György Ligeti

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György Ligeti, 1984

György Sándor Ligeti [ ˈɟørɟ ʃaːndor ˈliɡɛti ] ( Georg Alexander Ligeti ; May 28, 1923 in Diciosânmartin , Transylvania , Kingdom of Romania - June 12, 2006 in Vienna ) was an Austro - Hungarian composer . He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century and a representative of new music .

Ligeti became known to a wider public through the use of his orchestral work Atmosphères in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey by Stanley Kubrick . The director used other works by Ligeti in his films Shining and Eyes Wide Shut for background music.


Childhood and youth

Ligeti was the son of the ophthalmologist Ilona Somogyi and the economist and banking specialist Sándor Ligeti. His father's family, which also included the famous violinist Leopold Auer , was originally called Auer , but at the turn of the century, following a tendency towards assimilation, its name was Magyarized from Auer to Ligeti . The same goes for his mother's family, who originally called themselves Schlesinger . Ligeti's parents were of Jewish origin , but not religious . His father, who was highly decorated and promoted to lieutenant during the First World War , was murdered in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in April 1945 , his younger brother Gábor in March 1945 in the Mauthausen concentration camp ; the mother survived the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp .

Ligeti's family lived in Cluj . There he first went to a Hungarian elementary school, then he attended a Romanian grammar school. His parents let him take piano lessons from 1936, and after only a year he tried his hand at his first symphonic compositions. After graduating from high school in 1941, he wanted to study physics and mathematics, but was turned away due to his Jewish origins. Ligeti began a musical education with Sándor Veress , Pál Járdányi , Lajos Bárdos and Ferenc Farkas in music theory and organ at the Cluj Conservatory, which by the Second Vienna Arbitration in 1940 belonged to Hungary again. He later continued his studies in Budapest , but had to interrupt it because he was called up for labor service in the Hungarian army in 1944. Ligeti was captured by the Soviets, from which he was able to escape during a bombing raid on the camp.

After the war, he resumed his studies and graduated in 1949. In the same year he married Brigitte Löw (sister of the graphic artist Hans Loew ), whom he had met in 1943 in her parents' house in Klausenburg. He worked for a year as a music ethnologist on Romanian folk music, then returned to his former school in Budapest, this time as a teacher of harmony , counterpoint and music analysis . At the time, the Communist Party restricted communication between Hungary and the West. Ligeti could only follow the current musical developments through noisy (disturbed) western radio broadcasts. Looking back over time, he wrote in 1995:

“This is how a 'closed room' culture emerged in Budapest, in which the majority of artists opted for 'inner emigration'. Officially of, social realism 'imposed, d. H. a cheap mass art with prescribed political propaganda. Modern art and literature were banned across the board, the rich collection of French and Hungarian impressionists in the Budapest Art Museum, for example, was simply hung up. […] Unpleasant books disappeared from libraries and bookshops ( Don Quixote and Winnie the Pooh were also crushed). […] Written, composed and painted was done in secret and in the scarce spare time: Working for the drawer was considered an honor. "

- György Ligeti, 1995 : accompanying text to György Ligeti Works , Sony Classical 2010.

1956 to 2006

(from left to right) György Ligeti, Lukas Ligeti , Vera Ligeti, Conlon Nancarrow and Michael Daugherty at the ISCM World New Music Days in Graz , 1982

After the end of the popular uprising in Hungary , he fled to Vienna in December 1956 together with Veronika Spitz, his future wife, who then called herself Vera . Shortly after his escape, Ligeti met the Austrian music researcher, critic and philosopher Harald Kaufmann , with whom he worked together in January 1959 in Graz on the final version for the essay Changes in musical form , a critique of the development of serial music , which was published in 1960 in the series appeared in number 7 of the magazine . Kaufmann was one of the leading music theorists in the 1950s and 1960s, who wrote analyzes of Ligeti's works.

Ligeti later took on Austrian citizenship . 1957-58 Ligeti worked in the studio for electronic music of Westdeutscher Rundfunk in Cologne, where he met important representatives of the avant-garde , including the composers Karlheinz Stockhausen and Gottfried Michael Koenig , who were pioneers of electronic music at the time . Ligeti was inspired by the new technical possibilities. Even if he later concentrated exclusively on instrumental and vocal music, this often contained ways of thinking about electronic music, as he admits in his essay Effects of Electronic Music on My Compositional Creation (1970). Examples are his envelope curve treatment, cutting technique, cluster filling - although he only produced three works in the field of electronic music .

Ligeti's grave, Vienna Central Cemetery

Ligeti lived in Berlin from 1969 to 1972 and was a scholarship holder of the German Academic Exchange Service from 1969 to 1970 . From 1972 until his departure in 1992 he was a member of the Berlin Academy of the Arts (West). In 1972 he was " Composer in Residence " at Stanford University in California and wrote the orchestral work San Francisco Polyphony (1973–74). From 1973 to 1989 he was Professor of Composition at the Hamburg University of Music and Theater . His students included Detlev Müller-Siemens , Michael Daugherty , Hans-Christian von Dadelsen , James Horner , Babette Koblenz , Wolfgang-Andreas Schultz , Hans Abrahamsen , Chen Xiaoyong , Unsuk Chin , Benedict Mason , Mari Takano , Manfred Stahnke , Sidney Corbett , Hans Peter Reutter , Wolfgang von Schweinitz , Roberto Sierra , Hubertus Dreyer , Cristian Petrescu and Altuğ Ünlü .

At the invitation of Walter Fink , he was the first composer in the annual composer portrait of the Rheingau Music Festival in 1990 .

The polyglot cosmopolitan spent the last years of his life in Vienna and died there on June 12, 2006. After his cremation, Ligeti's urn was buried in a grave of honor in Vienna's central cemetery (group 33 G, number 37). He had been married to the psychoanalyst Vera Ligeti (née Spitz) since 1957 and had their son Lukas, who also became a composer.


Ligeti was, also because of his personal experience with the excesses of National Socialism and Stalinism , an outspoken and eloquent opponent of ideologies and dictatorships of all stripes. In addition to his wide-ranging interests in various forms of music - from Renaissance music to traditional African music - Ligeti was also very interested in literature (including Lewis Carroll , Jorge Luis Borges and Franz Kafka ). He was also fascinated by painting , architecture , science in general and mathematics in particular and the fractal geometry of Benoît Mandelbrot and the work of Douglas Hofstadter .


Ligeti's earliest works are extensions of the musical language of his compatriot Béla Bartók . The piano pieces Musica Ricercata (1951–1953), influenced by Hungarian folklore, were dedicated to Bartók and are often compared with his microcosm . Even at this early stage in his career, Ligeti was affected by the Hungarian Communist Party. The tenth piece of the Musica Ricercata was banned by the authorities because of alleged decadence.

After making the decision to go into exile and arriving in Cologne , he began to compose electronic music. The few works in this area include Glissandi (1957) and Articulation (1958). Apparitions for orchestra (1958–59) was one of the first works that brought him a certain critical attention, his breakthrough came with his orchestral piece Atmosphères (1961). Ligeti was always looking for new forms of musical expression. With Apparitions and Atmosphères he developed - in a radical departure from serial music - the so-called sound surface composition , a concept that goes back to the influence of electronic music. At the same time, he applied the principle of micropolyphony , which is based on the interweaving of many voices in a very small space.

Atmosphères is written for a large orchestra and was premiered in 1961 at the Donaueschinger Musiktage , where it was such a huge hit with the public that it had to be repeated. It is considered a core piece of Ligeti, as it contains many of the subjects with which he dealt during the sixties. Melody and rhythm are melted together into one massive sound - every note on the chromatic scale is played almost simultaneously over an ambitus of five octaves . The piece seems to grow out of this initially intoxicating, very quiet chord , with the textures constantly changing. Stanley Kubrick used the play for his 2001 film : A Space Odyssey , which resulted in an out-of-court litigation. Kubrick also used Ligeti's music in the later films Shining and Eyes Wide Shut .

The 1974–77 opera Le Grand Macabre based on Michel de Ghelderode , one of the protagonists of the theater of the absurd , shows Ligeti's tonal language that has now been greatly changed, which is less aimed at shaping the overall sound, but brings traditional forms back into play. In the eighties he expanded his stylistic spectrum again. His études for solo piano were written from 1985 to 2001 - they deal with complex rhythmic entanglements and were among others. a. inspired by the studies for player piano by Conlon Nancarrow (whose music he made famous in Europe) and the African music south of the Sahara. Ligeti himself described the novelty of his etudes as the possibility of creating the illusion of different, simultaneous layers of speed with just one player. This is a musical phenomenon that does not exist in the traditional European hemiole technique or in African polyrhythm .

Exotic tone systems and the microtonal expansion of the traditional tone system by Harry Partch also received special attention in his later creative phase. The Passacaglia ungherese (1978) uses the special pure thirds of the mean tone tuning . Likewise, the horn in the Trio for Violin, Horn and Piano (1982) often plays natural intervals. The sonata for solo viola (1991–94) also uses a natural scale in the first movement. His larger works, which integrate this way of thinking, include three instrumental concerts : the concerto for piano and orchestra (1985–88), the concerto for violin and orchestra (1990–92) and, finally, the Hamburg Concerto (1998–2003) for horn solo and chamber orchestra. An important late work is also Síppal, dobbal, nádihegedűvel / With pipes, drums, reed violins for mezzo-soprano and four percussionists (2000).

As one of the best connoisseurs of Ligeti's music, Constantin Floros pointed out that Ligeti "knew his way around European folk music as well as non-European music like a scholar". Ligeti has repeatedly “drawn inspiration for his versatile work from the unused music of many ethnic groups”. It is tempting to trace his music back to such ethnic roots and influences. However, one should not ignore the fact that Ligeti cannot be “located” anywhere in the ethnological sense. Possible parallels to Bartók's folklorism would therefore hardly lead into the depths of his compositional work: “As much as Ligeti owes to the study of European folk music and non-European music,” it should be noted that “Africa and the Far East, the countries that make his music seems to suggest that they are more conceived and dreamed up ”. Ligeti's music therefore has nothing in common with “ folklorism ”.

Catalog of works (selection)

  • 1946 Magány
  • 1946–47 Két Canon
  • 1948/53 sonata for cello solo
  • 1951 Concert Românesc
  • 1951-53 Musica Ricercata
  • 1953 Six bagatelles for wind quintet
  • 1955 Éjszaka Reggel
  • 1956 "Chromatic Fantasy"
  • 1956 String Quartet No. 1
  • 1957 Glissandi (electronic composition)
  • 1958 articulation (electronic composition)
  • 1959 Apparitions
  • 1961 Atmosphères
  • 1962 Poème symphonique for 100 metronomes
  • 1962 volumes for organ
  • 1962–65 Aventures and Nouvelles Aventures for three singers and seven instrumentalists
  • 1963-65 Requiem
  • 1966 Lux aeterna for 16-part a cappella choir
  • 1966 concert for violoncello and orchestra
  • 1967 Lontano for large orchestra
  • 1967–69 Ramifications for 12 solo strings
  • 1968 String Quartet No. 2
  • 1968 Continuum (harpsichord)
  • 1968 10 pieces for wind quintet
  • 1969–70 chamber concert for 13 instrumentalists
  • 1971 melodies for orchestra
  • 1972 double concerto for flute, oboe and orchestra
  • 1973 Clocks and Clouds for female choir and orchestra (In Memoriam Harald Kaufmann )
  • 1974 San Francisco Polyphony for orchestra
  • 1974–77 Le Grand Macabre , opera (first performance 1978)
  • 1976 Rondeau. One-man theater for one actor and tape
  • 1976 Monument / Self-portrait with Reich and Riley (and Chopin is also there) / In gently flowing movement (three pieces for two pianos)
  • 1978 Hungarian Rock , Chaconne for harpsichord
  • 1982 Three fantasies based on Hölderlin , a cappella choir pieces
  • 1982 trio for violin, horn and piano
  • 1983 Magyar Etüdök , based on poems by Sándor Weöres
  • 1985–88 Concerto for piano and orchestra
  • 1985–2001 Études pour piano , 18 piano études in three books
  • 1990–92 concert for violin and orchestra
  • 1991–94 Sonata for solo viola
  • 1993 Nonsense Madrigals
  • 1998–2003 Hamburg Concerto for Horn and Chamber Orchestra with 4 natural horns obligatory
  • 2000 Síppal, dobbal, nádihegedűvel / With pipes, drums, reed violins / With pipes, drums, fiddles





Before 2000

“That [my music from the 1960s] is music that gives the impression that it is flowing continuously, as if it has no beginning, no end; what we hear is actually a snippet of something that has always started and will continue to sound. Typical of all of these pieces is that there are hardly any turning points, so the music really flows on. The formal characteristic of this music is the statics. The music seems to have stopped, but that is only an appearance; within this standing, this static, there are gradual changes; I would think of a surface of water on which an image is reflected; now the surface of the water gradually becomes cloudy and the image disappears, but very, very gradually. Then the water smooths out again and we see a different picture. [...] To come back to 'Atmosphères': something atmospheric, that is, floating, not fixed, almost contourless, merging, on the other hand something atmospheric in the figurative sense - I would like to hope, or believe I may hope, that the piece, even if it isn't is directly expressive, but also has a very specific emotional, i.e. affective part, and that is what is atmospheric or ambiance-like. Yes, I don't think you can talk about it any further. "

- Ligeti, 1968.

“My answer to this was Apparitions and later Atmospheres . Should I return to clearer diatonic structures or press on ahead, towards completely blurred outlines of sound? - I wondered. There are rhythmic events in both works but when so many rhythmic processes are superimposed that they cover one another, the result is a homogenous musical 'mass'. "

“My answer to that was Apparitions and later Atmosphères . Should I go back to clearer diatonic structures, or should I move on to completely blurred sound contours? - I wondered. There are rhythmic events in both works, but when so many rhythmic processes overlap that they overlap, a homogeneous musical 'mass' emerges. "

- Ligeti, 1983.

“I don't have an art theory. That's why a lot of people are disappointed. I don't have a message to announce. I cannot be pinned to a uniform, verbally expressible compositional theory. I always try to try new things. That's why I once put it this way: I am like a blind man in the labyrinth who gropes his way around and always finds new entrances and comes into rooms that he didn't even know existed. And then he does something. And he doesn't even know what the next step will be. "

- Ligeti, 1993.

“A source of acoustic-motor enjoyment is the music of many African cultures south of the Sahara. The polyphonic interplay of several musicians on the xylophone [...] as well as the playing of a single performer on the lambellofon [...] prompted me to look for similar technical possibilities on the piano keys. [...] Two insights were essential for me: on the one hand the way of thinking in movement patterns (independent of the European rhythmic thinking), on the other hand the possibility of gaining illusionary melodic-rhythmic configurations from the combination of two or more real voices (which can be heard but not played be), analogous to Maurits Escher's 'impossible' perspective figures. "

- Ligeti, 1996.

After 2000

“I don't like improvisation at all within a composition. You can only do a lot with jazz, i.e. in stylistically standardized forms with a given limited vocabulary. It's often of high quality, whether it's tonal like Louis Armstrong , modal like Miles Davis and John Coltrane or atonal like Cecil Taylor - it's really great music. But in composed music, in my subject, I am for precise elaboration and notation as in Bach. "

- Ligeti, 2000.

“I love the simplicity of Mozart and Schubert more than anything. Bach and Beethoven do not have this simplicity. But I'm also very interested in complexity, in the polyphony of the Ars nova, but also in African musical traditions south of the Sahara with their unbelievable rhythmic complexity. [...] Some Ländler Schubert are so simple achttaktig, sechzehntaktig, symmetrical, almost without modulations - yet they are highest art. So is complexity a value in itself, or is simplicity a value in itself? Is the 'Magic Flute' easy? Maybe. But the spiritual abysses are a little different. "

- Ligeti, 2000.

“You know what you hear in music. And you hear major and minor all the time. On television and on the radio you can hear 99 percent tonal music. Access to early European music is already difficult. This wonderful music from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries is unknown to the general public. But if it knew you, you would love it. "

- Ligeti, 2002.

“Do you understand what Sloterdijk is saying? Foam! Nothing! I don't think much of these talkers and pseudoscientists. The whole of French philosophy from Derrida and Lyotard to Lacan mixes psychoanalysis and mysticism. Julia Kristeva , Paul Virilio , Gilles Deleuze : all empty chatter. "

- Ligeti, 2003.

“His communicative energy was overwhelming, captivating, visionary, enchanting ... In this wiry figure with the creaky voice, unmistakably Hungarian in color, music history seemed to boil like lava. As a speaker and musician, Ligeti was able to sweep his audience away like no other of the great composers of the past 50 years - but he was also able to remain silent: in 1961 he gave a famous lecture on the subject of 'The Future of Music' - and didn't say a single word. "

- Reinhard J. Brembeck, Süddeutsche Zeitung , June 13, 2006.


Film music

Stanley Kubrick established Ligeti's music to a wider audience by using it in some of his films, first in 2001: A Space Odyssey . Films in which Ligeti's music is used are listed here (with the title of the pieces if known).


Writings by Ligeti

  • Collected Writings. 2 volumes. Edited by Monika Lichtenfeld. Schott Musik International, Mainz 2006, linen, ISBN 3-7957-0451-0 .
  • Le Grand Macabre. Opera in two acts. Libretto by Michael Meschke and György Ligeti. Schott Musik International, Mainz 1990, ISBN 3-7957-3501-7 .
  • György Ligeti in conversation with Péter Várnai, Josef Häusler , Claude Samuel, and himself. Eulenburg Books, London 1983.
  • with Gerhard Neuweiler : Motor intelligence: Between music and science. Wagenbach, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-8031-5175-9 .


- chronological -

Web links

Commons : György Ligeti  - collection of images, videos and audio files
To Ligeti's work
Audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Wolfgang Burde: György Ligeti - A monograph. Atlantis Musikbuch-Verlag AG, Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-254-00184-2 , p. 9 f.
  2. Arnt Cobbers: Ligetimiert. (Interview) ( Memento from June 14, 2006 in the Internet Archive ). In:  / Crescendo , 2002, No. 4.
  3. See Richard Steinitz: György Ligeti. Music of the Imagination. London 2011, ISBN 0-571-17631-3 ; to Brigitte Löw: limited preview in the Google Book search.
  4. ^ György Ligeti: Comments by the composer on the work. In: , 2013, accessed on May 6, 2020.
  5. ^ Frederik Knop: György Ligeti • Biography, personal data, works. In: Lexicon of persecuted musicians from the Nazi era ( LexM ), University of Hamburg , 2010, updated on January 28, 2019, accessed on May 4, 2020: “Ehe / Partnerschaft: I. ⚭ 1949 Brigitte Ligeti, geb. Löw, 1952 divorce, II. 1952 ⚭ Veronika (Vera) Ligeti, b. Spitz (born 1930 in Budapest), divorced in 1954, remarried in 1957, Dr. phil., Holocaust survivor, psychoanalyst. "
  6. On the relationship between Ligeti and Kaufmann see: Gottfried Krieger: A pioneer of music journalism in Austria. On the life and work of Harald Kaufmann (1927–1970) , in: Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 7–8, 2010, pp. 8–9.
  7. A number of analyzes and the correspondence between Ligeti and Kaufmann are printed in: Harald Kaufmann. From inside and outside. Writings on music, musical life and aesthetics , ed. by Werner Grünzweig and Gottfried Krieger, Wolke, Hofheim 1993, ISBN 3-923997-52-3 .
    On the relationship between Kaufmann and Ligeti, see also Bertl Mütter: Harald Kaufmann and György Ligeti. A case study on the relationship between science and art. Lecture given at the Harald Kaufmann Symposium on October 20, 2010 in Graz. PDF as well as
    Gottfried Krieger: Volksbildner and philosopher, critic and critical mind. On the life and work of the Austrian music researcher Harald Kaufmann (1927–1970). Revised version of the lecture at the Harald Kaufmann Symposium on October 20, 2010 in Graz. PDF .
  8. ^ Richard Steinitz: György Ligeti: Music of the Imagination. Faber and Faber, London 2003, ISBN 0-571-17631-3 ; Northeastern University Press, Boston, ISBN 1-55553-551-8 , p. 79, limited preview in Google Book Search.
  9. ^ Richard Steinitz: György Ligeti: Music of the Imagination. Faber and Faber, London 2003, ISBN 0-571-17631-3 ; Northeastern University Press, Boston, ISBN 1-55553-551-8 , limited preview in Google Book Search.
  10. Julia Heimerdinger: “I have been compromised. I am now fighting against it. “Ligeti vs. Kubrick and the music for 2001: A Space Odyssey. In: The Journal of Film Music ( ZDB -ID 2635943-1 ), Vol. 3, No. 2, 2010, pp. 127-143, abstract .
  11. Constantin Floros : György Ligeti - Beyond the avant-garde and postmodernism. (= Composers of Our Time , Vol. 26.) Lafite, Vienna 1996, ISBN 978-3-85151-038-6 , pp. 68–70.
  12. ^ ISCM Honorary Members
  13. ^ Sieglinde Roth: The György-Ligeti-Saal in the MUMUTH as a bow to a great new musician. ( Memento from June 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: KUGelschreiber , Magazin der Kunstuniversität Graz (KUG), March 2009, issue 2, p. 8, (PDF), with a facsimile of the certificate of Ligeti's honorary membership.
  14. Today ... years ago. # 10. 06th 2011 - 14th 06th 2011. ( Memento of May 8th, 2019 in the Internet Archive ). In: Kunstuniversität Graz , naming György-Ligeti-Saal on March 12, 2009.
  15. ^ Honorary Members: György Ligeti. In: American Academy of Arts and Letters . Retrieved May 4, 2020 .
  16. ^ Ligeti in: Ove Nordwall, György Ligeti - A Monograph , p. 115; Ligeti partial quotation in Eva-Maria Houben : The suspension of time. On the utopia of the unlimited present in the music of the 20th century. Steiner Verlag, 1992, ISBN 3-515-05847-8 , p. 206, limited preview in the Google book search.
  17. ^ György Ligeti: György Ligeti in conversation with Péter Várnai, Josef Häusler, Claude Samuel, and himself. Eulenburg Books, London 1983, p. 39, limited preview in the Google book search.
  18. Manfred Stahnke (Ed.): Music - not without words . Von Bockel Verlag, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-932696-33-6 , György Ligeti and Manfred Stahnke, conversation on May 29, 1993, p. 127.
  19. György Ligeti, Gesammelte Schriften , (= publications of the Paul Sacher Foundation , vol. 10), ed. by Monika Lichtenfeld, Schott Music , Mainz 2007, vol. 2, ISBN 978-3-7957-0451-3 , pp. 288–289, quoted in: Comments of the composer on the work. In: , 2013, accessed on May 4, 2020.
  20. Quoted in: Soundcheck SII. Edition for upper secondary level , materials for teachers with CD-ROM. Verlag Schroedel, ISBN 978-3-507-02687-2 , table of contents , list of sources see: [1] .
  21. Quoted in: Soundcheck SII. Edition for upper secondary level , materials for teachers with CD-ROM. Verlag Schroedel, ISBN 978-3-507-02687-2 , table of contents , list of sources see: [2] .
  22. Arnt Cobbers: Ligetimiert. In:  / Crescendo , 2002, No. 2, interview with Ligeti, accessed on May 4, 2020.
  23. Claus Spahn : Strubbelkopf in Wonderland. ( Memento from May 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: Die Zeit , May 28, 2003, No. 23.
  24. Brembeck quoted in: Ungarisches aus Berlin. In: Deutschlandfunk Kultur , January 18, 2007.
  25. Film data: Merci la vie. In: , (French); Film music for “Merci la vie” in IMDb , (English); Preview , 2 min., (Without text), accessed on May 6, 2020.
  26. Summary of “Reflections of Evil”. In: .de ; Preview , 3:29 min., Review: Reflections of Evil. In: , March 8, 2005: “The soundtrack is credited as" Original score by Gyorgy Ligeti and John Williams. "”, Accessed May 6, 2020.
  27. Summary of “The Future Is Not What It Used to Be” : Mika Taanila: Erkki Kurenniemi. In: Bildrausch Basel , 2015.
      cf. The future is no longer what it used to be. In: Nordic Film Days Lübeck , 2003, accessed on May 6, 2020.
  28. film side: After the Day Before (Másnap). In: , 2005, (English), with preview, 0:58 min., Accessed on May 6, 2020.
  29. Review by Achim Schleif: Ligetis "Gesammelte Schriften". ( Memento from June 29, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: Die Berliner Literaturkritik , January 20, 2009.