Jacques-Marie Émile Lacan , known under the name Jacques Lacan (born April 13, 1901 in Paris ; † September 9, 1981 ibid), was a French psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who gained international fame through a reinterpretation of Sigmund Freud's writings . He put his interpretation under the title of a “return to Freud”, with the aim of further developing psychoanalysis where, in his opinion, Freud lagged behind his own findings. In doing so, he drew on approaches and methods from structuralism and linguistics , and later on graphical models of topology and set theory . The theoretician, controversial within psychoanalysis, had a formative influence on post-structuralism , among other things .
During his academic career, he was primarily associated with the two Parisian elite universities, École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) and École normal supérieure (ENS), and worked as a professor.
life and work
Lacan grew up in a family with a strong Catholic tradition. He had a sister, Magdeleine-Marie, and a younger brother, Marc-Marie, who later became a Benedictine monk in the Abbey of Hautecombe . Lacan attended the Collège Stanislas , a Catholic high school in Paris. After completing his baccalaureate , he studied medicine and later specialized in psychiatry . In 1932 he received his doctorate with the work on paranoid psychosis in its relationships to personality . Lacan worked as a doctor in neurology and psychiatry and headed the Center hospitalier Sainte-Anne clinic in the 14th arrondissement of Paris , where he was a colleague of Henri Ey (1900–1977) in the 1930s . From 1964 he taught at the École Normale Superieure (ENS) and the École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) in Paris.
Lacan was a practicing psychoanalyst until the end of his life. Because of his unorthodox treatment methods (for example, he arbitrarily varied the length of the session, sometimes shortened it to a few minutes, and improperly treated acutely suicidal patients), he was viewed by some colleagues as a charlatan.
In the years 1953 to 1954 Lacan carried out a turn with which he gave up his allusion to Hegel (Hegelianism Kojèvescher Art) in favor of structuralism. When Lacan dealt with the function of the symbolic and the need for a contract between the “I” and the “little other”, he relied on the concept of “structure”, which is exactly equivalent to that of “language”. In his grand opening text, Fonction et champ de la parole et du langage , he refers to the studies of Claude Lévi-Strauss in order to express this great basic law of interchangeability and kinship in his successor. In addition, in 1953 he introduced the concept of the three realms that was to become fundamental to his work: the real, the symbolic and the imaginary.
After political and organizational disputes, he resigned in 1953 with four of his colleagues from the Psychoanalytical Association of France ( Société Psychanalytique de Paris , SPP), of which he was multiple vice-president. A week later he founded the Société Française de Psychanalyse (SFP), which around half of the psychoanalysts in training at the SPP joined. However, the organization was not recognized by the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA). In 1965, the SFP dissolved after it had split into two competing societies: the Anti-Lacan Association Française de Psychanalyse (AFP) and the École Française de Psychanalyse , which Lacan founded himself in 1964 , which shortly afterwards became École Freudienne de Paris (EFP) was renamed. The Lacanian EFP eventually became "the most influential psychoanalytical organization in France with the largest number of members". It existed until 1980.
He died of kidney failure on September 9, 1981.
Besides the work of Sigmund Freud, the foundations of Lacan's theory include the work of the structuralist linguists Ferdinand de Saussure , Charles Sanders Peirce and Roman Ossipowitsch Jakobson . Lacan also refers to philosophical authors such as Husserl , Descartes and Hegel (and his interpreter Alexandre Kojève), but also to mathematicians such as René Thom and the collective of authors Nicolas Bourbaki , in particular to the topological theory of knots .
Lacan's work is considered extremely difficult to access. He initially only spread his teaching in his seminars (1951–1979) until he published his writings ( Écrits , German: Writings I-III ) for the first time in book form in 1966 . After that, the transcripts of his seminars were gradually published, although not all of the 25 seminar scripts held and recorded by Lacan (1953–1979) have been published to this day.
Lacan married Marie-Louise Blondin in 1934, with whom he had three children, Caroline (* 1937), Thibaud (* 1939) and Sibylle (* 1940). He fell in love with Sylvia Bataille (née Maklès) in 1937. In 1940 he confessed to his wife Marie-Louise, who was pregnant at the time, that Sylvia was expecting a child. His wife then requested a divorce and Lacan initially moved out alone. In 1943, two years after the birth of their daughter Judith, Sylvia Bataille moved into Lacan's apartment on Rue de Lille, where Lacan lived until his death. The couple married in July 1953. Their daughter, the philosopher Judith Bataille , was married to the psychoanalyst Jacques-Alain Miller, who, among other things, edited Lacan's seminar transcripts.
After 1955 he bought the painting The Origin of the World by Gustave Courbet , which has been owned by France since 1995, can be seen in various international exhibitions and is shown at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris.
Four basic assumptions of Lacan's theory
Lacan's theory can be summarized in four basic assumptions:
- The ego develops in the mirror stage , which forms the basic matrix of subjectivity.
- The subject is a linguistic being , that is, shaped by the symbolic order of language: "The unconscious is structured like a language."
- The subject is a desiring subject . Since the object of desire ( object small a ) has always been lost , it is a fundamental defect that maintains human desire.
- The human psyche is constituted in the indissoluble triad imaginary - symbolic - real (RSI) .
The imaginary and the mirror stage
The theory of the mirror stage ( the mirror stage as a creator of the ego function , in: Schriften I , pp. 61–70) is one of Lacan's most famous concepts. It goes back to observations of the psychologist James Mark Baldwin .
According to Lacan, between the ages of 6 and 18 months, when you hold them in front of a mirror, the child begins to recognize himself in him and to identify what he reacts to with a “jubilant gesture”. With a German term, Lacan calls this important turning point an “ aha” experience . From now on, the view of one's own self changes , yes it is only now possible: the view of oneself from the body perspective, which is “fragmented” into “partial objects”, now becomes a view from the outside that shows the child completely for the first time . The jubilant gesture is therefore also a narcissistic gesture of the omnipotent fantasy in which a “great self” (“ideal self”) is shown, which from then on becomes the matrix on which the subject orients its self. The mirror stage therefore goes hand in hand with the psychic birth of the ego .
At the same time, however, the mirror stage is the beginning of an alienation. Because in the mirror the child sees a physical unity that it does not even feel. It identifies with something that it is not, namely with the “total form of the body” in a place where it is not (namely in the mirror). Therefore, the recognition in the mirror is at the same time an imaginary misrecognition and leads to the division of the subject into "moi" (ideal ego, the "imaginary subject") and "je", the social ego. From this follows the sentence, which sounds paradoxical in German: "Das ich is not the I. " - "Le je n'est pas le moi."
The symbolic and the language
The dualistic situation in the mirror stage (the realm of the imaginary ) is only overcome by reaching the symbolic order, that is, at the moment when the subject begins to speak and thus participates in the great other , language. The first embodiment of the symbolic is the mother; it is a “great other will” which speaks and which introduces the child to the order of language and the social. This applies even more to the father, who in the Oedipus conflict takes on the prohibitive role of the law ( incest taboo , threat of castration ), pushes the child out of Oedipal desires and orientates them towards the social world outside the family.
In society the law of the symbolic applies, i. H. the law of language, social norms and economic exchange (see also reciprocity ). In this sense, the symbolic is to be equated with the order of language, discourse , state rule and economy as well as the “law of the father” ( name of the father ). They also form a symbolic order of domination that subdues the subject (subjectum = subject) and structures it.
The unconscious is also subject to the structure of the symbolic: “The unconscious is structured like a language.” ( Seminar XI. The four basic concepts of psychoanalysis , p. 26) The symbolic therefore dominates the three structural determinations of the psychic (the imaginary is always symbolic as well overformed). It is also the area that plays the central role in psychoanalytic treatment, which is essentially a form of healing through language. (See the function and field of speaking and language in psychoanalysis , in: Schriften III , pp. 71–169)
The desiring subject
The subject is the bearer of an irreducible deficiency. This deficiency begins with the birth, which throws the child out of the perfection of its embryonic existence, and is amplified by its second great separation, the separation of the symbiosis with the mother (breast). It is also separated and alienated from its mirror image, which it faces in the mirror stage. Since then the subject has been incomplete, which is why it always longs to become complete and its lack, its void in the subject, to be filled with objects. Such an object, called the object small a , functions as the impetus and trigger for the subject's actions and to that extent as an external “reason for desire”. But ultimately the deficiency cannot be eliminated, the object remains inaccessible and is an "always lost" object, an inaccessible "thing".
Around this theory of lack and desire, Lacan builds that part of his psychoanalytic theory that integrates and takes up the classical psychoanalytic personality structures, such as the neurotic or psychotic personality structures, which he understands as specific ways of dealing with fundamental lack and desire. One way of filling up the deficiency imaginarily is phantasm ; it is the framework, the scenario, in which the objects small a appear.
Lacan's concept of “desire” roughly corresponds to Sigmund Freud's concept of “wish”, whereby it is always the wish for the other (the object small a), but also the wish of the (large) other that determines the subject. In this context, Lacan borrowed the following aphorism from Alexandre Kojève: "The desire of man is the desire of the other", and quoting Arthur Rimbaud he states: "I am another."
Opposite desire is enjoyment ( jouissance ). While desire changes its object metonymically and lives from the renunciation of what is desired, enjoyment, the immediate, 'idiotic' sexual satisfaction, is more like a sticky slime. Enjoyment is at the same time a certain way of the subject to organize his drive economy and thus his existence. Thus, precisely in the symptom, as a signifier to be interpreted, there is always a remnant of the uninterpretable , for which Lacan introduces the term Sinthom .
The Real, the Symbolic and the Imaginary (RSI)
The imaginary is the area of the psychic that is organized in a pictorial and dual manner and in which identification and narcissism are located. In particular the mirror stage and with it the ego or the self-image of the subject belongs to the sphere of the imaginary, as does the object small a, the object of desire by the subject.
The symbolic is the area of the psychic that is organized like a language and that forms an order of signifiers and signifieds that are well-organized and ordered to one another. The authority that guarantees the order of the symbolic is the great other or the name of the father . The symbolic order is therefore a three-digit structure (significant-signified reference), while the imaginary has a dual structure.
Lacan describes the real , probably the most enigmatic concept of his theory, as that which is neither imaginary nor symbolizable and which has no place in the symbolic order. It has its own massive, irreducible and singular existence and presence - for example in the form of a disturbing dream from which the subject suffers and which could not (yet) be transformed into a story.
The real is always something incomprehensible, unspeakable, uncontrollable, often a kind of horror or trauma that appears particularly in the spheres of sexuality , death and violence . It is in no way to be equated with the concept of reality, which rather belongs to the symbolically structured order of language and discourse. The real cannot be imagined or represented, but is that which is fundamentally withdrawn from the symbolic order, from speaking and thus from any discursive process. Nevertheless, psychoanalysis focuses on this aspect of the psyche with particular attention: "No practice is any longer oriented towards that core of the real that constitutes the center of psychoanalytic experience." ( Seminar XI. The Four Basic Concepts of Psychoanalysis , p. 59 )
Every psychic object can have aspects of any of these three dimensions. For example, Lacan differentiates between a real, an imaginary and a symbolic mother. The same is true for the father or the phallus . One can also speak of an “imaginary real”, a “symbolic real”, a “real real” etc.
The three structural determinations of the subject RSI are linked to one another in the structure of a Borromean knot , that is: Each of these “registers” of the psychic determines the other two, so that the three concepts form an indissoluble unit. If one of them is detached from the overall network, the others also become detached and the network loses its coherence . It is unclear whether Lacan regards this unity as universal and indissoluble, or whether this unity is not dissolved in the psychosis in a traumatic way, as he did in his late seminar XXIII. Le sinthome (1975-1976) has indicated (see Dylan Evans, Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis , p. 65).
In his late work, from 1974 onwards, Lacan placed the object small a in the middle of his Borromean knot , that is, in the place of the psychic where the imaginary, the symbolic and the real intersect. (Evans: Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis , p. 206)
Influence and criticism
Lacan's work was extremely influential, especially for the humanities in France, comparable to Freud's influence in Germany. A broader reception in Germany only began in the 1990s. In the context of traditional psychoanalysis, especially in Germany, Lacan's modification of Freud is controversial.
Lacan exerted influence in particular on French post-structuralism, to which he is often attributed. He also influenced literary studies , in particular through his now famous analysis of Edgar Allan Poe's story The Stolen Letter ( Schriften I , pp. 7-60). Poe's story was also the subject of extensive correspondence between Lacan and Jacques Derrida .
The Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser based his influential theory of ideological "invocation" ("interpellation") , which he designed in the essay Ideology and Ideological State Apparatus , on Lacan's conception of the Great Other . In addition, references to Lacan can be found in many other places in Althusser. Indeed, his structuralist reassessment of Marx is very similar to Lacan's project of a return to Freud, as he himself has sometimes emphasized.
Via Althusser's detour, among other things, Lacan also exerted influence on Michel Foucault - albeit more indirectly, as Foucault designed his own concept of power as a “frontal declaration of war” against the psychoanalytic conception of the law, despite some similarities.
The philosopher Slavoj Žižek transfers Lacan's psychoanalysis both to the history of European philosophy (see Die Tücke des Subjects , Frankfurt a. M .: Suhrkamp 2001) and to popular culture, especially literature and cinema ( Matrix , Hitchcock , science fiction etc. ).
Julia Kristeva , a student of Lacan, also extends psychoanalytic theory with aspects of historical materialism . Among other things, she criticizes the fact that Lacan's language appears to be something superhistorical.
The feminist psychoanalyst Luce Irigaray , in her 1974 work Speculum - Spiegel des other sex, tried to work out a female discourse and a female identity on the basis of a critical re-evaluation of Freud and Lacan and thus a central gap in what she saw as male-dominated psychoanalytic To close the discourse - a gap that is particularly expressed in Lacan's controversial sentence: “La femme n 'existe pas.” ( Seminar XVIII , 1970–1971)
Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari emphasize anti-Oedipus in their book . Capitalism and Schizophrenia I the social orientation of desire production. The book sees itself as a criticism of Jacques Lacan and psychoanalysis.
In 1991, Camille Paglia described postmodern philosophy in a spectacular lecture at MIT as "French Rot" ("French nonsense") and blamed Lacan's success in particular for the crisis in American universities and for the alienation of its graduates.
The physicist Alan Sokal accused Lacan of using mathematical terms arbitrarily and not in their respective physical or mathematical meaning. The postmodern critic suspected the motive to be the “display of half-education” and the rhetorical “polishing up senseless sentences”. Lacan's texts can be described as secular mysticism : “Mysticism, because the discourse intends to effect something spiritually that is not exclusively of an aesthetic nature, but still does not appeal to reason; secular, since the cultural references [...] have nothing to do with traditional religions and are intended to appeal to modern readers. ”However, Sokal has to admit that he has no expertise in the field of psychoanalysis. In this respect he could not judge to what extent Lacan's application of these mathematical terms in his field was justified.
The psychoanalyst, mathematician and doctor Antonello Sciacchitano has shown in his works that Lacan had only limited mathematical knowledge and used it in a metaphorical-illustrative rather than in a scientific-precise sense to support his theories. Sciacchitano, on the other hand, suggests dealing conscientiously with modern mathematics, and explains that the various forms of desire can be understood as mathematical theorems.
- Elisabeth Roudinesco & Michel Plon : Dictionary of Psychoanalysis . Names, countries, works, terms. Springer, Vienna 2004; ISBN 3-211-83748-5 ; Page 277 f .: Google books
- Markos Zafiropoulos: Lacan et Lévi-Strauss. Retrieved October 13, 2019 (French).
- See in detail Nicolas Langlitz: Lacan's practice of variable session length and his theory of temporality . Digital dissertation at the FU Berlin (2004).
- Se reporter à l'article de Pierre Macherey , Leurre hégélien. , in Le Bloc Note de la Psychanalyse, Volume 5, (1985), pp. 27-50.
- Gerhard Schmitz: The Seminar of Lacan , in: Gondek et al .: Jacques Lacan - Paths to his work , p. 238.
- Elisabeth Roudinesco , Histoire de la psychanalysis en France , T. 2, Fayard, 1994, pp. 118 et suivantes, ISBN 2-213-59359-0 .
- Elisabeth Roudinesco and Michel Plon: Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Springer, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-211-83748-5 , p. 589.
- Cf. u. a. Louis Althusser: Freud and Lacan and ders .: Marx and Freud.
- Philipp Sarasin : Michel Foucault for an introduction. Hamburg: Junius 2006 (2nd, revised edition), p. 156.
- Camille Paglia: The MIT lecture. On the crisis in American universities. In: dies .: The war of the sexes. Sex, art and media culture. Berlin: Byblos 1993.
- Sokal, Alan D. and Jean Bricmont: Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science. Profile Books, ISBN 978-0-312-20407-5 , pp. 17 .
- Arno Bammé - Science Wars. From academic to post-academic science (Campus Verlag, 2004, p. 129)
- Antonello Sciacchitano: “Infinite Subversion. The Scientific Origins of Psychoanalysis and the Psychoanalytic Resistance to Science ”, Vienna 2008, p. 93 ff.
- Antonello Sciacchitano: “The Infinite and the Subject. Why one should understand something about mathematics when talking about psychoanalysis ”, Zurich 2004.
Fonts. Selected and edited by Norbert Haas.
- Writings I. Translated by Rodolphe Gasché, Norbert Haas, Klaus Laermann and Peter Stehlin. Weinheim and Berlin: Quadriga 1986 (fourth edition 1996). ISBN 3-88679-901-8 .
- Writings II. Translated by Norbert Haas, Hans-Joachim Metzger, Monika Metzger and Peter Stehlin. Weinheim and Berlin: Quadriga 1986 (fifth edition 1999) ISBN 3-88679-902-6
- Writings III. Translated by Norbert Haas, Franz Kaltenbeck, Friedrich A. Kittler and Hans-Joachim Metzger. Weinheim and Berlin: Quadriga 1986 (third edition 1994). ISBN 3-88679-903-4 .
The seminar. Text arranged by Jacques-Alain Miller
- Book I (1953–1954): Freud's technical writings. Translated by Werner Hamacher. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2015. ISBN 978-3-85132-803-5 .
- Book II (1954–1955): The I in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis. Translated by Hans-Joachim Metzger. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2015. ISBN 978-3-85132-807-3 .
- Book III (1955–1956): The Psychoses. Translated by Michael Turnheim. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2016. ISBN 978-3-85132-805-9 .
- Book IV (1956–1957): The Object Relationship. Translated by Hans-Dieter Gondek. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2003. ISBN 978-3-85132-472-3 .
- Book V (1957–1958): The Formations of the Unconscious. Translated by Hans-Dieter Gondek. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2006. ISBN 978-3-85132-470-9
- Book VII (1959-1960): The Ethics of Psychoanalysis. Translated by Norbert Haas. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2016. ISBN 978-3-85132-806-6 .
- Book VIII (1960–1961): The Transfer . Translated by Hans-Dieter Gondek. Vienna: Passagen 2008. ISBN 978-3-85165-817-0
- Book X (1962–1963): Fear. Translated by Hans-Dieter Gondek. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2010. ISBN 978-3-85132-632-1
- Book XI (1964): The four basic concepts of psychoanalysis. Translated by Norbert Haas. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2017. ISBN 978-3-85132-802-8 .
- Book XX (1972-1973): Encore. Translated by Norbert Haas, Vreni Haas and Hans-Joachim Metzger. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2017. ISBN 978-3-85132-807-3 .
- Book XXIII (1975–1978): Das Sinthom. Translated by Myriam Mitelman and Harold Dielmann. Vienna and Berlin: Turia + Kant 2017. ISBN 978-3-85132-877-6 .
- Summarized reproductions of seminars IV – VI by Jacques Lacan. Edited by Jean-Bertrand Pontalis . Vienna: Turia + Kant 1999, 2nd edition 2009. ISBN 978-3-85132-491-4
- Radiophony / Television. Translated by Hans-Joachim Metzger, Jutta Prasse u. Hinrich Lühmann. Weinheim / Berlin: Quadriga 1988. ISBN 3-88679-908-5
- On Paranoid Psychosis in Its Relationship to Personality and Early Writings on Paranoia . 1st edition. Passagen Verlag, Vienna 2002, ISBN 978-3-85165-406-6 (Original title: De la psychose paranoïaque dans ses rapports avec la personnalité suivi de Premiers écrits sur la paranoïa . Translated by Hans-Dieter Gondek).
- Father-name. Translated by Hans-Dieter Gondek. Vienna: Turia + Kant 2006 (reprint 2013). ISBN 3-85132-450-1
- The triumph of religion which precedes The discourse to the Catholics. Translated by Hans-Dieter Gondek. Vienna: Turia + Kant 2006. ISBN 978-3-85132-451-8
- The Freudian Thing or The Sense of Returning to Freud in Psychoanalysis. Extended version of a lecture given on November 7, 1955 at the Neuro-psychiatric University Clinic Vienna. Translated from the French and annotated by Monika Mager. Vienna: Turia + Kant 2006 (reprint 2011). ISBN 978-3-85132-642-0
- About the "drive" in Freud and the desires of the psychoanalyst. In: Lacan - Drive and Desire. Edited by Christian Kupke. Berlin: Parodos 2007. ISBN 978-3-938880-06-7
- My teaching . Vienna: Turia + Kant 2008 (reprint 2013). ISBN 978-3-85132-641-3
- The individual myth of the neurotic. Or: poetry and truth in the neurosis . Vienna: Turia + Kant 2008. ISBN 978-3-85132-550-8
- I am speaking to the walls. Conversations from the Saint-Anne chapel . Vienna: Turia + Kant 2013. ISBN 978-3-85132-724-3
- Otto Isakower and Michael Josef Eisler: De l'autre: trois références du Séminaire III de Jacques Lacan. Documents de la bibliothèque de l'école de la cause freudienne. ECF-ACF 1996.
- Alain Badiou , Elisabeth Roudinesco : Jacques Lacan. Yesterday, today, dialogue. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-85132-702-1 .
- Wolfram Bergande: Lacan's Psychoanalysis and Deconstruction. Passagen, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-85165-520-6 .
- Tim Caspar Boehme: Ethics and Enjoyment: Kant and Lacan. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-85132-416-1 .
- Claudia Blümle, Anne von der Heiden (ed.): Eye taming and eye illusion. On Jacques Lacan's image theory. Diaphanes, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-935300-80-8 .
- Christoph Braun: The position of the subject. Lacan's psychoanalysis. Parodos, Berlin 2007, ISBN 3-938880-08-2 .
- Jürgen Buchmann : Lacan à la lettre. Lacan taken by the letter. In: RISS, magazine for psychoanalysis. Lacan - Freud. Alienation and Separation, Volume 63/2, Vienna 2006. Revised reprint under the title The Secret of the Sphinx. Mystery and meaning in the work of Jacques Lacan. In: Cahiers Cartésiens , Rheine 2017.
- Andreas Cremonini: The crossing of the Cogito. Lacan versus Sartre. Fink, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7705-3883-8 .
- Jacques Derrida : For the love of Lacan. In: Ders .: Let's not forget - psychoanalysis! Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 1998, ISBN 3-518-11980-X , pp. 15-59.
- Dylan Evans: Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-85132-190-1 .
- Bruce Fink: A Clinical Introduction to Lacan's Psychoanalysis. Theory and technology. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2005; 3rd edition 2016, ISBN 978-3-85132-791-5 .
- Bruce Fink: The Lacanian Subject. Between language and jouissance. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2006 (2nd edition 2011), ISBN 978-3-85132-643-7 .
- Bruce Fink: Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2013, ISBN 978-3-85132-701-4 .
- Bruce Fink: Literally Lacan. The Écrits decipher. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-85132-812-7 .
- Hans-Dieter Gondek: From Freud to Lacan. Philosophical intermediate steps. Turia + Kant, Vienna 1999, ISBN 978-3-85132-198-2 .
- Hans-Dieter Gondek et al. (Ed.): Jacques Lacan - Paths to his work. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-608-94168-1 .
- Ivo Gurschler, Sándor Ivády, Andrea Wald (eds.): Lacan 4D. On the four discourses in Lacan's seminar XVII. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-85132-714-4 ,
- Iris Hanika , Edith Seifert: The bet on the unconscious or what you always wanted to know about psychoanalysis. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 2006.
- Kai Hammermeister : Jacques Lacan. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57374-3 ,
- Philippe Julien: Reading Jacques Lacan. Back to Freud. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2020, ISBN 978-3-85132-954-4 . (Original: Pour lire Jacques Lacan. Éditions du Seuil, Paris 2018)
- Franz Kaltenbeck: Reading with Lacan. Essays on psychoanalysis. Turia + Kant, Vienna 1998, ISBN 978-3-85132-114-2 .
- Christian Kupke (ed.): Lacan - Trieb and Desire. Parodos, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-938880-06-7 .
- Jacques Lacan: Oeuvres Graphiques et Manuscrits. Artcurial auction catalog with 117 numbers.
- Hermann Lang: Language and the unconscious: Jacques Lacan's foundations of psychoanalysis. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 1986, ISBN 3-518-28226-3 . (Dissertation, University of Heidelberg 1972)
- Nicolas Langlitz: The Age of Psychoanalysis: Lacan and the Problem of Session Length. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 2005, ISBN 3-518-29357-5 . (Dissertation, FU Berlin, 2004; online ).
- Éric Laurent: The downside of biopolitics. A font for enjoyment. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-85132-959-9 .
- Thanos Lipowatz: Politics of the Psyche. An introduction to the psychopathology of the political. Turia + Kant, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-85132-156-1 .
- André Michels, Susanne Gottlob, Bernhard Schwaiger (eds.): Norm, normality, law. (= Clinic of Psychoanalysis , 1) Turia + Kant, Vienna 2012, ISBN 978-3-85132-654-3 .
- Jacques-Alain Miller et al. a .: From another Lacan. Turia + Kant, Vienna 1993, ISBN 3-85132-063-8 .
- Jacques-Alain Miller: Vie de Lacan. Écrite a lintention de l'opinion éclairée . Navarin, Paris 2011.
- Catherine Millot: My life with Lacan. Translated by Richard Steurer-Boulard. Passagen, Vienna 2017 ISBN 978-3-7092-0262-3 . ( André Gide Prize 2016.)
- Nina Ort: Object constitution as a sign process: Jacques Lacan's psychosemiology and systems theory. DUV, Wiesbaden 1998, ISBN 3-8244-4276-0 .
- Nina Ort: The symbolic and the significant. An introduction to Lacan's theory of signs. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-85132-740-3 .
- Gerda Pagel: Jacques Lacan as an introduction. 6th edition Junius, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-88506-364-3 .
- Claus-Dieter Rath: Worth talking about. Psychoanalysis as a cultural work. (Series: Clinic of Psychychoanalysis) Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-85132-708-3 .
- François Regnault: Lacan's aesthetics. Four lectures. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-85132-772-4 .
- Manfred Riepe: The big other and the small difference. Freud, Lacan, Saussure and the metaphor of gender . Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-85132-716-8 .
- Elisabeth Roudinesco: Jacques Lacan. Report on a life, history of a thought system. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 1996, ISBN 3-462-02574-0 .
- Elisabeth Roudinesco: Jacques Lacan. Report on a life, history of a thought system. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-85132-522-5 . (New edition)
- Elisabeth Roudinesco: Lacan, envers et contre tout . Editions du Seuil, Paris 2011, ISBN 978-2-02-105523-8 .
- August Ruhs: Lacan. An introduction to structural psychoanalysis. Löcker, Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-85409-554-5 .
- Gregor Schwering: Benjamin - Lacan. From the discourse of the other. Turia + Kant, Vienna 1998, ISBN 978-3-85132-186-9 .
- Edith Seifert: What does woman want? To desire and pleasure with Freud and Lacan. Quadriga, Weinheim 1987, ISBN 3-88679-952-2 .
- Walter Seitter : Jacques Lacan and . Merve, Berlin 1984, ISBN 3-88396-039-X .
- Bernhard HF Taureck : Psychoanalysis and Philosophy. Lacan in discussion. Fischer, Frankfurt 1992, ISBN 3-596-10911-6 .
- Georg Christoph Tholen a. a. (Ed.): Transmission - Translation - Tradition. Episteme and Language in Lacan's Psychoanalysis. Transcript, Bielefeld 2001, ISBN 3-933127-74-2 .
- Michael Turnheim : Sleep with reason. Diaphanes, Zurich 2009.
- Michael Turnheim: Beyond grief. Au-delá du deuil. Diaphanes, Zurich 2013.
- Samuel Weber : Return to Freud. Jacques Lacan's distortion of psychoanalysis. Passagen, Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-85165-424-2 .
- Peter Widmer: Subversion of Desire. An introduction to Jacques Lacan's work. Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin (4th edition) 2017, ISBN 978-3-85132-562-1 .
- Slavoj Žižek : Love your symptom like yourself! Jacques Lacan's Psychoanalysis and the Media. Merve, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-88396-081-0 .
- Slavoj Žižek: Enjoy more. Lacan in popular culture. Turia + Kant, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-85132-037-9 .
- Slavoj Žižek: Lacan in Hollywood. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-85132-276-2 .
- Slavoj Žižek: The problem of the subject. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, 2004 ISBN 3-518-58304-2 .
- Slavoj Žižek: Lacan. An introduction. Fischer, Frankfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-596-17626-7 .
- Literature by and about Jacques Lacan in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Jacques Lacan in the German Digital Library
- Jacques Sédat: Lacan, Jacques-Marieémile (1901–1981). In: International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis . Thomson Gale, Detroit 2005.
- Adrian Johnston: Entry in Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Matthew Sharpe: Jacques Lacan (1901-1981). In: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Lacan Archive Bregenz with a detailed catalog raisonné
- Ecole Lacanienne de Psychanalysis (Paris) with numerous texts by Lacan and the stenotypes of his seminars commissioned by Lacan
- Gaogoa Access to the transcripts of Lacan's seminars available on the Internet
- ubu.com Sound recordings with Lacan
- No Subject - Online Encyclopedia of Lacanian Psychoanalysis with articles and pictures on Lacan (English) as well as seminar transcripts (French)
- Lacan decipher explanations of Lacan's terms, schemes and aphorisms
- Lacast - Podcast on Lacan
- freud-lacan.com Association lacanienne international (French)
- Lacan Seminar Zurich Events
- Munich semiotics , research colloquium at the LMU with publications on the semiotics by Ch.S. Peirce and Jacques Lacan
- Johannes Angermüller: Outlines of a theory of the discursive constitution of power. A Lacan's Perspective (2004)
- Anna-Maria Babin: Lacan Now! A look at Jacques Lacan through Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now . In: Muenchner Semiotik - Journal of the Research Colloquium at LMU (2015)
- Norman N. Holland: The Trouble (s) with Lacan
- Patrick Thor: The foreign (word) body in the alienated body - What Jacques Lacan's psychosemiology can tell us about our becoming subject, about our psychoses (G. Grass' Tin Drum ) and about our cancer (Ch. Schlingensiefs Mea Culpa ) . In: Muenchner Semiotik - Journal of the Research Colloquium at LMU (2015)
- Dieter Wenk: On the introduction of object small a - Review of the French edition of Seminar X: Die Angst (L'angoisse, 1962–1963)
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Lacan, Jacques-Marie Émile (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||French psychoanalyst and author|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 13, 1901|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Paris , France|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 9, 1981|
|Place of death||Paris , France|