As violence (from Old High German waltan "be strong, dominate") are actions , processes and social contexts referred, in or through which to people , animals or objects is affecting, altering or damaging acted. What is meant is the ability to carry out an action that affects the inner or essential core of a matter or structure.
The concept of violence and the evaluation of violence change in the historical and social context. It is also defined and differentiated in different ways depending on the context (e.g. sociology , law , political science ). In a sociological sense, violence is a source of power . In the narrower sense, it is often understood as an illegitimate exercise of coercion. In the sense of legal philosophy, violence is synonymous with power (English power , Latin potentia ) or domination (potestas) . Civil law and criminal law are based on the general prohibition of violence , see also the state's monopoly on violence , in which power is the source of violence. The feminism and post-structuralism applies the concept of violence beyond even the language.
The World Health Organization defines violence in the report "Violence and Health" (2002) as follows: " Violence is the actual or threatened deliberate use of physical or psychological force or power directed against one's own person or another person, group or community and which actually or with a high probability leads to injury, death, psychological damage, undesirable development or deprivation. "
“Violence” in the sense of authority can be found again in terms such as state authority or administration . In terms of content, the term is used in the scientific disciplines of state theory , sociology and legal philosophy . The definition of the term varies greatly depending on the particular interest in knowledge .
An originally positive terminology can be seen in the case of “tremendous effect” or “tremendous achievement” if an achievement that goes beyond the usual extent is to be described in an appreciative manner.
The negative coverage that is widespread in today's linguistic usage is contained in terms such as acts of violence , violent crime , glorification of violence , domestic violence , rape as well as in the distance-creating term non-violence .
A narrower definition of violence, also known as "material violence", is restricted to targeted physical harm to a person. The broader definition of violence also describes psychological violence (for example in the form of deprivation , emotional neglect , " white torture ", verbal violence , emotional violence ) and, in its broadest sense, " structural violence ". In addition, vandalism falls under this definition of violence, although the effect is not aimed directly at people.
Violence in different contexts
In the various sciences, but also in more general discussions, violence is often associated with , or sometimes even equated with, aggression . In order to systematically relate the two to one another, taking interdisciplinary research into account, Klaus Wahl proposed the following distinction: As aggression, he describes an ensemble of evolutionary bio-psychosocial mechanisms for resource extraction and defense (also for relatives and an in-group) - as ultimate causes (evolutionary biological Advantage). These mechanisms are activated or inhibited in people by aspects of their individual personality , socio-economic, cultural and situational circumstances and triggers, as well as motivated by emotions (fear, frustration, feeling of stress, pain, anger, dominance, lust) - as proximate causes. Aggression occurs on purpose as a threat or use of harmful agents. Aggression is considered pathological if it is excessive, persistent, or inadequate for the context. Wahl denotes the potential for aggression with aggressiveness. Wahl, on the other hand, describes violence as the subset of aggression that is historically and culturally variable standardized by society and the state and which, depending on the context, is demanded, desired, tolerated, ostracized or punished (such as in boxers vs. murderers; defense vs. aggression). Violence is often embedded in hierarchies (power structures) (e.g. paternal, state violence).
In the sociological sense, violence is a source of power (and thus of social powerlessness and social impotence at the same time). In a narrower sense, it is often understood as an illegitimate exercise of coercion : the will of the person over whom violence is exercised is disregarded or broken (English force , Latin vis or violentia ). This is about physical (physical) and / or emotional (psychological) damage to another or to others and / or their threat (s). Violence is understood here as the ultimate functional effectiveness of power-related communication as interaction between people.
Due to the anthropologically given and unavoidable power of injury and the openness to injury of humans as a species, violence is deciphered as a fundamental element of all socialization . The sociologist Heinrich Popitz in particular pointed this out. For Popitz, violence is an act of power "[...] that leads to the deliberate physical harm of others".
Popitz 'Sociology of Violence
Going beyond the sociological classic Max Weber and his power theory, Heinrich Popitz in 1986 identified violence as a special form of exercise of power , including the "death power of people over people", anthropologically and specified it as a "facit" in terms of sociology of action:
- “Man never has to, but can always act violently, he never has to, but can always kill [...] - everyone. Violence in general and the violence of killing in particular is [...] not a mere industrial accident in social relationships, not a marginal phenomenon of social order and not just an extreme case or a last resort (of which not so much should be done). Indeed, violence is [...] an option of human action that is constantly present. No comprehensive social order is based on the premise of non-violence. The power to kill and the impotence of the victim are latent or manifest determinants of the structure of social coexistence. "
Following on from these and other principles and also considering genocide ( genocide ) as an act (s) of murder , the writer Hans Magnus Enzensberger, at the beginning of his Civil War essays published from 1993 onwards, considered the sociological thesis of the universality of violence and its social functionality " terrible truth "( Georg K. Glaser ) on the particular annihilation or destruction potential of the human species, expressed in plastic terms:
“Humans are the only primates who kill their conspecifics systematically, on a larger scale and enthusiastically. War is one of his most important inventions. "
Reemtsma's triadic violence typology
Following references to military strategy, the literary scholar and social theorist Jan Philipp Reemtsma distinguished three types of violence in his study " Trust and Violence " , published in 2008 : on the one hand, local violence that removes another body because it stands in the way of pursuing one's own interests ( e.g. in war , robbery and murder ), on the other hand raptive violence, which seizes the other body in order to use it for its interests (especially in forms of sexual violence ), and finally autotelian violence, which occurs in the In contrast to the first two forms of violence, it does not serve a purpose outside of the act (s) of violence , but rather is used for its own sake. Here he also explicitly addresses the direct gain in pleasure many people experience when they use violence (frighten, torment, torture).
Ethnological theories on violence
The concept of violence is controversial within ethnology and ethnosociology and there is no generally applicable, clear definition. It is a very young research area. A detailed theory building did not take place until the 1940s. According to Scheper-Hughes and Philippe Bourgois, until well into the 20th century, many ethnologists avoided examining indigenous forms of violence in order not to reinforce the stereotype of the primitiveness and brutality of indigenous peoples through their analysis.
Ethnological approaches can be based on an etic or emic approach. With an ethical approach, which is characterized by an analysis against the background of western-style scientific concepts, a comparative culture study can be carried out. An emic approach, on the other hand, tries to represent the phenomenon of violence with the respective culture-specific terms and concepts.
The social role of acts of violence in different cultural contexts, their culture-specific causes and conditions, as well as the different conceptions of violence depending on the culture are central questions of the research.
Important topics in ethnological studies of violence are nationality , ethnicity , revenge , “rumor and gossip” , alcohol , religion , aggressiveness , warfare , suicide , witchcraft , the structural effects of violence and non-violence .
A distinction is made between structural, symbolic and physical violence. Physical violence contains a relatively narrow definition of violence that is based on intended physical damage. Nevertheless, even against the background of a narrow definition, different perspectives and assessments of one and the same feat of strength can open up. David Riches , one of the most important representatives of the cultural and social anthropology of violence, takes up this perspective difference on the subject of violence in his theory of the triangle of violence consisting of perpetrator, victim and witness from 1986. After that, the definition of violence ultimately depends on the judgment of those involved.
Riches' explanation focuses on phenomenological and action-motivating aspects of violence. In addition, there are now a large number of theories that consider violent acts in their historical context. Both preconditions and consequences of acts of violence are examined.
Narrative approaches tend to explain reasons for violence, to legitimize them and thus ultimately to motivate people to exercise violence.
Furthermore, a distinction is made between individual and collective violence. If violence is examined in relation to the individual, the focus is on the subjective experience. In the case of collective violence, the consequences of a social act perceived as violent are decisive.
René Girard speaks of the sanctity of violence, which he associates with the aspect of the scapegoat sacrifice. Axel Montenbruck transfers this idea to the coercive character of every (legal) order and also to the moral “self-compulsion”.
Civil law and criminal law
In criminal law, violence is a means of coercion to influence the free will of another, e.g. B. robbery, kidnapping, extortion and coercion; In the case of offenses such as murder, bodily harm and property damage, criminal law is based on the result, d. H. someone is killed, injured or something is damaged or destroyed.
Civil law and criminal law are based on the general prohibition of violence. The only exceptions are situations of self-defense and an emergency as well as cases of direct coercion by the state's enforcement officers (state monopoly of force ).
The use of force (lat. Vis or violentia ), in the sense of raw, criminal violence, exacerbates the punishment here, e.g. B. property and sexual offenses . The “material” concept of violence in criminal law presupposes a physical coercive effect on the victim . Violence is therefore mostly understood as personal rather than psychological or even social action . The use of force is subjectively associated with advantages for the actor , i.e. the perpetrator . The sense of the use of force can be instrumental - the actor tries to achieve a certain goal, partly in the absence of other means - or expressive - the use of force then serves, for example, for self-presentation or self-assurance.
According to current jurisprudence, the legal definition of violence is to be defined as a physical coercion through the development of strength or through other physical influence, the intensity of which is suitable for impairing the free decision-making or will-activity of another.
In contrast to jurisprudence, the term violence in medicine and forensic medicine in the sense of a physical impact is used more narrowly for a group of harmful events. Forensic medicine divides into sharp violence when smooth-edged skin severance occurs in the case of stab, cut or blow injuries with pointed or sharp-edged objects and speaks of blunt force when broad or blunt-edged objects or surfaces hit the body. There is also the concept of semi-sharp violence (using so-called semi-sharp tools such as ax, hatchet or saber and, under certain conditions, also blunt-edged tools). Gunshot wounds and strangulation are also considered to be violent forensic medicine. On the other hand, z. B. arson , coercion or the effects of poison are not classified under this term, although their legal and psychological nature are also violent.
In forensic medicine, violence is one of many forms of harmful influence on the part of the perpetrators on the victims. Historically, blunt and, above all, sharp violence are the most common methods of warfare and are responsible for a large percentage of victims.
Politics and Political Science
State authority and separation of powers
In the sense of legal philosophy, violence is synonymous with power (English power , Latin potentia ) or domination (Latin potestas ). While state authority was once recognized as sacrosanct as an expression of the legitimate exercise of power , with increasing social differentiation, demands for legalization, procedural containment and democratic legitimation of violence ( separation of powers , “all state authority comes from the people”) arose . In the democratic constitutional state, a distinction is made between the legislative power ( legislative ), the executive or executive power ( executive ) and the judiciary ( judiciary ). The state's monopoly of force regulates and limits the exercise of physical coercion against citizens. The philosophy of the state thus deals with the exercise of violence in the internal relationship and in the relationship between states (internally, e.g. right of resistance , externally “ theory of just war ”). A major goal is to contain violence and to bind it to legitimation processes (e.g. police and martial law ).
A well-planned procedure for the use of politically motivated violence or its targeted threat, for example in war or as a deterrent , is called a strategy . The analysis of already used and the development of new strategies is the main concern of Strategic Studies , a sub-discipline of international relations .
Frantz Fanon and Herbert Marcuse , under the impression of the Algerian and Vietnam War, formulated the principle of "counterviolence" which is exercised by oppressed peoples and discriminated minorities with the aim of breaking the violence that dominates them. Marcuse said: "[...] I believe that there is a 'natural right' for oppressed and overwhelmed minorities to resist using extra-legal means once the legal ones are found to be inadequate. Law and order are everywhere and always law and order of those who protect the established hierarchy; it is nonsensical to appeal to the absolute authority of this law and this order over those who suffer from it and fight against it - not for personal gain and personal vengeance, but because they want to be human beings. There is no other judge over them except the appointed authorities, the police and their own conscience. If you use violence, you do not start a new chain of acts of violence, but break the established one. "
In the discussion of the 1968 movement, a distinction was made between violence as the “dictatorship of violence” ( state , capitalism , structural violence , cf. Rudi Dutschke ) from self-defense , self- defense , de - monopoly of violence and thirdly from “revolutionary violence” ( general strike , armed liberation struggle in Parts of the so-called “Third World”). Whether violence was legitimate for the respective political action was linked to the distinction between "violence against property" (legally this is considered damage or a breach of the peace if a police vehicle is damaged), with which a protest or a demand should be emphasized, and "violence against persons" , which, apart from parts of the later urban guerrillas and the RAF , was generally rejected.
From a philosophical point of view, violence has been inextricably linked to the question of legitimacy since the loss of the cosmic or divine order in modern times . Although an examination of violence can be traced back to the beginnings of philosophy, making it a problem is a relatively new phenomenon. It has only been conceivable since violence itself "is no longer taken for granted."
Dimensions of violence in Karl Marx
- Violence of property
The violence of property describes a structural violence inherent in capitalist relations of production . The power of property emanates from the bourgeoisie , while it experiences above all the proletariat . It primarily describes the class-specific power of disposal over material or human resources owned by property .
At the same time, the violence of property introduces an aggressive mood into the capitalist mode of production. This results from the two laws of the tendency to fall in the rate of profit and the continuous increase in surplus value . The interaction of these laws forces the bourgeoisie to increasingly exhaust manpower and natural resources. The production process is linked to a principle of over-exploitation through the violence of property.
Because of a lack of social security, people are forced to integrate into the capitalist production context . This compulsion takes on the form of factory discipline, forced division of labor or cyclical unemployment in Marx's work in the form of individual suffering. In coercion, the abstract violence of property manifests itself in a concrete form.
- Political violence
Depending on the social order, political violence is in a superordinate or subordinate hierarchical relationship to the violence of property and coercion. It describes the strategies of the ruling class to intervene in political reality.
Marx outlines a typology of political violence along the social levels of historical materialism . In Fedal societies, political violence still dampens the violence of property "through arbitrary taxes, through confiscation, through privileges, through the disruptive interference of the bureaucracy in industry and trade". Politics is not yet acting according to the standards of economic efficiency , but is primarily shaped by personal relationships that lead to arbitrary or principle-oriented preference and / or discrimination. In bourgeois society, political violence serves exclusively to safeguard current property relations.
- Revolutionary violence
The young Marx, in particular, attributes a historical function to revolutionary violence . For Marx, social progress is only realized when the structures of exploitation and thus the violence of property as well as coercion have been overcome. Revolutions which smash the political violence of the bourgeoisie but do not eliminate these forms of violence have failed. A visually stunning description of the principles of revolutionary violence can be found in the Communist Party's manifesto .
Marx thus thinks of revolutionary violence in a strictly historical-abstract way. It does not describe eruptions of violence from crowds, but the qualitative progress of history towards a communist society. History is ordered in historical materialism and, despite breaks, is continuous. One order already carries the basis of the following in itself. Pre-revolutionary productive forces that were merely inhibited at the end of a cycle would remain in the new order. Despite this abstract figure of thought, the revolution remains conscious practice, but strictly speaking its power does not create something completely new, but opens the world to the proletariat.
Walter Benjamin: On the Critique of Violence
Walter Benjamin wrote in 1921 with the work on the critique of violence , in which he refers to Georges Sorel's Réflexions sur la violence (Eng. On violence ), a philosophical basic text for the modern criticism of violence . In the text Benjamin differentiates between different forms of violence in different contexts. Later theorists such as Theodor W. Adorno , Hannah Arendt , Jacques Derrida , Enzo Traverso and Giorgio Agamben were influenced by this in their analysis and refer to Benjamin's critical theory.
The central figure of thought in the first half of the text is law- making . With it Benjamin draws attention to the distinction between sanctioned and non-sanctioned forms of violence in constitutional states . The understanding of violence in such states is instrumental and purposeful and always tends to be arbitrary in crises .
In the highly controversial and strongly theological second half of the text, Benjamin outlines a qualitatively different one, the so-called divine violence . The right violence he is thus antithetical one just opposite. This is thought outside of the constitutional end-means scheme and, since it is in the service of redemption , functions in special cases as its legitimate counter-figure.
According to Benjamin, violence arises when an effective cause intervenes in relationships that can be understood as moral and that can be marked by concepts such as law and justice.
In a legal system , violence serves primarily as a means rather than an end . If violence is only the means in a legal system, criteria for this violence can be found. It can be asked whether violence is a means to just or unjust ends.
Benjamin criticizes natural law , according to which violence "is a natural product, as it were a raw material, the use of which is not subject to any problem, unless one misuses violence for unjust purposes." At this point he refers to the closeness between legal philosophical ones Dogmas that derive the legitimacy of violence from natural ends as a measure , and natural-historical dogmas of Darwinism , which, in addition to "natural selection , views violence as the original means that is the only means appropriate to all vital ends of nature." likewise the opposing theses of legal positivism , according to which violence based on historical processes of rejection and approval ( sanctioning ) must be judged in its legality.
Not least because of their controversy and abstraction, the interpretations of the second half of the text of the criticism sometimes vary widely. There is at least a basic agreement that Benjamin conceives of divine violence (see also violence in the Bible ) as a counter-concept to law-making. It aims indirectly at the realization of the just kingdom of God on earth. This is how he sums up his own position in On the Critique of Violence :
“If the mythical violence is law-setting, then the divine is destructive of the law, it sets those limits, so it destroys them without limits, the mythical is guilty and expiatory at the same time, then the divine atonement, if the latter is threatening, then this is striking, that bloody, so this one lethal in a bloodless way. "
What is disputed, however, is the concrete form of divine power in general and the above. bloodless lethality in particular. This sparked the discussion about the proximity of Benjamin's philosophy of violence to political radicalism . Axel Honneth understands the bloodless lethality with reference to Benjamin's analysis of the strike theory as an expressive and non-militant "expression of a moral indignation". But it can also be understood, less democratically, as a description of the state's enforced disappearance or the ideological basis of autonomous movements .
It is indisputable that Benjamin's concept of violence explicitly includes the possible legitimation of killing in exceptional cases. The absolute biblical prohibition of killing is weakened by Benjamin to a "guideline of action", from which one has "the responsibility [to refrain ...] in enormous cases".
By introducing the concept of responsibility on the one hand and insisting on the prohibition of killing as a moral guideline on the other hand, Benjamin is far from the complete relativization of acts of violence. On the contrary, with it the problem of legitimacy arises again from a more fundamental point of view than legal terminology. As a decidedly critical framework of thought, his philosophy does indeed legitimize, under certain preconditions, just divine violence as a form of resistance against the unjust rule of law. However, since divine power can only be recognized as such in retrospect, the author locates the question of legitimacy as existential . The act of violence itself is a decision in which the monadic individual remains on his own and has to bear the unforeseeable consequences, including his own error.
History of depicting violence
Representations of violence already existed in the art of ancient Egypt. So are z. B. Reliefs handed down, on which the Pharaoh kills subjugated opponents. In the art of classical Greece, violence could only occur in certain precisely defined subject areas, especially in depictions of myth and war. In Etruscan art or on coins from the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, scenes of violence were sometimes very drastic. At least coins are official statecraft because of their sovereign function.
The spread of Christianity also changed the representation of violence in art. The impact on the victims of violence is shown less frequently and with more reluctance. With the Gothic, the representation of Jesus as dead or suffering on the cross increases.
With the beginning of modern times, the battle painting became an important genre of painting, which experienced its first climax in the Thirty Years War .
- Klaus Wahl , Melanie Rh. Wahl: Biotic, psychological and social conditions for aggression and violence. In: Birgit Enzmann (Ed.): Handbook Political Violence. Forms - causes - legitimation - limitation. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-531-18081-6 , pp. 15-42.
- Klaus Wahl: Aggression and Violence. A biological, psychological and social science overview. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2012, pp. 6–13.
- Volker Krey : On the concept of violence in criminal law. In: Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) (Ed.): What is violence? Confrontation with a term. Wiesbaden 1986, pp. 11-103.
- Joachim Schneider: Criminology of Violence. Stuttgart / Leipzig 1994, ISBN 3-7776-0608-1 .
- Heinz Müller-Dietz : On the development of the criminal law concept of violence. In: Goltdammer's Archive for Criminal Law 121. 1974, pp. 33–51.
- Axel Montenbruck : civilization. A legal anthropology. State and people, violence and law, culture and nature. 2nd edition 2010, pp. 143–224 (2nd main part: “Violence and Law”). University library of the Free University of Berlin. (open access)
- Christian Gudehus, Michaela Christ (Ed.): Violence. An interdisciplinary manual . Metzler, Stuttgart [a. a.] 2013, ISBN 978-3-476-02411-4 .
- Klaus Wahl: Aggression and Violence. A biological, psychological and social science overview. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-8274-3120-2 .
- Klaus Wahl, Melanie Rh. Wahl: Biotic, psychological and social conditions for aggression and violence. In: Birgit Enzmann (Ed.): Handbook Political Violence. Forms - causes - legitimation - limitation. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-531-18081-6 , pp. 15-42.
- Jörg Baberowski : Understanding violence , in: Zeithistorische Forschungen / Studies in Contemporary History 5 (2008), pp. 5–17.
- Michel Foucault : Monitoring and Punishing . Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-518-27784-7 .
- Thomas Lindenberger, Alf Lüdtke (Hrsg.): Physical violence. Studies on the history of modern times. Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-518-28790-7 .
- Manuel Braun, Cornelia Herberichs: Violence in the Middle Ages. Realities - imaginations. Fink, Paderborn / Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7705-3881-1 .
- Peter Imbusch : Modernity and Violence. Civilization-theoretical perspectives on the 20th century. Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-8100-3753-2 .
- Dirk Schumann: Political Violence in the Weimar Republic 1918–1933. Fight for the streets and fear of civil war. Essen 2001, ISBN 3-88474-915-3 .
- Hermann Junghans: The development of the representation of violence on coins of the Roman Republic. Monetary history news. March 2011, pp. 69-73.
- Zygmunt Bauman : Violence? Modern and postmodern. In: Max Miller, Hans-Georg Soeffner (Ed.): Modernity and barbarism. Sociological diagnosis of the times at the end of the 20th century. Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-518-28843-1 , pp. 36-67.
- Peter Brückner : About violence. 6 essays on the role of violence in the development and destruction of social systems. Berlin 1979, ISBN 3-8031-1085-8 .
- Regina-Maria Dackweiler, Reinhild Schäfer: Violent relationships. Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Violence. Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-593-37116-2 .
- Wilhelm Heitmeyer , Hans-Georg Soeffner (Ed.): Violence. Developments, structures, analysis problems. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2004.
- Wilhelm Heitmeyer: Violence. Descriptions, analyzes, prevention. Edited by Wilhelm Heitmeyer, Monika Schröttle. Bonn 2006, ISBN 3-89331-697-3 .
- Antje Hilbig (Ed.): Women and violence: interdisciplinary studies on gender-based violence in theory and practice. Würzburg 2003, ISBN 3-8260-2362-5 .
- Ronald Hitzler : Violence as an Activity. Suggestions for an action-typological definition of terms. In: Sighard Neckel, Michael Schwab-Trapp (Hrsg.): Orders of violence. Contributions to a political sociology of violence and war. Opladen 1999, pp. 9-19.
- Frauke Koher, Katharina Pühl: Violence and Gender. Constructions, positions, practices. Opladen 2003, ISBN 3-8100-3626-9 .
- Teresa Koloma Beck, Klaus Schlichte : Theories of violence as an introduction. Hamburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-88506-080-2 .
- Gender - Violence - Society . In: Manuela Boatcă , Siegfried Lamnek (Hrsg.): Conference publication (= Faculty of History and Social Sciences of the Catholic University of Eichstätt [Hrsg.]: Otto von Freising Meetings of the Catholic University of Eichstätt . Volume 4 ). Leske + Budrich , Opladen 2003, ISBN 3-8100-3949-7 , doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-322-97595-9 .
- Friedhelm Neidhardt : violence. Social meanings and sociological determinations of the term. In: Bundeskriminalamt (Ed.): What is violence? Wiesbaden 1986, pp. 109-147.
- Heinrich Popitz : violence. In: Ders .: Phenomena of Power. 2nd, strong adult Edition. Tübingen 1992, pp. 43-78.
- Trutz von Trotha (ed.): Sociology of violence. Opladen 1997.
Ethnology / European Ethnology
- Başar Alabay: Cultural Aspects of Socialization - Young Turkish Men in the Federal Republic of Germany. Springer VS, 2012, ISBN 978-3-531-19609-1 .
Political science approaches
- Hannah Arendt : Power and Violence . 15th edition. Munich 2003, ISBN 3-492-20001-X . (Original: On Violence. New York / London 1970.)
- Manuel Eisner: Individual violence and modernization in Europe, 1200–2000. In: Günter Albrecht, Otto Backes, Wolfgang Kühnel (eds.): Violent crime between myth and reality. Frankfurt am Main 2001, pp. 71-100.
- Johan Galtung : Violence, Peace and Peace Research. In: Dieter Senghaas (Ed.): Critical Peace Research. Frankfurt am Main 1977.
- Johan Galtung: Structural violence. Contributions to peace and conflict research. Reinbek near Hamburg 1975.
- Heide Gerstenberger : Subjectless violence. Theory of the emergence of civil state power. 2., revised. Edition. Münster 2006, ISBN 3-89691-116-3 .
- Hedda Herwig : "Violence is soft and veiled ...". Exploitation strategies in our society. Reinbek near Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-498-02913-4 .
- Werner Ruf (ed.): Political economy of violence. State collapse and the privatization of violence and war. Opladen 2003, ISBN 3-8100-3747-8 .
- Dierk Spreen: War and Society. The constitutional function of war for modern societies. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2008, ISBN 3-428-12561-4 , pp. 30-75.
- Giorgio Agamben : Homo Sacer. The sovereign power and the bare life. From the Ital. by Hubert Thüring. Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-518-12068-9 . (English: Homo sacer. Sovereign Power and Bare Life. 1998.)
- Günther Anders : Violence - yes or no. A necessary discussion (= Knaur TB 3893). Munich 1987, ISBN 3-426-03893-5 .
- Walter Benjamin : On the Critique of Violence and other essays. With an afterword by Herbert Marcuse , 7th edition. Frankfurt am Main 1993, ISBN 3-518-10103-X . (1st edition 1965.)
- Judith Butler : Critique of Ethical Violence. Adorno lectures 2002. Institute for Social Research at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, ext. Edition, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-29392-8 .
- Jacques Derrida : Force of Law. The mystical ground of authority. Translated from the French by Alexander García Düttmann. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-518-13331-4 .
- Otto Gusti Nd. Madung: Politics and Violence. Giorgio Agamben and Jürgen Habermas in comparison. Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-8316-0822-5 .
- Wolfgang Sofsky : Treatise on violence. Fischer TB, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-596-16855-4 .
- Georges Sorel : About violence. Lüneburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-926623-58-4 . (French: Réflexions sur la violence. 1981.)
- Michel Wieviorka: The violence. Translated from the French by Michael Bayer. Abridged German edition, Hamburger Edition HIS Verlag, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-936096-60-0 . ( Review )
- Joachim Bauer : Pain Limit - The Origin of Everyday and Global Violence. Blessing, Munich 2011.
- René Girard : The sacred and the violence. (1972,) 2006, p. 480.
- Konrad Thomas: René Girard: Another understanding of violence. In: Stephan Moebius , Dirk Quadflieg (Ed.): Culture. Present theories. VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-14519-3 , pp. 325–338.
- Andreas Hetzel: Victims and Violence. René Girard's cultural anthropology of the scapegoat. In: Wilhelm Gräb, Martin Laube (ed.): The human blemish. To the speechless return of sin. Loccumer protocols 11/2008.
- Axel Montenbruck: civilization. A legal anthropology. State and people, violence and law, culture and nature. 2nd edition 2010, University Library of the Free University of Berlin, p. 172 ff (“Holy Violence”). (open access)
- Hans W. Bierhoff, Ulrich Wagner: Aggression and violence. Phenomena, Causes, and Interventions. Stuttgart / Berlin / Cologne 1997, ISBN 3-17-013044-7 .
- Heidrun Bründel : School crime scene. Violence prevention and crisis management in schools. LinkLuchterhand, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-472-07612-4 .
- Heidrun Bründel: Sexual violence in school institutions. Background, analysis, prevention. Verlag für Polizeiwissenschaft, Frankfurt am Main 2011, ISBN 978-3-86676-172-8 .
- Heidrun Bründel, Klaus Hurrelmann : Violence makes school. How do we deal with aggressive children? Droemer Knaur, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-426-26812-4 .
- Rosa Logar (Ed.): Violent men change. Framework and manual for a social training program. Bern / Stuttgart / Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-258-06395-8 . (See also the newspaper of the Platform against Violence 2006. Available online: PDF .)
- Peter Gay: Cult of Violence. Aggression in the Bourgeois Age. Translated from the English by Ulrich Enderwitz. Munich 2000, ISBN 3-442-75554-9 .
- Anita Heiliger, Constance Engelfried: Sexual violence. Male socialization and potential perpetrators. Frankfurt am Main / New York 1995, ISBN 3-593-35395-4 .
- Klaus Hurrelmann, Heidrun Bründel: Violence in schools. Educational responses to a social crisis. Beltz, Weinheim / Basel 2007, ISBN 978-3-407-22184-1 .
- Susanne Kappeler: The will to violence. Politics of Personal Conduct. Women's offensive, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-88104-254-7 .
- Joachim Lempert (Ed.): Handbook of violence counseling. 2nd Edition. Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-9807120-1-X .
- Bernhard Mann : Violence and Health. Epidemiological data, explanatory models and public health-oriented recommendations for action from the World Health Organization (WHO). In: Social Sciences and Professional Practice. Vol. 29 (1/2006), pp. 81-91.
- Jan Philipp Reemtsma : Trust and Violence. Attempt on a special constellation of modernity. Hamburger Edition HIS, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-936096-89-7 .
- Dirk Richter: Effects of training programs on aggression management in health care and assistance for the disabled: Systematic literature review. Westphalian Clinic, Münster 2005. (PDF)
- Cesar Rodriguez Rabanal: Misery and Violence. A psychoanalytic study from Peru. Fischer TB, Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 3-596-12660-6 .
- Silke Wiegand-Grefe, Michaela Schumacher: Structural violence in psychoanalytic training: an empirical study on hierarchy, power and dependence. Giessen 2006, ISBN 3-89806-418-2 .
- Frauke Koher: Violence, Aggression and Femininity. A psychoanalytic confrontation that includes biographical interviews with violent girls. Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8300-2703-4 .
- Volker Caysa , Rolf Haubl : Hatred and willingness to use violence. Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-525-45172-4 .
- Ursula Erzgräber (Ed.): Language and violence. Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-8305-0049-1 .
- Kristin Platt : Talking about violence. Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7705-3674-6 . (Digitized version)
- Senta Trömel-Plötz (Ed.): Violence through language. The rape of women in conversation. Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-85286-120-9 .
- Michael Beißwenger : Totalitarian language and textual construction of the world using the example of selected essays by Joseph Goebbels on "the Jews". Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-89821-003-0 .
- Marshall B. Rosenberg : Nonviolent Communication . A language of life. 7. revised and exp. New edition. Junfermann, Paderborn 2007, ISBN 978-3-87387-454-1 . (Original: Nonviolent Communication A Language of Compassion. PuddleDancer Press, Del Mar 1999.)
Communication science approaches
- Julia Döring: Violence and Communication. Essen studies on semiotics and communication research. Volume 29. Shaker, Aachen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8322-8661-3 .
- Marshall B. Rosenberg : Nonviolent Communication, A Language of Life, 3rd Edition , PuddleDancer Press, Encinitas CA 2015, ISBN 978-1-892005-28-1 .
- Wolfgang Bittner : Reading culture against violence. In: writing, reading, traveling. Athena, Oberhausen 2006, ISBN 3-89896-253-9 .
- Wilhelm Heitmeyer , John Hagan (Hrsg.): International manual of violence research. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 2002, ISBN 3-531-13500-7 .
- Jiddu Krishnamurti : Beyond violence. Translated from the English by Christine Bendner. Ullstein, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-548-35800-4 .
- The meanings of violence and the violence of meanings. Intercultural discussion on the concept of violence.
- Albert Fuchs : Against the devaluation of the concept of violence. ( Memento from October 27, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
- Dossier on violence.
- Christoph Liell: Violence: Discursive Construction and Social Practice. (PDF file; 716 kB).
- Wilhelm Heitmeyer : Loss of control - on the future of violence. In: Frankfurter Rundschau .
- Institute for Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and Violence (IKG): Homepage. Bielefeld University.
- Angelika Ebrecht: "The rule of the wild guys". On the relationship between wildness, power and violence in the gender relationship. 2005.
- Andreas Dutschmann: Dealing with violence.
- Magazin Deutsch - The double face of violence. ( Memento of February 4, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (to differentiate between violence and violence).
- World report on violence and health.
- Jan Philipp Reemtsma : Theory of violence. Ugly reality. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . January 25, 2008, p. 14.
- Felix Schnell: Violence and Violence Research , Version 1.0, in: Docupedia-Zeitgeschichte , November 8, 2014
- Ways out of violence. Information on the subject of violence in simple language from the Paritätischer Wohlfahrtsverband
- Definitions. In: violence prevention. Network TIROL: Prevention-Intervention-Training, accessed on April 22, 2018 .
- Klaus Wahl, Melanie Rh. Wahl: Biotic, psychological and social conditions for aggression and violence. In: Birgit Enzmann (Ed.): Handbook Political Violence. Forms - causes - legitimation - limitation. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-531-18081-6 , pp. 15-42, pp. 16f.
- Klaus Wahl: Aggression and Violence. A biological, psychological and social science overview. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-8274-3120-2 .
- Heinrich Popitz: Phenomena of Power. Tübingen 1986, pp. 68-106, here p. 76 and 82 f.
- Hans Magnus Enzensberger: Prospects for the civil war. 2nd edition, Frankfurt 1996, p. 9.
- Jan Philipp Reemtsma: Trust and violence. Attempt on a special constellation of modernity. Hamburg 2008.
- N. Scheper-Hughes, P. Bourgeois (Ed.): Violence in war and peace [an anthology] (= Blackwell readers in anthropology 5). Blackwell, Malden, Mass. et al. 2005, p. 6.
- G. Elwert: Socianthropologically explained violence. In: W. Heitmeyer, G. Albrecht (Hrsg.): International manual of violence research. West German Verlag, Wiesbaden 2002, p. 336.
- Has been discussed extensively by Paul Farmer, Philippe Bourgois and Nancy Scheper-Hughes, although the term was originally coined by the political scientist Johan Galtung . N. Scheper-Hughes, P. Bourgeois (ed.): Violence in war and peace [an anthology] (= Blackwell readers in anthropology 5). Blackwell, Malden, Mass. including 2005.
- Symbolic dimension of violence may also backfire against its perpetrators and make it contestable on a discursive level not as a physical but as a performative act (Schmidt 2001: 6). Symbolic Violence (Bourdieu 1977) - inherent but unrecognized violence that is maintained and naturalized within systems of inequality and domination. (Robben, Antonius CGM; Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M., Cultures under siege. Collective violence and trauma in interdisciplinary perspectives (2000). New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 249)
- G. Elwert: Socianthropologically explained violence. In: W. Heitmeyer, G. Albrecht (Hrsg.): International manual of violence research. West German Verlag, Wiesbaden 2002, pp. 336f.
- D. Riches (Ed.): The anthropology of violence. Blackwell, Oxford et al. 1986, ISBN 0-631-14788-8 .
- PJ Stewart, A. Strathern: Violence - theory and ethnography. Continuum, London et al. 2002, p. 10.
- PJ Stewart, A. Strathern: Violence - theory and ethnography. Continuum, London et al. 2002, p. 152.
- Bettina Schmidt, Ingo W Schröder: Anthropology of violence and conflict. Routledge (European Association of Social Anthropologist), London 2001, p. 18.
- Axel Montenbruck : civilization. A legal anthropology. State and people, violence and law, culture and nature. 2nd edition 2010, pp. 186 f., 189 ff. University library of the Free University of Berlin. (open access)
- Wolfgang Bittner : Reading culture against violence. In: writing, reading, traveling. Oberhausen 2006, p. 22 f.
- BGH NJW 1995, 2643.
- Wolfgang Schwerd: Types of mechanical force, their forms of expression and consequences. In: Wolfgang Schwerd (Hrsg.): Brief textbook of forensic medicine for doctors and lawyers. Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag, Cologne-Lövenich, 3rd, revised and supplemented edition 1979, ISBN 3-7691-0050-6 , pp. 31–53, here: pp. 31–46.
- Herbert Marcuse: Repressive Tolerance. In: Robert Paul Wolff, Barrington Moore, Herbert Marcuse: Critique of pure tolerance (= edition suhrkamp 181). Frankfurt 1966, p. 127.
- Alfred Hirsch: Philosophy . In: Christian Gudehus, Michaela Christ (Ed.): Violence. An interdisciplinary manual . Metzler, Stuttgart [a. a.] 2013, p. 347 .
- Kurt Röttgers: violence . In: Joachim Ritter (Hrsg.): Historical dictionary of philosophy . tape 3 . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1974, p. 565 .
- Karl Marx: The moralizing criticism and the criticizing morality. Contribution to German cultural history against Karl Heinzen by Karl Marx . In: MEW . tape 4 . Dietz, Berlin 1977, p. 337 .
- Étienne Balibar: Violence . In: Wolfgang Fritz Haug (Ed.): Historically Critical Dictionary of Marxism . tape 5 . Argument, Hamburg 2001, p. 1284 .
- Étienne Balibar: Violence . In: Wolfgang Fritz Haug (Ed.): Historically Critical Dictionary of Marxism . tape 5 . Argument, Hamburg 2001, p. 1285 .
- Alan Gilbert: Social Theory and Revolutionary Activity in Marx . In: The American Political Science Review 73/2 . 1979, p. 537 f .
- Hannah Arendt: Power and Violence ( On Violence ), 1970.
- Axel Honneth: "On the Critique of Violence" . In: Burkhardt Lindner (Ed.): Benjamin-Handbuch. Life - work - effect . Metzler, Stuttgart 2006, p. 199-208 .
- Walter Benjamin: Language and History - Philosophical Essays. ed. v. Rolf Tiedemann, Reclam 1992, p. 105.
- Axel Honneth: "On the Critique of Violence" . In: Burkhardt Lindner (Ed.): Benjamin-Handbuch. Life - work - effect . Metzler, Stuttgart 2006, p. 205 .
- Walter Benjamin: On the Critique of Violence . In: Collected Writings . tape 2.1 . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. M. 1991, p. 200 .
- Walter Benjamin: On the Critique of Violence . In: Collected Writings . tape 2.1 . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. M. 1991, p. 201 .
- Walter Benjamin: On the Critique of Violence . In: Collected Writings . tape 2.1 . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. M. 1991, p. 203 .
- Günter Fischer and Susanne Moraw (eds.): The other side of the classic. Violence in the 5th and 4th centuries BC Chr. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-515-08450-9 , pp. 328 .
- Susanne Muth: Violence in pictures: the phenomenon of media violence in Athens in the 6th and 5th centuries BC Chr. De Gruyter, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-018420-4 , p. 800 .
- Dirk Steueragel: Human sacrifice and murder at the altar: Greek myths in Etruscan graves . Reichert, Wiesbaden 1998, ISBN 3-89500-051-5 , p. 222 .
- Hermann Junghans: The development of the representation of violence on coins of the Roman Republic. In: Monetary History News. March 2011.
- Matthias Pfaffenbichler: The battle picture in the late 16th and 17th centuries . Dissertation . University of Vienna, 1987.