Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud [ aʁtyʁ ʁɛ̃bo ] (born October 20, 1854 in Charleville , † November 10, 1891 in Marseille ) was a French poet , adventurer and businessman . Today he is considered one of the most influential French poets .
Childhood, early youth and first works
Rimbaud grew up in his birthplace Charleville on the Meuse , near the border with Belgium. His father, who came from Franche-Comté , only married when he was 38 (1853) and as an active professional officer he was mostly away from the family. In 1861, shortly after the family's youngest child was born, he left them. The eleven years younger wife and mother, who came from a larger farm in Roche in the Ardennes , then considered herself a widow and tried Jean, his one year older brother and his two four and six years younger sisters, according to their strictly religious and to educate moral principles.
Rimbaud was an evidently gifted boy and his mother's pride, even if, as he sees in retrospect in 1871 in the autobiographical poem Les poètes de sept ans / seven-year-old poets , he rebelled against her at an early age. From 1865 he attended the grammar school in his city, where he has always been awarded prizes at the end of the school year (including a hymn to Napoléon III ). Even in his early youth he read a lot and fabricated stories and verses; In 1868 and 1869 three of his Latin poems were printed as excellent student achievement in teachers' magazines. His probably oldest surviving poem in French, the maudlin Les Étrennes des orphelins / The Christmas presents of the orphans , appeared in a middle-class magazine at the beginning of January 1870. Other works from the years 1870/71 - u. a. the pretty erotic (only dreamed?) La première soirée / The first evening , as well as Le Dormeur / The Sleeper - Rimbaud deposited with his friend Paul Démeny and was only published in the Cahiers de Douai / Hefte von Douai after his death .
Around this time, the newly minted young teacher Georges Izambard (1848–1931), who had been temporarily seconded to Charleville at the turn of the year 1869/1870, had become a mentor for him. He won him over for his anti-regime and church-critical sentiments and, since he himself was literarily ambitious, lent him works by newer authors, e. B. the notorious regime critic Victor Hugo (which Rimbaud's mother reprimanded in a letter to him) and Charles Baudelaire . Rimbaud's early poems, as far as they are best known from two booklets written by him in early 1871 (see below), imitate, albeit remarkably independently, the late Romanticists and the then modern Parnassia . So is z. B. the radical Republican long poem Le Forgeron / Der Schmied visibly influenced by Hugo's political poetry. The equally long Soleil et chair / sun and meat , a kind of pagan creed , is committed to the style and imagery of Parnasse . Two pretty pastiches from these months are also noteworthy : a fictional letter to King Louis XI in the language and style of François Villons . and the fictional diary of a naively in love budding priest, Un cœur sous une soutane / A heart under a cassock, intended as satire .
In the gesture typical of young poets at the time, Rimbaud hated the petty-bourgeois narrowness of his hometown. B. in the satirical poem À la musique / To the music is expressed, where he mocks a mediocre military band and their bourgeois audience.
In May 1870 he tried to establish contact with the literary world of the capital Paris. He sent several poems to the established lyric poet and chairman of the Parnassiens, Théodore de Banville , including the well-known Ophélie / Ophelia , with the request that they be included in Volume II of his anthology Le Parnasse contemporain (after which the group of poets in question was named). He announced to Banville with great self-confidence that in one or two years he would certainly be present in the capital himself.
Sturm und Drang of a young poet
In the late summer of 1870, the previously calm life of the almost 16-year-old took a profound turn. On July 19, 1870, the French Emperor Napoleon III. declared war on the King of Prussia , but quickly proved to be militarily defeated. In mid-August, the Prussians and their allies began to encircle the fortress Sedan ( Battle of Sedan ), which was only 25 km up the Meuse from Charleville and the garrison and fortified town of Mézières to the south . A little later, on August 29, 1870, Rimbaud took advantage of the general confusion in his hometown close to the front: He ignored the express wish of his mentor Izambard, who knew his Paris dreams but had since returned to his hometown Douai . And instead of staying at home with his family, he secretly got on a train and drove to Paris. An important motive for him was evidently that (as he had complained in a letter to Izambard) no more books and magazines arrived in Charleville. B. could not get the latest volume of poetry by Paul Verlaine , whose Fêtes galantes (1869) he had read with enthusiasm.
On arrival in Paris he was arrested and sent to prison because he did not have a sufficient ticket or money to redeem. From there he sent a letter to Izambard on September 5, 1870 (one day after Napoléon's abdication) with the request that Izambard redeem it.
Indeed, Izambard sent the required sum and the money for a ticket to Douai. Here he placed Rimbaud with relatives, not without informing his mother, and introduced him to Paul Demeny, his friend and publisher, who was also a writer. Above all, he excited him for the cause of the newly proclaimed republic . It is unlikely that Rimbaud, who was not even 16 years old, became a regular member of the National Guard department there . After all, he apparently wrote a letter of protest to the mayor in her name under the pseudonym F. Petit , which appeared in a Republican magazine. At the end of September, at the request of his angry mother, he returned to Charleville, accompanied by Izambard, who tried in vain to appease her.
At home for barely two weeks, Rimbaud ran away again and went to neutral Belgium with the idea of becoming a journalist , initially to Charleroi , the capital of Wallonia , where he had an address as a contact via Izambard or Demeny. When he was turned away, probably also because of his youth, he drove on to Brussels, where he suspected Izambard to be with a friend, but did not find him. He therefore traveled to Douai, from where he returned home two weeks later, at the beginning of November, probably at Izambard's insistence. Some poems, e.g. B. Au Cabaret-Vert / Im Grünen Cabaret (ie a bar in Charleroi), originated during this Belgium excursion.
After all, during the two weeks in Douai, Rimbaud had filled two notebooks with 22 of his previously written poems and handed them over to Demeny. His presumed hopes that Demeny, who was co-owner of a small literary publisher, might publish it, were not fulfilled.
Many of these pieces are, in the spirit of the lyric poetry of the time, pretty and pleasing, even if those written after the outbreak of war already show this or that deliberate dissonance. They are therefore preferred for anthologies and school reading books, such as B. the well-known sonnet about the dead soldier by the river, Le Dormeur du val / The sleeper in the valley , which is presumably not based on personal experience . The four or five poems on the subject of love / eroticism, e.g. B. Rêve pour l'hiver / Wintertraum , are certainly more of a fiction than a mirror of real experiences.
Rimbaud spent the winter of 1870/1871 reading and writing in Charleville, which was occupied by German troops in January 1871 after a short bombardment. The schools were still closed, but apparently, contrary to the wishes of his mother, who allegedly wanted to put him in a private school ( pension ), he had given up the aim of the baccalaureate . His frequent visits to the city library are reflected in the poem Les assis / Die Sitzenden , in which he maliciously caricatures the other readers, mostly old men, and at the same time tries out a very unpoetic style of poetry.
At the end of February he ran away again and made his way to Paris, which had since been encircled and partially occupied by German troops. As can be seen from a letter to Izambard, he rummaged in bookstores, but started walking home after a few days. Unproven and unlikely is the assumption that after the proclamation of the Paris Commune on March 18, 1871, he went back to the capital and participated as a riot in the futile defense of the anarchist and libertarian Paris Commune. However, his sympathy for the commune is reflected in some poems from this period, e.g. B. in the bitterly evil Chant de guerre parisien / Paris war song or the sarcastic L'Orgie parisienne Ou Paris se repeuple / The Paris orgy, Or: Paris is repopulating .
In April, Rimbaud got a small job at the new, left-wing Charleville newspaper Le Progrès des Ardennes , which however died shortly afterwards.
While Paris sank into political turmoil and the development was heading towards the bloody suppression of the Commune by the troops of the provisional French government (May 22-28, 1871), Rimbaud sat frustrated in Charleville, continued to read through the collections of the city library, and went crazy wrote. Occasionally he was invited to drink by cronies, and in return he apparently played the clown and entertainer. During this time his friend Ernest Delahaye , who was also a poet, was important to him, to whom he remained connected throughout his life and whose memories later became an important source of biographical information.
He made no new attempts to find a decent job in accordance with the wishes of the increasingly angry mother, although she kept it painfully short financially. Rather, he wrote poems in an increasingly hermetic and sometimes provocatively unpoetic style and caught himself in his imagination. The two exuberant letters of May 12th and 15th, 1871, which have become known as lettres du voyant (Letters of the Seer) testify to this . The first, the shorter one, is addressed to Izambard, who is now working well as a teacher in Douai and is therefore treated somewhat derisively by Rimbaud. The second, considerably longer, went to Demeny, who after all had already published a book of poems and which he now apparently considered to be more important.
In these letters, Rimbaud drafts his own poetics , his individual poetry theory and practice, including a "radically abbreviated history and criticism of poetry". He sees himself as a kind of medium of poetry - the poet makes himself a seer through “a long, immeasurable and planned excess of all senses” (“ dérèglement de tous les sens ”, German: “ deregulation ”).
For with the now famous formula Je est un autre ( I am someone else ) , he characterizes the poet as a poetic seer and fulfiller of a kind of higher mission, which drives him, even against his will, into ecstasies and into unknown regions of fantasy and knowledge that are inaccessible to normal people and have so far hardly been reached by poets. I am someone else shows the poet on his way to the seer as someone who goes beyond himself - a self-liberation “as a horrific crossing of boundaries”.
At the same time he broke the bar over all the poets before him, with the exception of Hugo , Baudelaire and Verlaines , and illustrated with a few interspersed poems of his own his new ideas of a poetry that strives less for beauty than a close relationship with reality, including social and political . Accordingly, a little later he instructed Demeny in a letter to burn the two notebooks with his older texts (which he did not). The longer poem Les poètes de sept ans that was sent along is apparently intended to prove his break with his middle-class childhood.
In mid-August 1871, Rimbaud sent another poem to Banville, along with a letter with the rather rhetorical question as to whether he had made progress since last year. Apparently there was no answer to the 160 verse long Opus Ce qu'on dit au Poète a propos de fleurs / Was man [d. H. an anonymous typical philistine] tells the poet on the subject of flowers . Perhaps the deliberately unpleasant treatment of an actually pleasing poetic subject had seemed rather strange to Banville.
Shortly afterwards, in September, Rimbaud wrote to the admired Verlaine. He was impressed by the poems he had sent and immediately invited him to Paris.
Turbulent times with and without Verlaine
Rimbaud, feeling under pressure and out of place at home, followed immediately and was taken in by Verlaine and his heavily pregnant wife Mathilde. Verlaine had just lost his job with the Paris city council as a sympathizer of the commune , but was not destitute thanks to his wealthy widowed mother. When Mathilde was born in October, Rimbaud was moved to her parents' home, where the almost 17-year-old made himself so unpopular with his deliberately boisterous behavior that he had to move to Verlaine's friends, whom he annoyed.
Among other things, he had brought with him to Paris his 100-verse poem Le bateau ivre / The drunken ship , which was to become his most famous work. This surrealistic text, in which the lyrical self appears as a ship, which tells in impressive pictures of a dream-like voyage of rudderless drifting, won the young author the immediate admiration of the circle of mostly younger (politically more left-wing ) writers, in whom he wrote about Verlaine was introduced. He also wrote other poems, including politically motivated ones , as well as, for fun, some parodies in the style of his new acquaintances (received in a scrapbook of the district, the so-called album zuique ). Most of the texts of this period, especially the Bateau ivre , have only survived because Verlaine copied them for himself.
By the end of the year at the latest, a sexual relationship developed between Rimbaud and Verlaine. His wife, parents-in-law and mother were outraged, as were apparently a number of acquaintances. So at the end of February 1872 Rimbaud retired like an outcast to Charleville or to Roche, where his family now stayed more and more frequently. The poems written after this kind of escape testify to his disappointment and uncertainty. At the same time, you take a further step towards hermetic, sometimes meaningless texts and increasingly break away from the constraints of formally correct metrics and correct rhyming .
In May 1872, Rimbaud followed Verlaine's request and returned to Paris. A few weeks later, on July 7, 1872, the two set off for the northeast, apparently in high spirits at first. It was the beginning of a one-year changeful wandering life, mostly in pairs, but also separated again and again after arguments. Apparently they made their living mainly with donations from their mothers.
So in the autumn of 1872, after a flying visit to Charleville and a failed attempt at reconciliation between Verlaine and his wife, they spent a long time in London , where they frequented communards who had emigrated. Here Rimbaud probably wrote his last poems in verse form and switched to prose , which now seemed to him to be the more appropriate form for the increasingly vague content of his texts. The first pieces of the later Illuminations collection were probably created during this time .
He spent the turn of the year 1872/1873 with his family in Charleville, but in January he traveled to London at Verlaine's mother's expense to look after a friend who was ill there. In April you can find him in Roche, in May and June again with Verlaine in London. Their love relationship here was increasingly shaped by unfulfilled wishes and longings, by pain and anger and despair over the foreseeable failure.
The last year as a poet
In Roche at the latest, the now 18-year-old had apparently plunged into a deep crisis, which he tried to process here and then in London in short prose texts with occasionally interspersed verses. In these texts, which are difficult to classify in terms of genre, Rimbaud looks back at his past in a more alogical, associative manner than logically referring back to his past, and just as erratically focuses on his present. Nevertheless, the texts are worked out precisely.
In the form of a mixture of retrospect, confession, self-talk, report, reflection, complaint and self-accusation, at times depressed and almost angry, out of inner confusion, Rimbaud undertakes a "persistent and strict examination of all (his) metaphysical undertakings" who truly went and goes through hell. Une Saison en enfer ( A time in hell ) he later gave the title of the small volume that was finished in Roche, in which he now comprehensively continues what he had already proclaimed in the seer letters. In the chapter on the alchemy of the word , he develops his new poetics, which began in the seer letters; but now he is reformulating it from a critical review of his ideas at the time. And in the chapter Deliria I - Foolish Virgin / The Hell Consort he looks back on his relationship with Verlaine.
On July 10, 1873, in Brussels, he went to Verlaine, who a few days earlier had left him in a dispute in London and then threatened suicide in letters to his mother and himself. Instead of reconciliation, however, there was a new argument, with the drunk Verlaine shooting Rimbaud with a revolver in front of his mother and leaving him with a wound on his hand. Rimbaud waived prosecution, but Verlaine was arrested and subsequently sentenced to a two-year prison term, which practically ended their difficult friendship.
Rimbaud went to Roche, where he closed Une Saison en enfer with the chapter Adieu as follows: “Me! I, who called myself magician or angel, renounced all morality, I am given back to the earth to look for a duty and to embrace the rough reality! "
In October 1873 the printing took place in Brussels, but the entire edition, with the exception of a few advance copies, which he, u. a. to Verlaine, given away, in the print shop's warehouse. Until its accidental rediscovery in 1901, it was even considered to have been destroyed by Rimbaud himself.
At the end of the year he met Germain Nouveau as a new friend while visiting Paris. With him he traveled again to London in March 1874. There he wrote a series of short texts in prose (the later Illuminations ) that had apparently begun in 1872 . These are suggestive-associative, largely meaningless, partly moving, partly still impressionistic pictures made of word, sound, thought and thing paintings, which read like dream visions or even hallucinations, evade any logical interpretation, but still leave no doubt about theirs Let character as internally coherent word art. In July 1874, Rimbaud received his mother and two sisters on a visit to London, from where he himself returned to Charleville at the end of the year.
Looking for a new identity
The now 19-year-old had clearly finished reading literature. He began to practice the piano and went to Stuttgart in February 1875 with the intention of learning German. Here he received a visit from Verlaine, who had been released early and had meanwhile returned to the Catholic faith, who tried in vain to reconcile him and to lead him to the piety that had come over him in prison.
In May he set out on foot for Italy, where he intended to learn Italian. He did not realize his plan to put his last work, the approximately 30 paperback pages of Illuminations , into print beforehand . It was only published in a magazine by Verlaine in 1886 without his knowledge, and Verlaine also determined the ambiguous title ( colored book illustrations or illuminations ).
Back from Italy, where he was ill and had to return to Roche with money from a consulate, Rimbaud wondered whether he might still be able to take the Baccalauréat as an external student. But nothing came of this, rather you can find him in July 1875 in Paris, where he had received a temporary position as a repetitor. He spent the winter of 75/76 in Charleville, where he continued to practice piano, but also witnessed the death of the older of his two sisters.
With the spring new restlessness came over him. In April 1876 he was found in Vienna and a little later in Brussels, where he was enlisted as a mercenary in the Dutch colonial army. In Java , however, arrived, he deserted and went back as a sailor on an English sailing ship. After a short period in Northern Europe (1877) he went to Alexandria , fell ill and then briefly slipped into his family. In 1878 he was found in Hamburg, later in Italy and finally in Cyprus , where he managed a quarry for a French company for a time.
In 1880 he came to Aden (in what is now Yemen ), where he became an employee of a French company that traded in fur and coffee. For them, but later also on his own initiative and account, he undertook several expeditions into the almost unknown interior of Ethiopia and Somalia , where he tried to combine the business aspects with scientific ones. B. wrote a report, illustrated with photos, for a geographic journal that appeared in 1884.
In early 1891, during a stay in Somalia, he developed severe pain in his knee. He liquidated his business at a loss, but still with a good amount of capital, and traveled to Marseilles with great difficulty. In a clinic there for well-off patients, it turned out that he had bone cancer and that his leg had to be amputated. Afterwards he spent a few summer weeks in Roche, hoping for recovery, but then went back to the clinic in Marseille in pain. Previously, apparently under the influence of his pious sister Isabelle, he destroyed almost all the materials in his possession from his time as a morally, politically and religiously incorrect young poet, whom he regarded as distant and dismissed.
He died in the clinic on November 10, 1891 at 10 a.m. and was buried in Charleville Cemetery.
Despite the lack of the materials mentioned, in particular most of the letters addressed to him, the stages in Rimbaud's biography as a young man of letters, young adventurer and, in the end, apparently also a wealthy businessman, are relatively well known thanks to numerous letters he has received, e. B. to Izambard or to his mother, as well as many other documents.
The aftermath of Rimbaud began when, from 1883 onwards, literary magazines began to print works by him without his intervention, primarily on Verlaine's initiative and based on texts that he wrote as autographs or, e.g. B. the Bateau ivre , owned in its own copies. Verlaine himself wrote a much-noticed literary portrait of Rimbaud, which he published in a magazine in 1883 and included in his volume Ostracized Poets in 1884 . The first attempt at a collective edition of Rimbaud's poems, which in particular also contained the early texts that Izambard and Demeny owned, appeared in 1891 a few days before his death and undoubtedly without his knowledge under the strange title Le Reliquaire . It found a certain distribution, although it had been banned immediately for reasons of publishing law because it was a pirated print of parts of a complete edition prepared by Verlaine and others.
This edition itself was subsequently hindered for a long time by Rimbaud's sister Isabelle, who saw herself as the heiress and trustee of her brother and believed that she was acting on his behalf if she tried to eradicate all the texts that were offensive in her eyes, including those that had already been published. In 1895 the first complete edition came out, finally with its Placet, the corpus of which was repeatedly increased by newly surfaced texts in the following decades. Because Rimbaud often gave away sheets of paper with poems to friends.
In retrospect, he owes his literary survival largely to the efforts of his ex-boyfriend Verlaine, even if he certainly also benefited from it.
The influence of the overall only narrow work as well as the mysterious figure of Rimbaud on the poets of Symbolism and Expressionism was considerable, even the Surrealists with their idea of writing controlled only by the unconscious, the écriture automatique , orientated themselves on him. In Germany, Karl Anton Klammer's (1907) partial transference based on Le Reliquaire influenced expressionist poets, e . B. Georg Heym and Paul Zech . This, who in the early 1920s worked as a Rimbaud re-poet in the extremely free way that is typical for him, wrote an extensive Rimbaud portrait and in 1925 also wrote a drama with Rimbaud as the protagonist, obviously had a decisive influence on the author's image in the German-speaking area, however not exactly true, shaped. Paul Celan (1958) became one of the most famous German Rimbaud translators of recent times . The Berlin painter Jeanne Mammen , who had already dealt with the poet during her artistic isolation at the time of the National Socialist rule, also presented a translation of the illuminations , which appeared in the Insel-Bücherei in 1967 . Her engagement with Rimbaud is also reflected in her visual work.
Rimbaud influenced in detail z. B. Van Morrison , who published the song Tore down a la Rimbaud in 1985 , Bob Dylan , Fabrizio De André , Klaus Hoffmann , Henry Miller , Patti Smith , Richard Hell ( Television ), Jim Morrison , Penny Rimbaud ( Crass ), Wladimir Wyssozki , Klaus Mann , Georg Trakl , the Beat Poets a . a. The band Eloy used its summer dawn as an intro to The Sun song . The French singer Raphaël released the song Être Rimbaud in his second album La Réalité (2003) . The most famous settings of Rimbaud's poems are Les Illuminations op.18 for soprano (or tenor) and string orchestra (1939) by Benjamin Britten . In 2003/04 the German composer Siegfried Bernhöft set Dance of the Hanged , In the Gray Evening Rain , The poor dream and Rondo for mixed choir. The German-English music group Slapp Happy released a song about Rimbaud with Mr. Rainbow on their albums Slapp Happy (1974) and Acnalbasac Noom (1980) . In 2019, Benjamin Hiesinger composed, based on Rimbaud's prose work A Stay in Hell, as well as excerpts from poems and letters, a “dazzling network of spoken and sung text, melodies, ecstatic sound structures and driving rhythms” that opens up access to Rimbaud's world of thought.
The Aachen-based Rimbaud Verlag , founded in 1981, chose the poet as namesake.
- Œuvres complètes . Edition établie, présentée et annotée by Antoine Adam. La Pléiade , Gallimard, Paris 1972
Rimbaud: All the seals. French and German . Übers. Walther Küchler . Lambert Schneider, Heidelberg 1946
- Rimbaud: All the seals. French and German . Translated by Walther Küchler, supplemented by Carl Andreas. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1963 a. ö.
- Letters. Documents . Übers., Erl, and with an essay “Understanding the Collection” by Curd Ochwadt . EA Lambert Schneider, Heidelberg 1961; Rowohlt, Reinbek 1964 again
- Le Bateau ivre / The drunken ship . Translated by Paul Celan. Wiesbaden 1958
The drunken ship. Poems Neu-Übers. Thomas Eichhorn, awarded the André Gide Prize . Rimbaud Verlag , Aachen 1991, ISBN 3-89086-871-1 ; slightly overworked. ibid. 2000
- Bilingual at dtv. The current version: Insel, Frankfurt 2008, ISBN 3-458-19300-6 . Frequent edition. with various translations, often in anthologies of his poems
- Une Saison en enfer (1873), German. A time in hell or a stay in hell ISBN 3-89086-874-6
- Illuminations . Translator Jeanne Mammen . Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1967
- Illuminations; Luminous Pictures ISBN 3-89086-870-3
- Lettres du voyant (1871); German: The future of poetry. The seer letters . Attached essays by Philippe Beck , Tim Trzaskalik. Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2010 ISBN 978-3-88221-545-8
- Seer letters / Lettres du voyant . Ed., Translator Werner von Koppenfels . Dieterich'sche Verlagbuchhandlung, Mainz 1990
- Rimbaud - Jean-Jacques Lefrère : Correspondence. Translator, comment: Tim Trzaskalik. Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2017
- The thief of the fire . The enlightenments. A summer in hell. A heart under a cassock. Translated from the French by Josef Kalmer . With a foreword by Lydia Mischkulnig . Edited and with an afterword by Alexander Emanuely . Verlag der Theodor Kramer Gesellschaft, Vienna 2018 ISBN 978-3-901602-71-9
The texts in Complete Poems by Jean Arthur Rimbaud. Adaptations by Paul Zech (1927, revised in 1944 in exile in Buenos Aires and reissued in this version in 1963 etc.) are not transfers, but, as mentioned above, more or less free adaptations . As an aid to understanding the originals, they do not appear to be very suitable.
- Yves Bonnefoy : Arthur Rimbaud in self-reports and 70 photo documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1962 a. ö., ISBN 3-499-50065-5
- Philippe Besson: Brittle days. dtv, 2006, ISBN 3-423-24530-1
- Gudula Biedermann: Return to the magical-religious origins of language in Baudelaire, Mallarmé, Rimbaud and Claudel . In: German-French Institute Ludwigsburg (ed.): Germany - France. Ludwigsburg Contributions to the Problem of Franco-German Relations , Vol. 2 (= Publications of the German-French Institute Ludwigsburg eV Volume 2), Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1957, pp. 180–188.
- Michel Butor : Experiment via Rimbaud. Rimbaud Verlag , Aachen 1994, ISBN 3-89086-876-2
- Françoise d'Eaubonne : Rebel Rimbaud. Paul List, Munich 1959
- René Etiemble : Le mythe de Rimbaud - Structure du mythe. Gallimard, Paris 1952; through and around 1952 the censorship victims added. Gallimard, 1961, ISBN 2-07-022260-8
- Michael Fisch : Arthur Rimbaud - Poetry. Translated from the French by Michael Fisch. Hans Schiler Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-89930-428-2
- Benjamin Fondane : Rimbaud the Tramp and the poetic experience [ed.]: Michel Carassou. From the Frz. Matthes & Seitz, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-88221-257-8
- Elizabeth M. Hanson: My poor Arthur. Holt, New York 1960 (English)
- Henry Miller : From the great uprising. 2nd Edition. Arche, Zurich 1964
- Pierre Michon : Rimbaud the son . 1st edition. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-518-22437-3 (Original title: Rimbaud le fils . 1991.).
- Charles Nicholl: Somebody Else. Cape, London 1997.
- Rimbaud vivant. 2nd Edition. Rimbaud Verlag, Aachen 2004, ISBN 3-89086-970-X
- Jacques Rivière : Rimbaud. An essay. With a foreword by Rolf Kloepfer (= Becksmann-Paperback . No. 1 ). Eckhard Becksmann, Freiburg i. Br. 1968 (French: Rimbaud . Paris 1930. Translated by Armin Volkmar Wernsing, dedicated to André Gide ).
- Graham Robb: Rimbaud. A biography. Norton, New York NY 2001 (English).
- Kristin Ross : The emergence of social space: Rimbaud and the Paris Commune . With a foreword by Terry Eagleton . University of Minnesota Press / Macmillan Press, Basingstoke 1988 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Ardengo Soffici: Arthur Rimbaud. Vallecchi, Florence 2002 (Italian)
- Enid Starkie: The Life of Arthur Rimbaud. Newly published by Susanne Wäckerle. Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-88221-765-0 (first 1961.)
- Erwin Stegentritt: To Charleville - To Rimbaud. AQ-Verlag, Saarbrücken 2013 ISBN 978-3-942701-12-9 .
- Thomas Bernhard : "This storm-lashed person". A literary sensation. … Hymn by the 23-year-old Th. B. on AR In: Die Zeit , No. 21/2009, p. 56 f.
- Alfred Bardey: Barr-Adjam: souvenirs du patron de Rimbaud Aden-Harar, 1880–1887; [lettre et documents inédits]. Archange du Minotaure Editions, Montpellier 2010, ISBN 978-2-35463-052-2 .
- Jamie James: Rimbaud in Java: the lost voyage. Ed. Didier Millet, Singapore 2011, ISBN 978-981-4260-82-4
- Helmut Hannig: "me lava, dispersant governail et grappin". An interpretive approach, my 'bateau ivre' as a free adaptation of the poem "Le Bateau ivre", art brochure with portrait drawings, veneer collage and a blue pennant as fragment poem, French / German, Oehler Medien, Ötisheim ISBN 978-3-929551-18-1
- Hermann Haarmann, Alfred Wolfenstein (ed.): Rimbaud. Life-work letters. Büchner-Verlag, Marburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-96317-147-5 .
- 1971: At the edge of the habitable world. The life of the poet Arthur Rimbaud documentary, WDR, Georg Stefan Troller
- 1995: Total Eclipse - The Rimbaud and Verlaine Affair Directed by Agnieszka Holland , with Leonardo DiCaprio
- Jean-Philippe Perrot, Rimbaud, Athar et Liberté libre , documentaire, 2 × 90 min., 1998, DVD Aptly-Média (2008)
- Richard Dindo, Arthur Rimbaud, une biography , biography avec scènes reconstituées, 1991, DVD Arte-Vidéo (2005).
- Marc Rivière, Arthur Rimbaud, l'homme aux semelles de vent , téléfilm de fiction, 115 min., 1995, DVD LCJ éditions.
- Alain Romanetti, Rimbaud, je est un autre , documentaire, 52 min., 2004, DVD Atelier Dominik (2005).
- Agnieszka Holland, Rimbaud Verlaine (Totale éclipse) , film de fiction, 105 min., 1995, DVD Dvdy / Opening (1997/2007).
- Jean Teulé, Rainbow pour Rimbaud (d'après Rainbow pour Rimbaud de l'auteur), film de fiction (82 min., 1996).
- Olivier Esmein, Rimbaud, l'éternité retrouvée, documentaire, 11 min., 1982.
- Literature by and about Arthur Rimbaud in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Arthur Rimbaud in the German Digital Library
- Arthur Rimbaud in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Rimbaud Museum in Charleville (French)
- Works by Arthur Rimbaud . Text, concordances and word lists
- Gert Pinkernell : names, titles and dates of French literature.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Seher -briefe / Lettres du voyant. Translated and edited by Werner von Koppenfels. Dieterich'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Mainz 1990, here: Afterword by v. Koppenfels, p. 101.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Seher -briefe / Lettres du voyant. Translated and edited by Werner von Koppenfels. Dieterich'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Mainz 1990, epilogue p. 105 + p. 25.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Seher -briefe / Lettres du voyant. Translated and edited by Werner von Koppenfels. Mainz: Dieterich'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1990, epilogue p. 105.
- ↑ Amateur of Adventure . In: Der Spiegel . No. 45 , 1991 ( online ).
- ^ Yves Bonnefoy: Arthur Rimbaud in personal testimonials and 70 picture documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1962 a. ö., p. 96 ff.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Une Saison en Enfer / A time in hell. Reclam, Stuttgart 1970, afterword by Werner Dürrson, p. 105.
- ^ Yves Bonnefoy: Arthur Rimbaud in personal testimonials and 70 picture documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1962 and others, p. 106.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Une Saison en Enfer / A time in hell. Reclam, Stuttgart 1970, afterword by Werner Dürrson, p. 104.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Une Saison en Enfer / A time in the. Reclam, Stuttgart 1970, afterword by Werner Dürrson, p. 102.
- ^ Yves Bonnefoy: Arthur Rimbaud in personal testimonials and 70 picture documents . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1962 and others, p. 106.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Une Saison en Enfer / A time in the. Reclam, Stuttgart 1970, epilogue by Werner Dürrson, p. 34 ff.
- ^ Yves Bonnefoy: Arthur Rimbaud in personal testimonials and 70 picture documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1962 a. ö., p. 104.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Une Saison en Enfer / A time in the. Reclam, Stuttgart 1970, afterword by Werner Dürrson, p. 83.
- ↑ Arthur Rimbaud: Une Saison en Enfer / A time in the. Reclam, Stuttgart 1970, afterword by Werner Dürrson, p. 95.
- ^ Johann Thun: "Tu as bien fait de partir" Jeanne Mammen, Rene Char and Arthur Rimbaud . In: Friends of the Jeanne Mammen Foundation e. V., Berlin (ed.): Friends of the Jeanne Mammen Foundation e. V., Berlin . 1st edition. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-422-07375-3 , pp. 158-178 .
- ↑ Vita Ben Hiesinger , last accessed on November 10, 2019.
- ↑ Archive: A Stay in Hell. In: ufafabrik.de , last accessed on November 10, 2019.
- ↑ This complete edition, which also prints the received letters from, to and around the author as well as many documents pertaining to him, forms the basis of this Rimbaud article.
- ↑ A complete edition, the translations of which try to be halfway faithful and have a certain use as an aid to understanding the original texts.
- ↑ Contains a large part of the Adam [s. o.] printed letters and documents in an acceptable translation
- ↑ Audiobook - Internet Archive
- ^ Fischer-Taschenbuch, 1990, ISBN 978-3-596-29448-0
- ^ Original lecture from 1954 in Salzburg. Editing of titles
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Rimbaud, Jean Nicolas Arthur (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||French poet, adventurer and businessman|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 20, 1854|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Charleville|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 10, 1891|
|Place of death||Marseille|