on the program. During another performance with the same musicians and Tchaikovsky's violin concerto on February 12, there was a mishap that did not affect the audience's approval: During the concert, the E string of the new violin broke and had to be repaired by the concertmaster before the work could be terminated. After his return, Enescu Menuhin began teaching. In the summer the whole family traveled to Enescu's Romanian holiday idyll Sinaia, where lessons continued and Yehudi made the acquaintance of Roma music . After a carefree summer, Enescu asked him to continue studying with Adolf Busch because otherwise he would become “almost too much of a gypsy ”. Menuhin should go through the "German school".

The Menuhin family returned to America. In November 1927, Yehudi made a triumphant debut at Carnegie Hall in New York. He played Beethoven's Violin Concerto with the New York Symphony Orchestra and Fritz Busch as conductor. Back in California, he received temporary lessons from Louis Persinger. In March 1928 he recorded his first records in a church in Oakland , accompanied by Persinger on the piano. The shellac records were produced by the Victor Talking Machine Company . In December 1928 he began his first concert tour in the United States, which lasted until March 1929.

University of Music in Basel : place of study under Adolf Busch
Yehudi Menuhin with Bruno Walter , 1931

In January 1929 he received the Stradivarius "Khevenhüller" from a patron. With this he made his debut in Berlin on April 12, 1929. He mastered an enormous program with the Berliner Philharmoniker under the direction of Bruno Walter : before the break, Bach's E major concerto and Beethoven's violin concerto, after the break, Brahms' violin concerto - and as an encore, the second and third movements of Mendelssohn's violin concerto. Albert Einstein was in the audience and told Menuhin after the concert that he had just learned that there were still miracles. In the same year Menuhin made his debut in the Queen's Hall with the London Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Fritz Busch.

In 1929 he studied with Adolf Busch . Busch had hired Hubert Giesen as Menuhin's personal pianist for the “child prodigy” and brought him to Basel from Stuttgart - with a generously endowed contract worth 24,000 marks a year. In his memoirs, Giesen, who was called "Hubsie" by Menuhin, describes her daily routine. Giesen's work began at eight in the morning. Until twelve o'clock he had to practice the piano part of the pieces in which he accompanied the violinist in the music room. This in turn practiced alone in his room. They got together in the afternoon. After a few months, Busch demanded that Yehudi and Giesen play an hour of “chamber music from the sheet” every day. Yehudi's parents hired a German teacher and an Italian teacher from Milan. Yehudi soon spoke German with Giesen. After a tour, Adolf Busch gave him the finishing touches in the summer of 1930. He wrote to the Busch Society from London in 1966: "Through Adolf Busch I got to know the deep legacy of German music."

World career

Yehudi Menuhin (1943)
Menuhin with Stéphane Grappelli , 1976

From 1929 to 1931, Yehudi Menuhin toured Europe and America with his piano accompanist Hubert Giesen and his father. Then the Polish pianist Artur Balsam became his piano accompanist.

In 1931 the Menuhin family moved to Ville-d'Avray near Paris and lived there until 1934. In 1932 Menuhin played at the Royal Albert Hall in London with the London Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Sir Thomas Beecham , followed by the Edward Violin Concerto Elgars , which the composer conducted himself.

In 1935 he completed a world tour in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Europe with 110 concerts in 72 cities. He then took a 1 ½ year hiatus in Los Gatos , California. The child prodigy had collapsed, Menuhin could no longer play the way he had before and had to find a new way to access his instrument. In May 1938, the 22-year-old Menuhin married the 19-year-old Australian Nola Nicholas in London, whom he had met nine weeks earlier. In 1939 he made his first concert tour to South America. With his sister Hephzibah he gave concerts in Australia in 1940 and made recordings with her.

In 1941, the United States entered World War II . By the end of the war Menuhin gave more than 500 concerts in front of Allied soldiers. These concert tours took him to Alaska , the Aleutian Islands and Hawaii . On his second World War II tour to Great Britain in September 1944 he met the dancer and actress Diana Gould, who would become his second wife three years later. He commissioned the distressed Béla Bartók for a solo violin sonata , which he premiered in November 1944 at New York's Carnegie Hall . He played for surviving inmates of some liberated concentration camps , including the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp , in July 1945, accompanied by Benjamin Britten on the piano .

In 1946 he recorded with the Dallas Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Antal Doráti Bartók's Violin Concerto No. 2 . In 1947 he returned to Germany, where he was the first Jewish musician to perform a few concerts with the Berliner Philharmoniker under Wilhelm Furtwängler after the Holocaust . He saw this as an act of reconciliation and told critics that he wanted to revive the music and spirit of Germany.

Menuhin's first marriage ended in divorce in 1947. He was then able to marry Diana Gould in October 1947. She accompanied him on all of his tours. In 1950 they toured five continents in five months, he gave 147 concerts. The next year the first tour of Japan followed. In 1952 he went on a concert tour to India to support food aid with the proceeds . There he met Nehru and his later yoga teacher B. K. S. Iyengar . Between 1952 and 1960, the Menuhins never traveled by plane. The violinist Ginette Neveu was killed in a plane crash in 1949, as was Jacques Thibaud in 1953 .

In 1955 Menuhin moved from America to Europe. From then on he lived in London and in Gstaad , a small town in the Bernese Oberland that belongs to the municipality of Saanen . In 1957 he gave two concerts in the Saanen church with Benjamin Britten, Peter Pears and Maurice Gendron . With this he founded the Menuhin Festival in Gstaad, which later expanded enormously. From 1959 to 1968 he was Artistic Director of the Bath International Music Festival . During this time he worked intensively with the Bath Festival Orchestra. From 1969 to 1972 he was the artistic director of the Windsor Festival with Ian Hunter.

With the sitar virtuoso Ravi Shankar , whom he met in India in 1952, there was an artistic collaboration in 1966, which in 1967 led to the start of the co-production West meets East in England. In the 1970s, there was another musical collaboration with the jazz violinist Stéphane Grappelli .

Menuhin was best known as a violinist, but also played the viola , as evidenced by several works recorded on record, including Berlioz's Harold Symphony with solo viola (recorded in 1963) and the viola concertos by Béla Bartók (recorded in 1967) and William Walton (recorded in 1970) .

In 1970, the American Menuhin became a Swiss citizen through naturalization in the municipality of Grenchen in the canton of Solothurn. In 1985 he also became a British citizen.

Menuhin's second career as a conductor began in the late 1950s. At the beginning of the 1990s he gave his last concerts with the violin, knowing that his technique was no longer perfect. He now concentrated on conducting.

Menuhin as a conductor

Menuhin said, looking back, that he had dreamed of conducting an orchestra since he was eleven years old. In 1946 he made his first appearance as a conductor when he was practicing the prelude to Wagner's Meistersinger opera in a semi-public rehearsal with the Dallas Symphony Orchestra .

His career as a conductor began with the orchestras of the International Music Festival in Bath , where he had become artistic director in 1959, and his own festival in Gstaad . He made his first records as a conductor with the Bath Festival Orchestra, for example a recording of Bach's orchestral suites in 1960 . In 1966 he conducted his first opera, Mozart's Così fan tutte, in Bath . From the late 1960s he performed regularly as a conductor.

In 1970 he conducted the world premiere of Oliver Knussen's Second Symphony in its first version at Windsor Castle .

1975 began working with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra ; Menuhin undertook his first American tour as a conductor with the orchestra that year. In 1982 he became president of the orchestra. At that time he had worked as a conductor with most of the world's leading orchestras, making many recordings.

In 1984 Menuhin was involved in founding the Sinfonia Varsovia and became its permanent guest conductor. In 1990 he conducted the Asian Youth Orchestra , which he co-founded, on its first tour through Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong with Julian Lloyd Webber as soloist.

Some concerts that Menuhin conducted had a meaning that went beyond music, such as a 1983 concert for Pope John Paul II with the Sinfonia Varsovia in Castel Gandolfo and performances of Handel's Messiah in 1989 in the Moscow Kremlin under the sign of the political upheaval in the Soviet Union and in 1995 in a township near Johannesburg to celebrate the overcoming of apartheid in South Africa. After the end of the Bosnian War , Menuhin conducted a peace concert in Sarajevo in 1996 under the patronage of Germany, the European Commission and UNESCO . This year Menuhin celebrated his 80th birthday and conducted more than 110 concerts.

Menuhin often collaborated with Daniel Hope in the performance of violin concertos in the 1990s and gave him lessons during the joint tours. Menuhin and Hope performed together in more than 60 concerts. Hope was also the soloist at Menuhin's last concert, which took place on March 7, 1999 as part of a German tour with the Sinfonia Varsovia in the Tonhalle Düsseldorf . Menuhin died surprisingly five days later in the Martin Luther Hospital in Berlin.

Menuhin's contract with EMI lasted almost 70 years and is the longest in the history of the music industry. He made his first recording (for the His Master's Voice label , which belonged to EMI from 1931) as a violinist in November 1929, his last as a conductor in 1999.

Other interests and activities

Yoga and health

In 1951 Menuhin became interested in yoga after discovering a book about yoga in the waiting room of a doctor's office in New Zealand. He now began daily yoga exercises, which included a headstand for at least 15 minutes. During a concert tour in India in 1952, he met the yoga teacher B. K. S. Iyengar . From this a lifelong, fruitful friendship developed. In 1954 Menuhin invited Iyengar to come to Europe and to accompany him there as his yoga teacher. Iyengar accepted the invitation. As a result, Iyengar made yoga popular in the West. Menuhin himself also contributed to this development, for example as early as 1953, when a series of pictures were to be seen in Life magazine showing him in various yoga postures, including the heading Yehudi's Yoga . Menuhin wrote a foreword to two groundbreaking yoga textbooks: Yoga For Americans by Indra Devi (1959) and Light on Yoga by B.K.S. Iyengar (1966). He practiced yoga well into old age and, last but not least, used it to bring himself into a relaxed state before concerts. In 1982 he enriched a concert for the 100th anniversary of the Berliner Philharmoniker with a self-deprecating interlude as a “yogi” by conducting the beginning of Beethoven's 5th Symphony standing upside down with his feet.

Menuhin believed healthy eating was important. He regularly warned against the consumption of white rice and white bread (instead of whole grains ), refined sugar, and red meat . He recommended a vegetarian lifestyle and helped found a health food store in London.

Otherwise, Menuhin's restless lifestyle wasn't exactly healthy. Even as a teenager, "he rushed across the continents, through concert halls and recording studios," as the world wrote in retrospect. Later, in addition to his enormous workload as a musician, he was burdened by the commitment to his music school in England and the other institutions he founded. Menuhin hurried from one place and one project to the next well into old age. Biographer Philip Bailey wrote, "Menuhin's Odyssey was ruled by an ubiquitous schedule." When time pressures became too much and threatened to lead to chaos, Menuhin's wife Diana used to say that it was impossible to parody life with her husband because it was was a single, long parody itself. She had felt the dominance of Menuhin's appointment calendar on the first day of their marriage, because minutes after the appointment at the registry office in Chelsea , her husband disappeared to the Royal Albert Hall for a rehearsal of Paganini's Violin Concerto in B minor .

Conservation and ecology

Menuhin spoke out against pollution and advocated environmental responsibility long before it became a priority in the media. He was one of the first residents of London to drive an electric car ; he ordered his first electric car in 1976 in Detroit. He also thought about people-friendly urban planning; So he proposed converting the streets of New York into pedestrian zones and moving car traffic underground.

Menuhin was involved in the creation of a composition for the appreciation of the protection of species , namely the orchestral piece Wildlife (Celebration) by Priaulx Rainier , with which 1984 the 25th anniversary of the Jersey Zoo was celebrated, which was then called Durrell Wildlife Park . Its founder Gerald Durrell commissioned the composition he wanted on the advice of Menuhin to Rainier, who created her last work with Wildlife (Celebration) . At the premiere, in the presence of Princess Anne , Menuhin conducted the Jersey Youth Orchestra and played the solo violin.


For decades Menuhin campaigned personally for peace , international understanding , democracy and human rights - in discussions and telephone calls with numerous politicians, through symbolic appearances, in interviews and speeches, but also in writing in his books, newspaper articles and letters to the editor. On his official website it says: "He used to engage presidents, princes and politicians in talks and tell them passionately and urgently what to do", and almost apologetically: "Sometimes what he wanted to say went in exuberance of feeling lost. "

This passionate political commitment not only earned Menuhin recognition, but also in some cases conflict and hostility. When he appeared with Wilhelm Furtwängler and the Berliner Philharmoniker shortly after the Second World War to send a sign of reconciliation, he drew the ire of Jewish organizations who rated Furtwängler as beneficiaries of the Nazi regime. After one of these organizations called for a boycott of his concerts, he defended Furtwängler and pointed out that he had helped Jewish musicians. He said it was necessary to heal the wounds after the war and declared: "Love, not hate, will heal the world." He again spoke out in favor of Furtwängler in 1949 when the Chicago Symphony Orchestra considered him to be their chief conductor close. A group of famous musicians - including the violinists Isaac Stern and Nathan Milstein , the pianists Arthur Rubinstein and Vladimir Horowitz , the singer Lily Pons - threatened to boycott the orchestra for life if Furtwängler was appointed. Menuhin wrote the orchestra a telegram in which he rejected the protests of his colleagues as completely out of the question. Furtwängler finally withdrew his application. Menuhin's renewed partisanship in favor of Furtwängler sparked outrage among many Jews around the world. When he made his first concert tour in Israel in 1950, there were bomb threats; However, he was not intimidated by this and continued the performances, with his sister Hephzibah as piano accompanist.

Menuhin gave a lot of benefit concerts for Israel and Israeli charities. In doing so, he set himself apart from his father, who had developed into an uncompromising opponent of Zionism in the 1930s and consequently refused to attend his son's concerts in Israel. In 1967, after the Six Day War , Menuhin gave benefit concerts for both Israeli organizations and organizations that took care of Arab refugees. Menuhin was not without controversy among the Israeli public because he did not unreservedly take the side of Israel. For example, in 1975 Leonard Bernstein and a hundred other artists unsuccessfully asked him to boycott UNESCO's cultural activities to protest against their refusal to accept Israel as a member state. Menuhin, who was then President of the UNESCO International Music Council , rejected the request. He said he thought boycotts were cowardly and supported UNESCO's criticism of Israel-operated archaeological digs in Jerusalem. He saw a common state for Jews and Palestinians as the only possibility for a peaceful solution to the Middle East conflict .

Menuhin rejected not only Zionism, but all forms of nationalism . In his first interviews he described himself as an internationalist . In the 1950s he was of the opinion that world peace could only be achieved through the establishment of a world government .

In a speech at the Congress of the International Music Council in Moscow in 1972 , he criticized the government of the Soviet Union for dealing with dissidents such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn and Mstislav Rostropovich . The Pravda not reported it, but Menuhin's speech was secretly circulated in Russian translation. The result was that Menuhin was no longer allowed to perform in the Soviet Union. It was not until 1987 that Mikhail Gorbachev ensured that the ban was lifted with an official invitation. The next year Menuhin traveled back to the country his parents came from.

Menuhin avoided South Africa because of the apartheid policy pursued there . In 1950 he had visited the country, but spoke out against racial segregation and insisted on appearing in front of both white and black audiences. In 1956 he traveled again to South Africa to take part in a festival in Johannesburg , which celebrated the 70th anniversary of the city. Then he stayed away for four decades - only after the end of apartheid did he return to South Africa, now 79 years old.

Menuhin stood up for Roma , to whom he had felt a connection since he had come into contact with them in Romania at the age of eleven and had got to know their virtuoso music. He once said that he was a Jew, but remained “always a gypsy at heart” because the violinists were nomads like the gypsies; justice was never done to them, and the earth and humanity were unworthy until "until the gypsies can roam in complete freedom". Together with Emir Kusturica he worked on a documentary by Jean-Marie Cavada about the Roma. In 1995 he and Ravi Shankar presented a live television broadcast from the Cirque Royal in Brussels entitled “From the sitar to the guitar” - with music and dance, the migration of the Roma from India to Spain was retold. In 1997 Menuhin was the guest of honor at the European Roma Congress in Barcelona. He developed the vision of an Assembly of Cultures , in which the Roma and all other cultural minorities in Europe should have their say. In 1997 the first meeting of the Assembly of Cultures took place in Brussels. Menuhins Foundation continues the cultural cooperation with the Roma to this day.

Supporting non-profit organizations

In addition to the extensive care of the musical institutions he founded himself ( see below ), Menuhin helped a vast number of different cultural or charitable organizations - from music schools and associations for the care of the heritage of composers to, for example, the animal welfare association Friends of Animals , a British association for Soil-conserving garden use ( Good Gardeners Association ) and the initiative of the lawyer Grenville Clark, who wanted to advance world peace by creating a global legal system. Menuhin provided support for hundreds of non-profit organizations with benefit concerts, as a patron or as a board member.

An example from Menuhin's last year of life was his patronage for the association Il canto del mondo - International Network for the Promotion of Everyday Culture of Singing e. V. , which was founded in 1999. As patron, Menuhin wrote the text On the Meaning of Singing , in which he praised singing as the actual mother tongue of man.

Marriages and children

On May 26, 1938, at the age of 22, Menuhin married Nola Nicholas, the 19-year-old daughter of an Australian industrialist, in London. In the same year Menuhin's sisters got married; Hephzibah married Lindsay Nicholas, the brother of Nola Nicholas. Yehudi and Hephzibah Menuhin and the Nicholas siblings happened to be guests in the same London hotel in March 1938 and met in the backstage area after a concert by Yehudi Menuhin . Menuhin's first marriage, which was divorced in 1947, had two children, Zamira (* 1939) and Krov (* 1940). Zamira Menuhin was married to the pianist Fou Ts'ong in the 1960s . From 1993 to 2017 she served on the governing body of her father's music school in England, after which she became vice-president of the school. Zamira Menuhin Benthall is also patron of the Menuhin Competition Trust and honorary chairwoman of Live Music Now in Germany. Krov Menuhin led a daring life as a racing driver, soldier in the Green Berets , pilot, diver, underwater documentary filmmaker, conservationist and filmmaker. He published an autobiography in 2018 entitled An Unusual Life .

In his second marriage Menuhin married the dancer and actress Diana Gould on October 19, 1947 in London (born November 12, 1912, † January 25, 2003). She had made it all the way to prima ballerina , but gave up her job in the year of her marriage in order to live as her husband's constant companion and take care of his well-being. From this marriage two sons, Gerard (born July 23, 1948) and Jeremy (born November 2, 1951); a third child (Alexis, * ✝ 1955) died within an hour of birth. The sons grew up with nannies. As a pianist and composer, Jeremy Menuhin is the only musician among Yehudi Menuhin's children.


Menuhin received his first violin of some value at the age of eight when two patrons furnished him with a 7/8 violin from Milan worth $ 800 in 1924 . At the time it was assumed that it was a violin made by Giovanni Battista Grancino . It was with this instrument that Menuhin made his New York debut in January 1926.

For his first two appearances in Paris in February 1927, he and his family selected a “whole” violin from the Parisian dealer Henri Tournier, a Grancino (approx. 1695) valued at $ 3,000. His patron Sidney Ehrman paid the purchase price. Menuhin made his first recordings on this violin in Oakland. He then played various violins with which he had difficulties, including a Guadagnini , again provided by Ehrman, and a Guarneri del Gesù , on loan from Lyon & Healy in Chicago.

In 1928 Menuhin was allowed to try out the Stradivarius “Khevenhüller” (1733) on his 12th birthday . However, this valuable instrument could not be financed at that time. It was not until the banker, art collector and philanthropist Henry Goldman from the Goldman-Sachs family helped Menuhin to create the “Khevenhüller”. The blind Goldman had heard the Beethoven Violin Concerto play in Carnegie Hall Menuhin in November 1927 and was deeply impressed by it. At another Menuhin concert at Carnegie Hall, he decided to give the young artist the best violin available. At the New York dealer Emil Herrmann, Menuhin was allowed to try out three Stradivaris, including the "Betts" (1704) and the "Maximilian" (1709). Menuhin opted for the "Khevenhüller", Goldman paid the price of 60,000 dollars. In January 1929 Menuhin presented the “Khevenhüller” as his new instrument at a press conference in New York. He played on this Stradivarius on his Berlin debut in April 1929. He kept it until his death.

In 1932 Menuhin briefly played the Guarneri del Gesù from 1740, which had last been the main instrument of Eugène Ysaÿe , who died the previous year , and also used it for recordings. The violin maker and dealer Emile Français, who was friends with Menuhin, lent him this instrument.

The same Emile Français built a copy of the "Khevenhüller" for Menuhin in 1935 and presented it to him in January 1936. The copy proved to be of the same quality as the original. Menuhin occasionally used the Français, for example when carrying the valuable Stradivarius on a concert tour seemed risky.

Menuhin's first wife Nola gave him a violin by Giuseppe Giovanni Guarneri (known as “filius Andreae”) in September 1939, on the occasion of the birth of their first child, daughter Zamira . Menuhin's initial enthusiasm waned after a few years. He seldom played the Guarneri and later loaned it to his favorite student Alberto Lysy , who played it for decades.

In his numerous appearances in front of soldiers and wounded in World War II, Menuhin certainly did not use his Stradivarius, but mostly a copy of Français; or, for example, at a performance in England in 1944, a Guarneri on loan from W. E. Hill & Sons in London. For a concert in liberated Paris , he borrowed Jacques Thibaud's Stradivarius and returned it so immediately at the end of the concert that he had to borrow the concertmaster's instrument for the encore .

In 1950 he acquired a second Stradivarius, the “Soil” (1714), from Emil Herrmann. Their tone was stronger than the finer sound of the "Khevenhüller" and enabled it to remain audible even when the orchestra was full. He therefore mostly used them when playing with an orchestra and also making numerous recordings. In 1986, however, he sold the “Soil” to Itzhak Perlman in order to finance his new house.

In 1966 Menuhin leafed through a Hill catalog of valuable Guarneri violins with interest and became aware of the "d'Egville" (1735), which was currently available from a dealer in Braunschweig. He flew there as quickly as possible, borrowed the instrument, and played it with gusto for a year and a half before returning it to the dealer. In 1972 he bought another Guarneri, the "Ebersholt" (1739), and kept it for six years. He sold it in 1978 at Sotheby's and bought a Guarneri from Jacques Français - the "Lord Wilton" (1742), which he kept until his death.

Menuhin also owned other old violins: one by Sanctus Seraphin from Venice (1739), which George Enescu had entrusted to him in 1954 before his death, as well as instruments by Giovanni Bussetto from Cremona (1680) and Nicolò Marchioni, known as "Don Nicolò Amati", from Bologna (1730). He also had a violin rebuilt several times, for example in 1961 by Marino Capicchioni in Rimini.


Soon after Menuhin's death, many of the instruments he owned were sold at Sotheby’s auction. The highest price, £ 133,500, was achieved by Giovanni Bussetto's violin from 1680. Menuhin's most valuable instruments were not on offer at this auction, including the Guarneri “Lord Wilton”. It was sold to American violinist and instrument collector David Fulton for $ 6 million.

In February 2004, the Royal Academy of Music acquired Menuhin's extensive archive for £ 1.2 million from his heirs - including the sheet music Menuhin used with his entries, autographs of commissioned compositions, correspondence and photographs. Other possessions from the Menuhins estate were auctioned by Sotheby's in May 2004: paintings, jewelry, furniture, dishes and clothing, but also the Bechstein grand piano by Diana Menuhin.

Initiator of musical institutions

Menuhin Festival and Academy in Gstaad

In 1957 Menuhin founded the Menuhin Festival in Gstaad . 1977 was followed, also in Gstaad, the establishment of the International Menuhin Music Academy (English International Menuhin Music Academy , IMMA).

Yehudi Menuhin School

In 1963, dissatisfied with the standard of violin teaching in Great Britain, Menuhin founded the Yehudi Menuhin School in a former hotel in Kensington , which was relocated to Stoke d'Abernon, Surrey the following year . In the last decades of his life, Menuhin stayed at his school often. Many students became successful musicians, including Nigel Kennedy , Tasmin Little , Alina Ibragimova, and Nicola Benedetti . According to Menuhin's biographer Humphrey Burton, the founding of this music school was Menuhin's most important lasting achievement away from the concert stage.

Menuhin was buried here - under a tree that he himself planted on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Menuhin's first successors as president of the school were Mstislav Rostropovich (2000–2007) and Daniel Barenboim (2007–2020). In January 2006 a new concert hall with around 300 seats, the Menuhin Hall, was opened .

Live Music Now

"Music heals, music comforts, music brings joy" - this experience motivated Menuhin to found Live Music Now in England in 1977 together with the philanthropist Ian Stoutzker . The members of the non-profit organization organize free concerts in social institutions whose residents cannot attend concerts (old people's homes, hospitals, homes for the disabled, prisons, etc.). The musicians have the opportunity to practice the art of speaking and to make contact with the audience. In Germany, the organization is now active in 20 cities and regions.

Menuhin Competition

In 1983 he founded the Yehudi Menuhin International Competition for Young Violinists (short: Menuhin Competition ) to life, a prestigious competition for young violinists. Participants must not be more than 21 years old. The competition takes place every two years, most recently in Oslo (2010), Beijing (2012), Austin (2014), London (2016) and Geneva (2018). Due to the corona pandemic, the competition planned for 2020 in Richmond (USA) has been postponed to 2021. Many successful participants made international careers, for example Tasmin Little , Nikolaj Znaider , Julia Fischer and Ray Chen .

Yehudi Menuhin Foundation and MUS-E

In 1991 Menuhin set up the International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation based in Brussels . With various projects, the work of the foundation helps to ensure that children - especially in socially disadvantaged areas - are encouraged in their creativity, their expressiveness and personality are strengthened and their social skills are supported. The main project of the Yehudi Menuhin Foundation began in 1993: MUS-E, an artistic program for primary schools that is currently (as of 2020) active in ten European countries, Israel and Brazil . Musicians, actors, dancers and other artists organize school lessons with the participation of the teachers so that the students can discover and strengthen their personal skills. MUS-E makes it possible to experience that diversity of individuality and cultural origin enriches every community. The positive effects of the educational program have been evaluated and proven in scientific studies. After just 20 years, more than a million children had taken MUS-E lessons. In 2019, a total of 532 artists and 3646 teachers were involved in the program in twelve countries; teaching reached more than 61,000 children in 513 schools.

In 1999 he founded the Yehudi Menuhin Foundation in Germany. On January 25, 2011, it became known that the foundation's board of directors had to file for bankruptcy after the district government of Düsseldorf considered the foundation's expenditure to be incapable of auditing and had subsequently not released the contractually guaranteed funding. It was about the financing of MUS-E-classes in North Rhine-Westphalia . As a result, the foundation had to cease its activities nationwide, which affected 22,000 children. In its final report in 2018, the insolvency administrator stated that it was not the Yehudi Menuhin Foundation Germany that was responsible for the insolvency, but the district government of Düsseldorf. From 2013 the work of the foundation was supported by the non-profit association MUS-E Deutschland e. V. continued.


  • "Listening to other voices, opposing voices and dissonances - the rules of music reflect life itself."
  • Yehudi Menuhin allegedly said to an organ grinder on the street: "We musicians have to stick together!"

Awards and honors


Menuhin as namesake

  • Menuhinstrasse was named after him in the Johanniter quarter in Bonn .
  • In Vienna- Floridsdorf there is a Yehudi-Menuhin-Weg.
  • In Berlin-Zehlendorf there is the Yehudi-Menuhin-Park.
  • At the headquarters of the European Union in Brussels, the hall in the Paul-Henri-Spaak building, which is used for concerts and performances, is called Espace Yehudi Menuhin .
  • The Yehudi Menuhin School has had a new concert hall, the Menuhin Hall , since 2006 .
  • The “Yehudi Menuhin Philosopher's Path” runs between the chapel in Gstaad and the church in Saanen . Twelve panels with quotations from Menuhin are set up on it.
  • Since 2016 there has been an annual Hommage Menuhin festival in Ville-d'Avray in France, where Menuhin lived from 1931 to 1935 .


  • 1947/48: Concert Magic , USA (German title: Zauberkonzert ). Hollywood film producer Paul Gordon came up with the idea of ​​making high-quality concerts in the cinema tangible and thus also making concert experiences possible for those who lived far away from the big cities where the best musicians performed. In addition, such a film would offer viewers, for example, changing perspectives and close-ups of the musicians. This is how Concert Magic came about , considered the first concert film . At the end of 1947, Menuhin and other artists played pieces by Bach, Beethoven, Paganini and Wieniawski, among others, in Charlie Chaplin's former film studio . It premiered in 1948 at the Stage Door Theater in San Francisco. The film was quite a success; However, the concept of showing concerts in the cinema did not prevail; instead, concerts became part of the television program.
  • 1960: Participation of Menuhin in the feature film Sabine and the 100 Men , director: William Thiele (with Sabine Sinjen , Dieter Borsche and Dietmar Schönherr ).
  • 1971 (?): Violin. Six lessons with Yehudi Menuhin. Six 20-minute short films on six basic teaching units that Menuhin demonstrated in front of a group of students at his music school in England. At the same time, Menuhin's textbook of the same name was created.
  • 1978 (according to Menuhins website 1978, according to other sources 1979): The Music of Man (Canada / USA). TV series with eight one-hour episodes documenting the development of music on five continents. Menuhin led through the films, worked alongside numerous other musicians as a violinist and conductor and was also involved in the script. The shooting lasted five years, two camera teams traveled to around 500 locations and produced more than 165 kilometers of film material. Produced in English and French by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation .
  • 1988: Return to the Roots . Documentation by Bruno Monsaingeon on Menuhin's visit to the Soviet Union in 1988 (160 min.).
  • 1995: The Violin of the Century , film by Bruno Monsaingeon (120 min.); see also other filmic Menuhin portraits by Bruno Monsaingeon.
  • 2000: Menuhin's Children . In the autumn of 1998, work began on this documentary, in which Menuhin wanted to show how twelve normal school children can learn to make music on the violin as beginners. Menuhin died before the project's scheduled end. The film ran on BBC Two on April 22, 2000 (Menuhin's 84th birthday) .
  • 2005: The Story behind Concert Magic (56 min.). The documentary shows a conversation recorded in 1997 between Yehudi Menuhin and Humphrey Burton about the history of the film Concert Magic from 1947/48. Produced in English and French by EuroArts Music International.
  • 2006: Yehudi Menuhin in Hollywood , director: Günter Atteln, RBB (52 min.): Documentation of the genesis of the film Concert Magic from 1947/48.
  • 2016: Yehudi Menuhin: Who's Yehudi? Documentation on Menuhin's 100th birthday, BBC Four (55 min.). Moderated by Clemency Burton-Hill, a daughter of the Menuhin biographer Humphrey Burton.


Own works

  • 1971: violin. Six Lessons with Yehudi Menuhin. Illustrated textbook with music examples. Faber Music Ltd. (See also the series of short films of the same name above )
  • 1972: Variations, reflections on music and time. Piper.
  • 1978: violin and viola (with William Primrose ). Yehudi Menuhin's music guide. Fisherman.
  • 1979: The Music of Man (with Curtis W. Davis). Methuen Publishing. The book for the television series of the same name ( see above ).
  • 1979: Art and science as related terms: attempt at a comparative anatomy of their modes of appearance in different areas of human endeavor. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt.
  • 1983: About the king, the hangover and the fiddle. A picture book with instructions for young violinists. Severin and Siedler, ISBN 3-88680-082-2 .
  • 1986: Art as hope for humanity .
  • 1987: Life school .
  • 1989: I am fascinated by everything human. Piper, Munich, ISBN 3-492-18259-3 . (Original title: Conversations with Menuhin )
  • 1993: words like sound in silence. Thematically structured volume of aphorisms and maxims. Herder, ISBN 3-451-23256-1 .
  • 1996: The violin - the cultural history of an instrument. Metzler, Stuttgart, and Bärenreiter, Kassel, ISBN 3-476-01506-8 .


  • 1977: Unfinished Journey. Macdonald and Jane's.
  • 1997: Unfinished Journey: Twenty Years Later. Fromm Intl. (Extended new edition with four additional chapters.)
    • German, part 1: unfinished journey. Life memories. Translated by Isabella Nadolny and Albrecht Roeseler . Piper, 1976. Paperback: Piper, 2004.
    • German, part 2: On the way, memories 1976–1995. Piper, 1996. Paperback: Piper, 1998.

Works about Yehudi Menuhin

  • Robert Magidoff: Yehudi Menuhin, man and musician. 1st edition. Herbig Verlag, 1982, ISBN 3-7766-1002-6 .
  • Homage to Yehudi Menuhin. Festschrift for the 70th birthday. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1986, ISBN 3-7890-1278-5 .
  • Humphrey Burton: Menuhin: A Life , 2000. New edition 2016.
    • German: Menuhin: The biography . Translated by Harald Stadler. Piper Taschenbuch Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-492-04239-2 .
  • ZEIT classic edition. 20 great interpreters in 20 volumes. Volume 1: Yehudi Menuhin. Zeitverlag Gerd Bucerius, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-476-02201-3 (with CD: Menuhin plays violin concertos by Brahms, Beethoven, Bruch).
  • Philip Bailey: Yehudiana - Reliving the Menuhin Odyssey. Biography in two parts ( website for the book with excerpts):

Works by loved ones

  • Lionel Menuhin Rolfe: The Menuhins: A Family Odyssey. Panjandrum / Aris, 1978. New edition by Boryanabooks, 2014, ISBN 978-1-4414-9399-6 . (Lionel Rolfe was the son of Menuhin's sister Yaltah.)
  • Moshe Menuhin: The Menuhin Saga . Sidgwick and Jackson, 1984, ISBN 0-283-98947-5 . (Autobiography of Menuhin's father.)
  • Diana Menuhin: Fiddler's minor. Life With Yehudi. St Martin's Press, New York 1984, ISBN 0-312-28819-0 . (First autobiography by Menuhin's wife.)
    • German: Through major and minor. My life with Yehudi Menuhin. Piper, 1985. Paperback: Piper, 1989.
  • Diana Menuhin: A Glimpse of Olympus. My Life with Yehudi. Methuen Publishing, 1996, ISBN 0-413-69820-3 . (Second autobiography by Menuhin's wife.)
    • German: View into paradise. Memories of an incredible life. Piper, 1993, ISBN 3-492-03221-4 .

Works about Menuhin and Gstaad

  • Fernand Rausser: Concert rehearsal with Yehudi Menuhin and the Camerata Lysy · Gstaad. Haupt, Bern / Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-258-03575-X .
  • Marta and Dan Rubinstein: Allegro con spirito. Yehudi Menuhin Festival . Edition Eden, Zurich 1988, ISBN 3-905492-01-6 .
  • Rolf P. Steiger, Hans-Ulrich Tschanz: Gstaad and the Menuhins. Benteli Publishing House, Bern 2006, ISBN 3-7165-1446-2 .

Works about famous violinists

Web links

Commons : Yehudi Menuhin  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Transcription of Letter from Willa Cather to Yehudi Menuhin, October 12, 1936 Website of the Willa Cather Archive . For the biographical data of the Menuhin family, see the Person Annotations section .
  2. ^ Yehudi Menuhin (1916-1999) New Internationalist, October 2, 2004.
  3. a b c d e f Humphrey Burton: Menuhin. A life. 2000, new edition 2016, chapter 3: 'Keep your eyes on the stars' .
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m Menuhin: 100 facts to celebrate his centenary
  5. See video on YouTube (0:25 min.): Excerpt from a news broadcast with a short report on Menuhin's marriage on May 26, 1938 (0:06 to 0:19). His age is given as 21 years (at 0:14). In fact, he was 22 years old.
  6. Humphrey Burton: Menuhin. A life. 2000, 2016 edition, Chapter 1: Origins .
  7. Jacqueline Kent: 'Artistry under oath': Biography and the life story of Hephzibah Menuhin. Dissertation at the University of Technology Sydney , 2007, p. 15 ( PDF download ).
  8. a b c Humphrey Burton: Menuhin. A life. 2000, new edition 2016, chapter The Prodigy (= The child prodigy).
  9. Philip Bailey: Yehudiana - Reliving the Menuhin Odyssey (two-part biography, 2008 and 2010), Tables of Contents , see “Yehudi's professional début” under Book One, Chapter 3, 1925.
  10. a b c d e f g h i j k Tully Potter: Menuhin's violins
  11. ^ At the Hubert Giesen grand piano. My memories. S. Fischer Verlag, 1982, ISBN 3-10-025401-5 .
  12. Sigfried Schibli: Search for traces - from gypsies to classics. ( Memento of January 28, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 15, 2020.
  13. a b Biography timeline
  14. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Yehudi Menuhin: A timeline of his life
  15. Article in the New York Times, May 27, 1838; see. Photograph of the couple leaving the registry office.
  16. ^ A b Overture: Royal Albert Hall, London, Sunday 21 March, 1938 (excerpt from the biography Yehudiana by Philip Bailey)
  17. a b Hephzibah Menuhin (National Film and Sound Archive of Australia).
  18. a b c d Lady Menuhin, February 7, 2003.
  19. a b She chose to be a great fiddler's moll Sydney Morning Herald , February 6, 2003.
  20. a b History of the Gstaad Menuhin Festival & Academy
  21. Hector Berlioz - Yehudi Menuhin - Colin Davis - Harold In Italy; Audio on YouTube.
  22. ^ Menuhins recordings of the viola concertos by Bartók and Walton at
  23. a b Grenchen, not Gstaad, was naturalized by Yehudi Menuhin back then, April 22, 2016.
  24. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Sir Yehudi Menuhin, Violinist, Conductor and Supporter of Charities, Is Dead at 82 The New York Times, March 13, 1999.
  25. A discography / Conductor
  26. Oliver Knussen: Symphony No. 2
  27. About us
  28. History, see 1990 under AYO Chronicle .
  29. Bosnia: Sir Yehudi Menuhin directs a concert for peace in Sarajevo, with video (3:00 min).
  30. ^ Daniel Hope about Yehudi Menuhin Leipziger Volkszeitung, April 14, 2016.
  31. ^ Facebook message from Daniel Hope on March 7, 2019 on the 20th anniversary of Menuhin's last concert.
  32. a b Yogi BKS Iyengar helped virtuoso Yehudi Menuhin turn world of music on its head, April 22, 2016.
  33. Yehudi Menuhin and BKS Iyengar's transformative friendship, March 22, 2016 (with pictures of Menuhin and Iyengar doing yoga).
  34. Jon Kelly: BKS Iyengar: The man who helped bring yoga to the West BBC News, Aug. 21, 2014.
  35. ^ Personal details : Yehudi Menuhin, May 17, 1982.
  36. Photography on Facebook: Menuhins conducting in the headstand with the Berliner Philharmoniker.
  37. Yehudi Menuhin on the 100th: This violinist was Einstein's proof of God, April 22, 2016.
  38. Philip Bailey: Yehudiana - Reliving the Menuhin Odyssey (two-part biography, 2008 and 2010), Introduction to Book One
  39. Menuhin's 'Sabbatical' , in: The New York Times , April 13, 1976, p. 26.
  40. June Opie: 'Come and Listen to the Stars Singing'. Priaulx Rainer: A Pictorial Biography. Alison Hodge Publishers, 1988, pp. 80 f.
  41. A driven communicator
  42. Yehudi Menuhin: Dream, Nightmare or Vision? Only a federal state for Jews and Palestinians can bring about peace. In: DIE ZEIT , September 16, 1988. Also printed in the first volume of the complete series Klassik-Edition (pp. 46–53), ISBN 3-476-02200-5 .
  43. ^ A b Yehudi Menuhin: Return to the Roots. Yehudi Menuhin in the Soviet Union
  44. a b c d Marianne Poncelet: In recognition of the cultural wealth of the Roma People through the years, April 7, 2018.
  45. Il canto del mondo - International network for the promotion of everyday cultures of singing eV
  46. 100 years of Menuhin
  47. 100 years on, 'my father Yehudi is still a visionary' (The Jewish Chronicle), April 14, 2016.
  48. Governors
  49. The Trust
  50. Honorary Committee
  51. Krov Menuhin Bio
  52. Jeremy Menuhin's website
  53. ^ Giovanni Battista Grancino I, Milan, date unknown
  54. ^ Giovanni Battista Grancino I, Milan, c. 1695
  55. ^ Antonio Stradivari, Cremona, 1733, the 'Prince Khevenhüller, Menuhin'
  56. ^ Emile Marcel Français, Paris, 1935
  57. ^ Giuseppe Guarneri 'filius Andreae', Cremona, c. 1715-22, the 'de Beriot, Lysy
  58. ^ Antonio Stradivari, Cremona, 1714, the 'Soil'
  59. Bartolomeo Giuseppe Guarneri 'del Gesù', Cremona, 1735, the 'd'Egville'
  60. Bartolomeo Giuseppe Guarneri 'del Gesù', Cremona, 1739, the 'Ebersholt, Menuhin'
  61. Bartolomeo Giuseppe Guarneri 'del Gesù', Cremona, 1742, the 'Lord Wilton'
  62. ^ Santo Serafin, Venice, 1739
  63. Giovanni Maria del Bussetto, Cremona, 1680
  64. Don Nicola Marchioni 'Don Nicolo Amati', Bologna, 1730
  65. Marino Capicchioni, Rimini, 1961, the 'Menuhin'
  66. ^ Louise Lee: Menuhin Lends his Name to Instruments with Already Legendary Pedigrees, December 17, 2015.
  67. Menuhin archive saved for nation BBC News, February 27, 2004.
  68. ^ Estate of a child prodigy, Welt am Sonntag, May 9, 2004.
  69. ^ Founder: Lord Menuhin website of the International Menuhin Music Academy, Gstaad
  70. Violinist, conductor and humanist: Yehudi Menuhin 100 years after his birth, April 21, 2016.
  71. a b c Humphrey Burton: Menuhin. A life. Preface to the new edition 2016.
  72. History
  73. a b The Menuhin Hall: Our History
  74. ^ An Introduction by Sir Ian Stoutzker, Founder President
  75. Live Music Now in the UK
  76. idea
  77. Organization
  78. clubs, see. there history
  79. Menuhin Competition: About
  80. Previous Competitions
  81. International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation
  82. Projects
  83. MUS-E ®
  84. Evaluation and impact studies on the MUS-E program
  85. International Yehudi Menuhin Foundation: Annual Report 2019 (download here ), p. 19.
  86. Yehudi Menuhin Foundation Germany files for bankruptcy - grants not released ( memento from August 2, 2012 in the web archive ) , accessed on January 15, 2020.
  87. Menuhin Foundation insolvent: MUS-E projects are about to end , accessed on July 14, 2012.
  88. According to the report of the insolvency law firm Piepenburg Gerling Düsseldorf, which was commissioned by the court, it is "only very painful to endure and, in retrospect, difficult to understand why the Düsseldorf district government with its tough stance was involved in the impressive project (the MUS-E program) Germany destroyed and seriously disappointed many children ”.
  89. ^ History of the Yehudi Menuhin Foundation and the MUS-E program
  90. Rüdiger Pfeiffer (ed.): Against the Grain: The Youth String Orchestra Halberstadt . Frank & Timme, Berlin 2015, p. 12.
  91. ^ Yehudi Menuhin: A Life in Pictures, see photo and commentary on September 19, 1949. Also quoted in Helmut Zeraschi: Drehorgeln , Koehler & Amelang, Leipzig 1976, p. 11.
  92. . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  93. Yehudi Menuhin Knighted in England for Special Services to Britain Jewish Telegraphic Agency, December 2, 1965th
  94. Mozart Community Vienna: recipient of the Mozart Medal
  96. Brahmpreis ( Memento from June 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  97. ^ The London Gazette , No. 53379, July 22, 1993, p. 12287 .
  98. Yehudi Menuhin, Lord Menuhin of Stoke d'Abernon
  99. Board of Trustees website of the Institute for Cultural Infrastructure Saxony
  100. In Gstaad extends between Menuhin Philosophenweg
  101. ^ Yehudi Menuhin
  102. a b The Story behind Concert Magic
  103. ^ Violin, six lessons with Yehudi Menuhin
  104. The film series on YouTube: Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3 , Part 4 , Part 5 , Part 6 (poor picture and sound quality, partly also incomplete).
  105. ^ The Music of Man
  106. The Music of Man Playlist on YouTube
  107. Yehudi Menuhin and Fimography
  108. Menuhin's Children data on the film; Excerpts on YouTube (1:34 min.).
  109. ^ Yehudi Menuhin in Hollywood
  110. ^ Yehudi Menuhin: Who's Yehudi?
  111. The film is included on the Founder: Lord Menuhin page on the International Menuhin Music Academy website.
  112. Review in Spiegel , September 13, 1976.