Jim Morrison is considered a rock musician who articulated and exemplarily lived out the fantasies, visions, fears and self-destructiveness of the generation of the late 1960s. He is one of the most charismatic personalities in rock music of the time. Together with the Doors, he expanded the rock music repertoire to include multi-layered concept pieces and forms of rock theater. Morrison, of whom three volumes of poetry were published during his lifetime, regularly used the Doors concerts for spontaneous recitations of poetic texts. He produced a documentary about the Doors and an experimental feature film. Morrison is one of the central symbolic figures of the hippie era and culture.
Although Morrison made a name for himself with his rock baritone and poetic song lyrics, in later years he was mostly associated with a rebellious and self-destructive lifestyle. His early death, the circumstances of which could not be clarified with certainty, contributed significantly to the creation of legends about his person. In 1993, Morrison was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Doors .
Childhood and adolescence
Jim Morrison was the first child of George Stephen Morrison (1919-2008) and Clara Virginia Morrison (née Clarke, 1919-2005). He had two siblings, Anne Robin (* 1947) and Andrew Lee (* 1948). Morrison's father was a naval officer . As a result, Morrison's family moved frequently. By the time he graduated from school, he lived in various cities in the US states of Florida and California, as well as twice in Washington, DC and Albuquerque .
As a formative experience of his childhood, Morrison later described how as a four-year-old he observed a serious car accident involving Pueblo or Hopi Indians from his parents' car on a trunk road southwest of Albuquerque . Morrison regularly referred to this key event in song lyrics, poetry, and interviews. In his texts, the experience took place on an accident truck, in front of which injured and dead Indians were lying on the street. The parents stopped and Morrison's father went to see if he could help. At a nearby gas station, his father called the highway police and an ambulance. As his son was disturbed by the confrontation with death, the father tried to convince him that he had only dreamed the incident.
In later interviews, Jim Morrison stated that at that moment the souls of dead Indians had migrated into his body. In the best-known implementation of the events in the song Peace Frog from the Doors LP Morrison Hotel (1970), Morrison connected the severe trauma suffered in this accident scene with an alleged transmigration of souls:
"Indians scattered on dawn's highway, bleeding
Ghosts crowd the young child's fragile, eggshell mind"
"Indians, scattered on the highway of dawn, bleeding
ghosts beset the weak, fragile mind of the little child"
Morrison's interest in the culture of the Native American peoples of the American Southwest developed further during his school days when Morrison's family temporarily lived again in Albuquerque, New Mexico , where he had the opportunity to get to know the habitats of the indigenous people better.
As a result of the father's job-related absence, the family's regular moves across the United States, and a strict upbringing, Morrison stood out as an adolescent, despite good academic performance, because of his pronounced problematic behavior towards teachers and classmates. In 1958 he attended Alameda High School in Alameda, California. He received his degree in June 1961 at the George Washington High School in Alexandria ( Virginia ). As a teenager, at the request of his parents, Morrison moved in September 1961 to his Presbyterian and strictly abstinent paternal grandparents in Clearwater, Florida. Morrison attended St. Petersburg Junior College there. Morrison's father was promoted to captain of the aircraft carrier USS Bon Homme Richard in 1963 . By spring 1964, the father tried in vain to interest his sons in a career in the navy.
To train Jim Morrison's language skills, his father often gave him books when he visited his home. Morrison understood the language early as a powerful tool, among other things to rebel against unpopular authorities. At the age of twelve, Morrison wrote his first, sometimes aggressively satirical poems in notebooks, which he called "radio essays". He read the unconventional books of the Beat Generation early on . This included Jack Kerouac key novel the way , but also works of writers Allen Ginsberg and Lawrence Ferlinghetti , whose "City Lights Bookstore" Morrison 1958 in San Francisco after reading Kerouac repeatedly visited. Morrison studied the works of Honoré de Balzac , Charles Baudelaire , Jean Cocteau , James Joyce and Arthur Rimbaud . For Morrison, Rimbaud was "someone who stole fire from the gods and would be punished for it." Morrison dealt with Friedrich Nietzsche's birth of tragedy . He was so impressed by Plutarch's biography of Alexander the Great that he asked the renowned hairdresser Jay Sebring to have his hair cut based on a model of an Alexander bust. In later pictures taken by the photographer Joel Brodsky , which he made for the album The Doors , among other things , Morrison oriented himself on the position of the head of this bust.
Studies and formation of a band
Graduated from Saint Petersburg , Florida, Morrison continued his studies at Florida State University in Tallahassee between 1962 and 1963 , where a short college marketing film was made with him. Morrison, who originally wanted to “become a writer or a sociologist”, became increasingly interested in working in the film sector. Against the wishes of his parents, he applied in October 1963 to study film and theater studies in California. In January 1964 he enrolled at the Theater Arts Department of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he took courses with the Austrian-American director Josef von Sternberg . At UCLA he produced the short film First Love , based on recordings made by a fellow student , which, like a second film full of abrupt breaks, led to controversial reactions and vehement rejection in the film seminars. In June 1965, Morrison successfully completed his studies with a Bachelor of Science degree in "Cinematography".
Morrison's professional intentions, who had already written poems and lyrics during his studies, had met with sharp rejection from his father for some time. After a letter from his father, Morrison broke off contact with his parents. He refused to meet his mother face-to-face at a concert in November 1967. After losing contact, Morrison had to give up his student apartment for financial reasons. The UCLA graduate, who was uprooted in his childhood through constant relocations, should not have his own apartment for his entire life. In the spring of 1965, Morrison found a new place to stay with a former fellow student on the roof of an old office building in Venice , lost a considerable amount of body weight under the influence of drugs, and wrote more poems and lyrics. He hoped for a way to stage his texts with bass and blues-heavy sounds, Indian drums, incense and multimedia elements such as film projections.
During his studies, Morrison met fellow student and organist Ray Manzarek . Manzarek asked him and other former fellow students on June 5, 1965 during a performance at the Turkey Joint West in Santa Monica for the first time to spontaneously support him as a singer in the rhythm and blues song Louie Louie . After Morrison Manzarek had performed some of his own lyrics in July 1965, the organist invited Morrison to join his band. The band, in which two brothers Manzareks played, was called "Rick and the Ravens".
After Manzarek's band had produced an unsuccessful demo recording in folk-rock style with Morrison at World Pacific Studios in Los Angeles in September 1965 , Manzarek's brothers left the group. In August 1965 the drummer John Densmore was added. Guitarist Robby Krieger followed two months later . Manzarek's band, renamed "The Doors" after a suggestion by Morrison, had formed from the ground up as a quartet. The group's new name was derived from the title of Aldous Huxley's essay The Doors of Perception (1954), which described the effects of hallucinogens such as mescaline and LSD on human consciousness.
Frontman of the Doors
As a singer, Morrison was so withdrawn at first that he turned his back on the audience when the Doors first appeared. A first record deal, which the group signed after early appearances as support act or at small parties in October 1965 with Columbia Records , was terminated after a short time by mutual agreement. In the spring of 1966 the Doors played as a club band in the "London Fog" on the Sunset Strip in what would later become West Hollywood . It was there that Morrison met the art student Pamela Courson (1946–1974) from Orange County in April 1966 , who was to become his permanent partner. In November 1966, Courson moved into an apartment on the Rothdell Trail in Laurel Canyon . There, Morrison and Courson continued to experiment with substances such as LSD, amphetamines and mescaline, which Morrison served as a catalyst and source of inspiration for numerous texts.
Between May and July 1966, Morrison and the Doors were the first band to perform in the evening at Whiskey a Go-Go on the Sunset Strip. At that time, Van Morrison's band Them was also playing there . One biographer found a clear influence of Van Morrison's impulsive stage presence on Jim Morrison: “Jim Morrison learned quickly from his near-namesake's theatrical skills, his apparent bravado, the pose of subdued threat, his way of improvising poetry to a rock beat, even from his habit of crouching by the bass drum during instrumental passages. ”The last night Them played in Whiskey, the two Morrisons played Van Morrison's song Gloria together during a jam session between the two bands . In the weeks that followed, Morrison and the Doors appeared in "Whiskey" together with other bands such as The Byrds , Love and Frank Zappas Mothers of Invention .
In retrospect, Morrison viewed the Doors' early club phase as one of the most creative of the band, because many pieces could be continuously developed through the numerous appearances on a small scale:
“We started with a pretty simple song, and then the music gradually turns into a hypnotic flow of noises that gives me the freedom to do whatever comes into my head, so to speak. I like songs, but that's the part of the performance that I enjoy the most: picking up vibrations from the music and what's coming from the audience and […] following where it leads. "
The Doors became known nationwide after they had signed a recording contract for seven albums with Jac Holzman of Elektra Records in August 1966 , which was signed on November 15, 1966. Holzman especially liked the cover version of the Alabama song . In September and October 1966, the band made recordings for a first record in the "Sunset Recording Studios" on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles. After Morrisons and the Doors first appeared outside of Los Angeles in July 1966, they first appeared in a small basement club in New York in November 1966. In New York, the singer moved around " The Factory " and Andy Warhols , whom Morrison had met six months earlier in Los Angeles. Warhol wanted to win Morrison as the lead actor for one of his avant-garde films.
Elektra released the band's debut album in January 1967 under the title The Doors and advertised it, unusual for the time, through a billboard on the Sunset Strip. For their first single Break On Through (To the Other Side) , Morrison and the Doors produced a promotional clip in 1967, which was soon followed by others ( Moonlight Drive , People Are Strange , The Unknown Soldier ). The second single, Light My Fire , became the number one hit on the American Billboard singles chart in July 1967 .
Since the first TV appearances on the show "Shebang" (KTLA-TV Channel 5) on March 6, 1967 and on " American Bandstand " on ABC on July 22, 1967 with playback , TV stations became increasingly aware of the new group. Among other things, the Doors were invited to the Ed Sullivan Show on September 17, 1967, a popular, live broadcast late-night Sunday show on CBS that introduced a wider American audience to Elvis Presley in 1956 and the Beatles in 1964. The Doors were supposed to play two tracks, but angered the editors because Morrison failed to comply with a previously agreed change to the lyrics of Light My Fire . Although this incident did not have a lasting effect on Morrison's television presence, such events showed the unpredictability of the rock singer, who had already taken a vague position against established authorities in a press release from his record company at the beginning of the year:
“I like ideas about the collapse or overthrow of the established order. I'm interested in everything that has to do with revolt, disorder, chaos - especially actions that seem to make no sense. It seems to me, is the road to freedom - outer freedom is a way to achieve inner freedom. "
With rock songs full of "sublime promises, fascinating imagery , hypnotic gestures and angry expressions" and his rigorous maxim "Time is short, so make it best!", Morrison met the attitude towards life of a generation of rebellious young people who, among other things, oppose the Vietnam War or used mind-altering drugs . At the age of 24 - the photographer Joel Brodsky had erotically staged Morrison in a series of black and white photos in January 1967 - the charismatic rock singer was America's new sex symbol .
When the Doors released their second album, Strange Days , which had 500,000 pre-orders in October 1967 , and their singles People Are Strange and Love Me Two Times hit the US charts, they were blues and rock with their psychedelic style of music one of the most popular rock bands in the United States. Vogue magazine wrote in its November 15, 1967 issue, impressed by Morrison and Krieger's lyrics: "Jim Morrison writes as if Edgar Allan Poe has returned in the guise of a hippie ". In November 1967, the Doors were awarded gold records for the first time by the Association of the American Music Industry for the single Light My Fire and their debut album .
Stardom and conflicts with the authorities
Morrison's self-mythicalization as a rock idol was willingly followed by a growing fan base, but it was becoming increasingly independent. According to Thomas Collmer , Morrison developed more and more into a crystallization figure for the subliminal longings of many Doors supporters, who wanted to see their own role expectations acted out on stage (“ substitute imago ”). In the face of the pressure on the front man of the Doors and the crowd of sensationalist supporters, Morrison sought relief by drinking considerable amounts of alcohol and, unaffected by the 1966 ban on LSD in the USA, continued to use drugs regularly. For the one-sided perception of his person, Morrison blamed the mass media in particular:
"[...] they focused too much on my reproductive organ and neglected the fact that I am a reasonably healthy male specimen with other things than the usual arms, legs, ribs, thorax, eyes ... even a cerebellum."
There were repeated tumults before, during and after concerts at the end of 1967. Often police officers and fans were involved, such as at a concert on December 9, 1967 in the New Haven Arena in New Haven ( Connecticut ), where Morrison after the use of tear gas passed through an overzealous law enforcers to open provocation against police officers on the stage. He was arrested for violating the peace and resisting state power. In addition to Morrison, two music journalists and a photographer from Life magazine and The Village Voice as well as various Doors fans were arrested by the New Haven police that evening . During the night, other Morrison supporters were arrested for protesting the singer's arrest. While the local police authority dropped the allegations against the singer a few weeks later, the federal police began collecting material incriminating the singer in accordance with the Cointelpro strategy. The FBI had identified Morrison as the figurehead of a youth riot and - when the FBI received complaints from angry radio hosts in the following months - as a potential threat to the state order in the United States.
Since December 1967, the Doors played increasingly in large concert halls such as the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles or the Fillmore East in New York, as well as in multi-purpose arenas such as Madison Square Garden . These could also bring out Morrison's multi-part rock theater compositions such as The Celebration of the Lizard better. Morrison and the Doors began to look for new forms such as theater elements and film recordings to adapt the concerts to larger spatial dimensions:
“In a big concert situation, I think it's [that is, acting] just… necessary because it's going to be more than just a musical event. It's going to be kind of a little spectacle. And it's different every time. "
In mid-March 1968, the Doors first showed the short film for their Vietnam War song The Unknown Soldier at the Back Bay Theater in Boston . When the short film was released, the Tet offensive of the North Vietnamese army and the Viet Cong had been going on for some time in Vietnam , which increasingly gave the American public the impression of a lost and senseless war. For Morrison, the song also had a family background due to his father's involvement in the Vietnam War: George Stephen Morrison and his aircraft carrier were instrumental in the Tonkin incident in 1964 and in the subsequent fighting at the beginning of the Vietnam War. In 1967, Morrison's father was admiral.
At the constant insistence of his partner Courson, Morrison announced his intention to no longer work with the Doors in June 1968 while another album was being completed in the newly rented recording room of the "Doors Workshop" in Los Angeles. However, Manzarek was able to dissuade him from taking this step. At the beginning of July 1968, Morrison received a visit from Mick Jagger , who wanted to talk to him about concert appearances in front of a large audience; further encounters occurred in the following year. In July 1968, the third and shortest studio album by the Doors, appeared Waiting for the Sun . In the same month, the Morrison track Hello, I Love You became the number one hit on the American "Billboard Hot 100", two months later the studio album also climbed to the top of the record charts (" Billboard Top 200 "). At subsequent concerts, such as the one in the Singer Bowl in Queens , New York, on August 2, 1968, there were further riots by the audience on a partially defective stage, the hall seating was destroyed, concertgoers fought with the security staff, demolished instruments and numerous others Arrests.
Since the incident in New Haven, Morrison had become increasingly a thorn in the side that numerous fans of Doors concerts, which he himself understood as "a séance , in an environment that has become hostile to life - cold and restrictive -" wanted to see further violence and riots were expected. But the singer himself regularly explored the tolerance limits of his environment during live performances, wanted to find out which steps of self-delimitation he could bring the audience to, and encouraged listeners to storm the stage:
“As a performer, I am now the center of everyone's attention. You have to have an excuse for getting together. Otherwise it will be a riot. There have never been any real riots at the Doors. […] So I tried to instigate a few small riots […]. It doesn't get anywhere. […] It would be better to do a concert and keep all the emotions down so that they [that is, the audience] […] could take that energy with them on the street and home. "
As the recording sessions became more professional, Morrison appeared increasingly drunk and late for live performances. To appease the audience, the other Doors members played instrumental pieces. When the Doors performed in September 1968 during a European tour in London , Frankfurt , Copenhagen , Amsterdam and Stockholm , Manzarek had to take over the vocal part in Amsterdam after Morrison's failure. On the sidelines of the European tour, Morrison visited the Beatles on September 23, 1968 at Abbey Road Studios , where they were busy recording the Lennon song Happiness Is a Warm Gun for their white album .
Since Morrison now only wanted to perform live on weekends and the Doors' income fell short of expectations due to negative headlines and rare concerts, the band gave the rights to the song Light my Fire without Morrison's consent for $ 60,000 for a Buick in October 1968 - Commercial free. When the band reached the offer, Morrison's whereabouts were unknown. He had followed his on-off partner Courson, who was having an affair with US actor Christopher Jones in London. After Morrison's return, the singer was upset about the “sell-out” of the Doors, but the contract with the automobile company could no longer be revised. The commercial aired a limited amount in the states of the South and Midwest. In February 1969, the Doors recorded a number-one hit in the US “Cash Box Top 100” hit parade for the last time with the warrior song Touch Me .
The Miami incident
In the spring of 1969, the Doors wanted to embark on their first major tour of the United States. For the first concert in Miami, Morrison traveled from California, where he had just attended several performances by the controversial New York theater company Living Theater at the University of Southern California . Still under the impression of the theater performances and upset about the manipulation of the local concert promoter when selling tickets, Morrison tried to stir up an uproar among the 13,000 concert-goers at the concert on March 1, 1969 in the "Dinner Key Auditorium" in Miami ("There are no rules! […] Let's see some action out there. […] You wanna see my cock, don't you? "). He also simulated fellatio while kneeling on Kriegers guitar . Under the onslaught of the audience provoked by Morrison, the inadequate stage of the “Auditorium” collapsed.
After a "sensational lead story about incitement to riot" in the local press, the Dade County Police Department issued an arrest warrant for Morrison on March 5, 1969 for "lewd and lascivious behavior" and several minor offenses ("indecent exposure", "vulgar language in public "," public drunkenness "). To the music journalist Jerry Hopkins, Morrison interpreted the slipped concert as a playful event:
“Let's just say I wanted to test the limits of reality. I was curious what would happen. […] If, for whatever reason, you drive in a different lane than the people around you, it will affect everyone's sensibilities. And they will either go away or put you down for it. So it's just a question of whether you take off too far for them [...]. As long as everyone is connected and together, everything can be afforded. "
Morrison had already made vague threats against US President-elect Richard Nixon at a concert in November last year ("We're gonna get him ..."). At the request of the FBI , a federal judge issued a profile for alleged "flight from the country" of Morrisons after the Miami incident - the singer had taken a vacation to Jamaica that had been planned for some time . Shortly after the beginning of the Nixon era, there were initiatives by indignant parents and former fans against the Doors, such as the "rally for decency" in the Orange Bowl in Miami on March 23, 1969, which was held by US President Nixon, who had only been in office for a few weeks supported by letter. 16 US states imposed a ban on the Doors, numerous concerts were canceled, and a recourse clause was included in the Doors' concert contracts in the event that the band continued to cause public nuisance.
In June 1969 the band played in Mexico City . The following month the album The Soft Parade was released . The recording sessions that George Harrison of the Beatles attended had lasted seven months and cost about $ 200,000. Krieger wrote half of the lyrics. The album, which with wind and string instruments arranged was sold relatively poorly. Because Morrison refused to play open-air concerts , the Doors did not participate in the Woodstock Festival in August 1969 . In late 1969, Morrison faced another Phoenix flight crew harassment and paternity lawsuit . In light of the drastic change in public sentiment against the Doors, Morrison increasingly withdrew. The Miami incident had also marked Morrison's departure from the sex symbol image that had surrounded him for two years. He grew a beard, put on a lot of weight and parted with the look with lederhosen and concha belt that fashion designer January Jansen had designed for him.
In February 1970, the record Morrison Hotel , which was characterized by rough rhythm and blues songs, was released . Among the many turmoil in Morrison's life since the Miami incident, according to music critic Patricia Kennely , was an informal, legally ineffective marriage to her on June 24, 1970. Eight years after Morrison's death, the critic and writer changed her name to Patricia Kennealy as a result Morrison. At the invitation of the French filmmaker Agnès Varda , Morrison traveled to France for the first time in June 1970 with the Doors' PR advisor Leon Barnard. He stated that he wanted to prepare for a second European tour of the Doors through Switzerland, Denmark, Germany, Italy and France, which was planned for August and September. On July 18, 1970, he attended the Pink Floyd concert in Hyde Park in London . In search of his missing partner, Courson, Morrison went to Tangier that same month . After his return to Los Angeles, the singer was in poor health due to pneumonia . From the planned second European tour, due to the delay in Morrison's Miami trial, only one appearance was left at the Isle of Wight Festival , which the Doors played in front of over half a million spectators in August 1970.
In the trial that followed the Miami incident the previous year, Morrison, who had feared being "crucified" in his home state of Florida, was sentenced to the maximum sentence required by the prosecution in October 1970. This included sixty days of hard work in Miami Dade County Jail for the crime of vulgar language in public, six months of hard work in-house, and a $ 500 fine for public exposure - an offense that prosecutors did not could have been proven. Both sentences should be served one after the other. For public exposure conviction, if Morrison was well behaved, he was given the prospect of a two-month release and suspension of the remaining four-month sentence on probation. He was also given another two-year suspended sentence. The Doors singer was released on bail of $ 50,000, and Morrison's attorney, Max Fink, announced a challenge to the court of first instance in the Florida Court of Appeals. Morrison interpreted the process as being directed against the lifestyle he embodied:
"I really think it was more of a lifestyle accused than any particular incident."
Still, the conviction for Morrison meant "that his entire rest of life would amount to a legal tightrope act." It was not until four decades later that the verdict was revised by the Florida State Pardons Committee in Tallahassee. Florida Republican Governor Charlie Crist moved it because it looked like "an injustice needs to be corrected." The judgment was overturned on December 9, 2010.
In October 1970, the Doors got together to record their final album together, LA Woman , which featured strong blues influences. At a show on December 11, 1970 at the State Fair Music Hall in Dallas , the Doors played the song Riders on the Storm live for the only time . The following evening, Morrison gave one last unmotivated concert with the Doors at The Warehouse in New Orleans . After he repeatedly missed his vocal performances, suffered a fit of anger after being kicked by the drummer and destroyed parts of the wooden stage, the Doors mutually decided to suspend further concerts.
Time out in Paris and death
Pamela Courson had previously stayed in Paris in connection with the unsuccessful Themis boutique , which Morrison had financed her establishment in West Hollywood in December 1968. After violent arguments with Morrison over heroin use, she left for Paris at the end of September 1970 and returned there again in February 1971. Tired of his role with the Doors and under the influence of the Miami ruling, Morrison followed his long-term friend to Paris. According to the controversial assessment of the Morrison biographer Stephen Davis, Morrison violated judicial bail agreements with his departure from the United States . In March 1971 he stayed with Courson at the Hotel Georges V in the 8th arrondissement . They then lived to sublet in Paris, 17 Rue Beautreillis, third floor, a luxuriously furnished apartment by the French model Elisabeth Larivière.
Morrison led a secluded life in Paris. Above all, he wanted to work on poems and scripts and prepare a poem LP. Since neither Courson nor Morrison spoke French, they hired a Canadian secretary, Robin Wertle. The singer repeatedly complained of severe breathing difficulties in Paris. Medically prescribed asthma medication did not provide any relief. In April, on medical advice, Morrison and Courson undertook a trip to southwest France, Spain and Morocco in a warm region to recover . They toured Corsica in May and London in early June.
In the first days of July, Morrison self-medicated against his pronounced breathing difficulties by sniffing heroin together with Courson , which in addition to its narcotic and pain-numbing effect also has a pronounced cough-relieving effect . Jim Morrison died on the morning of July 3, 1971. The official coroner's report of July 3, 1971 confirmed that the cause of death was cardiac arrest , but the exact circumstances of Morrison's death in Paris could not be determined with certainty. Since Courson later attributed Jim Morrison's death to a heroin overdose, did not autopsy Morrison's body, and the news of his death was not officially announced until July 9, 1971, two days after his funeral, extensive legends were created about the circumstances of his Demise.
In 1980, the Morrison biographers Hopkins / Sugerman thought it possible, among other things, that Morrison had faked his death in order to “find peace to write” and did not want to rule out the possibility that Morrison had been murdered or “fallen victim to a political conspiracy” “Was. Danny Sugerman announced in his 1989 autobiography Wonderland Avenue that Courson believed her boyfriend had died of a heroin overdose. Following Sugerman's book, there were increasing reports of Morrison's drug death. The Riordan / Prochnicky biographers rejected the possibility of Morrison's survival in 1991, assuming, in accordance with Sugerman's autobiography, that Morrison had died of a heroin overdose in his Paris apartment. The biographer Davis left the actual cause of death open in 2004, but stated that Pamela Courson sought support from her heroin dealer Jean de Breteuil and from Morrison's friends Alain Ronay and Agnès Varda on July 3 after Morrison's death in the shared apartment before the police arrived. In 2014, Marianne Faithfull expressed her conviction that her partner at the time, Jean de Breteuil, had provided Morrison with heroin, which, given his alcoholism and heart disease, was too strong for him; she sees Morrison's death as an accident, not murder.
Reconstruction of the circumstances of death and funeral
Despite numerous deviations in detail, Jim Morrison's biographers mostly give as the "official reading" the report going back to Pamela Courson that Courson woke Jim Morrison on the morning of July 3, 1971 in her Paris apartment because she noticed that he had severe breathing difficulties . She took Morrison into the bathtub for a cold shower. In the bathtub, Morrison vomited several times and bled from his nose. Finally his breathing stopped. When the Paris Fire Brigade's ambulance, called for asphyxia, arrived a few minutes after the call for help at 9:24 a.m. on July 3, 1971, Morrison was dead. Because the rock star had not been recognized and the investigating detective suspected that drugs were involved , the coroner decided not to have an autopsy because he believed that an autopsy would confirm the suspicion of drug use. Investigators believed that in the case of a drug overdose, Morrison was responsible for his own death.
Numerous publications are primarily devoted to Morrison's last weeks of life and the immediate circumstances surrounding his death. The documents relevant to Morrison's death were first published by Bob Seymore in 1991 in his book The End - The Death Of Jim Morrison . Most of the "official reading" deviated from Sam Bernett, who stated in an otherwise unconfirmed report that Morrison died in the toilet of a heroin overdose in his Paris nightclub, the "Rock 'n' Roll Circus". According to Heinz Gerstenmeyer, Morrison's death - due to lung failure after prolonged bleeding from the lungs - only occurred a few minutes before the Paris fire brigade ambulance arrived at Morrison's apartment. Contrary to Courson's urgent request, Alain Ronay and Agnès Varda, two friends of Morrison's, who Courson had asked for support over the phone because of their language problems, only informed the ambulance service with a half-hour delay. Since Ronay feared being associated with Coursons and Morrisons heroin use, he first wanted to get an impression of the health of his former college friend.
The day after Morrison's death, Courson, who had been on a wake for two nights in the apartment until the permit was issued, found the following lines in a Morrison notebook:
"Leave the informed sense in our wake / you be Christ on this package tour / –Money beats soul– / Last words, last words / out."
"Leave the enlightened mind in our wake / you will be Christ on this package tour / - Money beats the soul - / Last words, last words / Out."
Morrison was buried on the morning of July 7, 1971 in the Père Lachaise East Cemetery in Paris in the 6th Division, 2nd row, grave 5. Only Pamela Courson, Doors manager Bill Siddons, Alain Ronay, Agnès Varda and Morrison's secretary Robin Wertle attended the funeral. After a small stone tablet was stolen in 1973, a tombstone was only erected in June 1981, financed by the three remaining Doors musicians. In December 1990, Morrison's parents had a new monumental tombstone built with a bronze plate; this bears the ancient Greek grave inscription "ΚΑΤΑ ΤΟΝ ΔΑΙΜΟΝΑ ΕΑΥΤΟΥ", which means "according to his demon" or "according to his fate". Shortly afterwards, the outer wall of the cemetery was supplemented by a crown reinforced with iron spikes to keep Morrison fans from entering the cemetery at night. The grave also repeatedly attracted violent rioters during the Morrison Memorial Day in the 1990s. After decades of rumors about the possible relocation or dissolution of the grave, the former French culture minister and then justice minister Jacques Toubon declared on French television in March 1996 that Jim Morrison's grave was part of the Père Lachaise cultural monument and would therefore remain indefinitely.
According to information from the cemetery administration in 2004, the rock singer's grave is one of the most popular Parisian tourist attractions and the most visited of the 70,000 graves of Père Lachaise, where many famous people rest. The Paris city council estimated the number of visitors to the tomb in 2001 at around 1.5 million. After the first temporary closure of Morrison's grave in 1988/1989, which did not result in a decrease in the influx of visitors, the grave site has been closed again by a metal grate since 2004. In an ethnological field study, the tomb was described as a modern pilgrimage destination and "polymorphic holy place" where at least one of the different categories of visitors seeks spiritual inspiration from Morrison as a "figure of transcendent meaning". When he is transfigured, it is often overlooked that the massive consumption of alcohol and also drug abuse damaged his creative talent after the first successes. After the initial success in 1967, the high levels of alcohol increasingly hampered his ability to work out creative inspirations. In a vicious circle, the loss of his creative expression led to an increase in alcohol use and substance abuse, and ultimately to his death.
Artistic work and effect
Many factors contributed to Morrison's rapid rise as a rock star and its extraordinary popularity in the late 1960s, including the antithesis embodied by the Doors to the transfigured dream worlds represented by parts of the folk scene and the flower power music of the 1960s, Morrisons “Somewhat rough baritone voice” and its erotic charisma, its dark, demanding lyrics and its spectacular appearances. Morrison's self-portrayal, self-mythology and his manipulation of the media with catchy slogans, his rebellious habitus directed against established authorities, his self-destructive lifestyle and his scandalous transgressions offered a predominantly young audience in search of orientation and personal freedom diverse projection surfaces.
With recourse to indigenous influenced ciphers as the "rock shaman " or "lizard king" Jim Morrison had understood it, with a macho appearance of leather trousers, white shirt and the Conchagürtel the Navajo Indians to make a myth of their own person. Within a few years he threatened to be permanently committed to the role of the mysterious, erotic and scandalous rock star. The more the stage image of the Dionysian intoxicating “world artist” in the sense of Nietzsche, from whom Morrison could not escape even through alcohol and drug consumption, threatened to get out of control, the more important was “everything that makes people think” and more important to him the content-related examination of the audience with his artistic work. His appropriation of the figure of the "shaman" also went far beyond a marketing ploy; Morrison justified his identification with this figure by the fact that in a car accident, which he happened to witness when he was four, the souls of two deceased Indians penetrated him. He dealt in detail with the ethnological and religious studies literature on shamanism and inserted the idea of a “mediator between the worlds” into his worldview, which was shaped by Nietzsche's Apollonian-Dionysian art concept, the psychology of Norman O'Brown and Antonin Artaud's theater concept. The figure of the shaman entered into a synthesis with that of Dionysus, the hitchhiker and patricide. At the same time, he also added elements of the shamanic séance to his stage appearances.
Although Morrison was best known for his songs, he left behind an artistic oeuvre totaling over 1,600 manuscript pages, including poems, anecdotes, epigrams , essays, short stories, song texts, scenic texts and drafts of scripts. Morrison tried to reconcile and unite different art forms:
“At first I didn't want to be a member of a band. I wanted to make films, write plays, books. When I got into the band, I wanted to bring some of these ideas into play. It didn't turn out to be too much [...]. "
As a connecting element of Morrison's musical work and his literary and cinematic attempts, Collmer interpreted Morrison's personal attempts at liberation and his intention to "regain control over his own life as much as possible." As the background to his artistic, especially his literary ambitions, Morrison named the intention to Promotion of a new awareness:
"If my poetry aims at anything, it is to free people from the constraints within which they see and feel themselves."
Morrison was reluctant to comment on his own texts and warned in an interview in 1967 against reducing his ambiguous works to simple messages. According to the singer - who after the authoritarian upbringing he experienced at home, the idea of his own authority, the assumption of personal responsibility and leadership roles were alien anyway - readers and viewers should transfer his work to their own context: “I offer pictures. I conjure up memories of ... freedom. But we can only open doors; we can't drag people through. "
Music and live performances
After the fall of rock 'n' roll had on the US West Coast in the early 1960s alongside the pop Soul of Motown -label and surf music almost exclusively acoustically instrumented folk music to artists and bands like Bob Dylan or Simon and Garfunkel dominated. Parallel to the British invasion by groups such as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones , The Who or The Kinks , US bands such as the Byrds and The Beau Brummels drove the electrification of the US folk scene. This went hand in hand with the development of psychedelic rock with its more experimental song structures and new bands such as Jefferson Airplane and Grateful Dead . In contrast to parts of the “Flower Power” music, where everyone seemed to be singing “about incense sticks, peppermint and orange skies” according to the “Love, Peace and Happiness” maxim, the Doors' songs radiated an unusually dark and aggressive atmosphere out. At the same time, the Doors clearly set themselves apart from other groups of the late 1960s with their attractive front man, poetic song lyrics, their psychedelic concept pieces and a provocative stage show, which gave Morrison and his band a special position in the still young rock music genre from 1967 onwards .
Morrison wrote most of the Doors' lyrics, and he devised the basic melodies for many of the songs. Since Morrison had broken off his piano training after a few months and had no mastery of notation techniques, it initially gave him difficulties to fix the melodies of his songs:
“First came the music, then I developed some words that I could put over the melody because that was the only way I could keep the melody in my head. Often I only remembered the lyrics and forgot the melody. "
The problem of the ephemeral melodies could only be solved in the joint composition and rehearsal work with the other Doors members, as Manzarek recalled: "Jim spoke-sang the words over and over, and meanwhile the appropriate tones slowly developed." His In 1965, band colleagues encouraged Morrison to write their own lyrics that should refer to elemental forces and images such as earth, air, fire and water. The singer took into account the intensive joint creative process by ascribing the authorship of the songs mostly to the entire group ("All Songs Written by The Doors"). He also supported other artists in songwriting, such as the German singer Nico , whose album The Marble Index (1968) contains numerous suggestions from Morrison.
Morrison wrote over a hundred songs in a wide range of musical styles: blues , rock songs , psychedelic rock , hard rock , ballads , sea shanties and a cappella singing . The singer viewed the Doors as a white blues band and asserted influences alongside blues and rock 'n' roll as well as jazz and a small amount of classical influences. The musical spectrum of Morrisons and the Doors also included elements of the epic theater of the twenties (cover version of the Alabama song from Brecht's and Weill's opera Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny ) or baroque music , as evidenced by a posthumously published song ( Woman in the Window , 1971) based on a melody by Johann Sebastian Bach . Many of Morrison's lyrics contain literary allusions and quotations, such as End of the Night (1967), which is essentially based on verses by Louis-Ferdinand Celine and William Blake .
On stage, Morrison staged the Doors songs as a singer, performer and percussion player . Morrison had appeared in theatrical productions several times during his school and college years. Influenced by Antonin Artaud's conceptions or by Julian Beck's “Living Theater”, whose improvisational piece Paradise Now spontaneously encouraged the Doors singer to play along several times in February 1969, Morrison expanded the rock music repertoire to include forms of a “rock theater”. Epic concept pieces such as The End (1967), When the Music's Over (1967), The Unknown Soldier (1968), The Celebration of the Lizard (1965-68), Rock is Dead (1969) or The Soft Parade ( 1969), which contained both spoken and sung passages and sound effects. These pieces were particularly suitable for improvisational variations and aimed at intensive interaction with the audience:
“It was never in my mind that an audience should become as passive as it has become. I believe an audience should actively participate in what's going on. "
At live concerts, the singer regularly used the open concept pieces of the Doors as “an expandable fabric for his poetic pieces, fragments, small couplets and the things that were on the tip of his tongue.” In an interview in June 1969, Morrison highlighted the lack of self-sufficiency in the Doors- Songs and the possibility of associatively stringing together different set pieces during live performances and allowing them to merge into one another:
“I like to sing the blues - those free, long blues trips where there is no clear beginning and no end. It just goes into a groove and I can improvise. And everyone plays solo. I like that kind of song better than just a song. "
Morrison's characteristic technique of linking music with literary texts found its way into the Doors' studio albums in the form of recitative contributions such as Horse Latitudes (1967). One of the theatrical interludes of Morrison's stage appearances was an Indian ghost dance , which was based on the various allusions in his lyrics to Indian worlds (lizards, snakes, deserts, etc.). After Riordan / Prochnicky, Morrison was also the first rock performer in 1966 to drop into the audience (stage diving ).
In addition to Morrison's singing and lyrics, his literary and cinematic work received little attention. The rock star stated that the particular strength of poetry lies in its durability:
“People have been able to memorize words and combinations of words for as long as there have been. Nothing can survive a Holocaust but poems and songs. Nobody can memorize an entire novel. Nobody can describe a film, a sculpture, a painting. But as long as there are people, songs and poems can live on. "
In his extensive study of the poet Jim Morrison , Collmer judged that in comparison to his literary models, Morrison was “not at all a literary genius”, but that he had “occasionally produced notable literary achievements”. On the basis of daily impressions, Morrison regularly built up multi-layered meanings in his texts.
The influences on Morrison's literary work are manifold. In addition to set pieces of Native American cultures, his texts reflect suggestions from 19th century writers such as the natural mystic William Blake or the French symbolists Charles Baudelaire and Arthur Rimbaud . The authors of the Beat Generation of the 1950s such as Jack Kerouac (especially the "Beat novels" Unterwegs and Doctor Sax ) or Michael McClure , whose work was shaped by spontaneous creative forms and open compositional principles, left clear traces . Morrison adopted Indian, Aztec or Egyptian ciphers from Kerouac's works . The works of mythologist Joseph Campbell and social anthropologist James Frazer found expression in works such as The Celebration of the Lizard .
Morrison was the author of the aphoristic poetry book The Lords / Notes on Vision , which focused on "a romantic gender of people who have found a way to control their environment and their own lives" and film aesthetics. His second volume The New Creatures (1969) took up a quote from Paul ( 2 Cor 5:17 EU ) in the title. Both volumes of poetry were published together in hardcover by Simon & Schuster in April 1970 . In the same year, Morrison had the volume of poetry An American Prayer printed in a private print by Western Lithographers . Individual poems were printed in various American and British magazines ("16 Spec", "Circus", "Disc", "Eye", "The Los Angeles Image", " Rolling Stone ").
There were hardly any public readings because Morrison "found it quite hard to just read something so dryly." During his college days in St. Petersburg, Morrison first presented his own texts in 1961/62 in the Contemporary Café and himself on the ukulele accompanied. In May 1969, the visibly nervous Doors front man wore his lyrics both in the Sacramento State College Gallery (SacSC Gallery) as a guest Michael McClures and on two evenings in the cinema "Cinematheque 16" in Los Angeles at a benefit event of the US writer Norman Mailer . Also during a Jimi Hendrix concert at The Village Gate in New York on May 4, 1970, Morrison is said to have performed his own texts.
The singer recorded his own lyrics several times in recording studios. The first recording of 40 poems was probably made on June 8, 1969 in the Elektra Sound Recorders studio in Los Angeles and was partially released in 1978 on the poetry LP An American Prayer of the Doors. A second studio session, which included 22 partially unfinished texts by Morrison, was recorded on December 8, 1970 in the Village Recorders studio. Morrison's reputation as an American poète maudit was further strengthened by the poetry collections Wilderness - The Lost Writings of Jim Morrison (1988) and The American Night (1990), which were published after the singer's death (previously in German, An American Prayer , 1978, and Far Arden , 1985). In connection with the gradual publication of bequest texts since the 1980s, Morrison's metaphorical song texts and poems have repeatedly been the subject of literary studies. At the same time, the market value of Morrison autographs increased: a manuscript from The Celebration of the Lizard reached a price of $ 40,000 at a Christie’s auction in New York on February 4, 1998, and an LA Woman autograph changed to Berkshire on August 4, 2010 for 13,000 pounds sterling (about 16,000 euros) the owner and two of his Paris notebooks fetched prices of 140,000 and 200,000 dollars in 2007 and 2013, respectively.
Morrison had initially wanted to become a film director. During his studies in 1964/65 he produced two unconventional short films using assembly technology with fellow students Phil O'Leno and John DeBella. In his volume of poetry The Lords (1969), which is inspired by the writings of the classical philologist Norman O. Brown, Morrison portrayed cinema as the “most totalitarian of all art forms”. Cinema gives the viewer the impression that the pain of individuality is temporarily lifted be. In addition, the film corresponds most closely to everyday perception:
"I'm interested in film because for me in art it represents the closest possible approach to the real stream of consciousness - in dream life as well as in everyday perception of the world - that we have."
Together with the beat writer Michael McClure, whom Morrison met in Los Angeles in May 1967, the singer later worked on various unrealized film projects. In September 1968 both were planning a film adaptation of McClure's play The Beard (1965) in London , in which Morrison was to play the role of the outlaw and serial killer Billy the Kid . In the same year, Morrison appeared as an extra in Agnès Varda's US comedy Lions Love . Morrison's other film plans included McClure's mystical adventure novel The Adept (first published in 1971). Together, McClure and Morrison created a script version of the novel for MGM in 1970 , which comprised several hundred pages.
The short concert film A Feast of Friends , produced by Morrison and the Doors as "Document of this Era", won first prize in the "Documentary" category at the Atlanta International Film Festival in May 1969 and at numerous other film festivals in the same year shown, had limited success with audiences and critics alike. Manzarek, Krieger and Densmore distanced themselves from the film, much to Morrison's disappointment.
Morrison's best-known film project, which was shown to the public only on March 27, 1970 at the Queen Elisabeth Theater in Vancouver and again in Paris in 1993, is HWY: An American Pastoral . The poorly structured feature film fragment in the style of Direct Cinema , made between spring and summer 1969, shows strong deviations from the unfinished screenplay. Morrison financed his low-budget project through the production company "HiWay Productions", which was founded for this purpose, about a hitchhiker who kills his driver and steals his car in an inhospitable area. As a college student in 1962, Morrison hitchhiked a regular 150 miles from Tallahassee to see a friend in Clearwater. The film sequences filmed near Palm Springs in the Mojave Desert and in Los Angeles about the highway killer - a parricide cipher - were intended to raise additional funds with which the project could have been completed. At HWY , Morrison was supported by his friends Paul Ferrara, Frank Lisciandro and Babe Hill. The soundtrack was produced by pianist Fred Myrow, who was friends with Morrison. Reality overtook the film story in October 1969 with the cruel Tate / LaBianca murders committed by members of the Manson Family in Los Angeles. Excerpts from the HWY film material were only published in 2009 in Tom DiCillo's cinema documentary When You're Strange (German: The Doors: When You're Strange ).
In 1971, during his second stay in Paris, Morrison wanted to perform A Feast of Friends and HWY . Morrison worked on other film projects. As had happened several times since 1968, inquiries received in Paris to take on roles in feature films.
After Morrison's death
Despite his career with the Doors, which lasted only a few years, the rock star myth about Morrison has experienced several renaissance in connection with several movies (including Apocalypse Now 1979, The Doors 1991, Forrest Gump 1994 and When You're Strange 2009) and book publications. Six years after Morrison's death, the remaining Doors band members added music to a selection of poetry they had left behind, added old Doors live recordings and a sequence from the Morrison film HWY , and published them on the spoken word album An American Prayer in 1978 . The album ended with Remo Giazotto 's composition Adagio in G minor, inspired by Tomaso Albinoni . An American Prayer became the number one album on Billboard's Top Pop Catalog Albums in June 1995 and was the only Doors album to be nominated for a Grammy (Best Spoken Word Album) in the United States .
Also in 1978 was the documentary 20 hours with Patti Smith , in which the punk singer Patti Smith was filmed reading Morrison poems. In addition to Patti Smith, Morrison influenced various musicians and bands such as Scott Stapp from Creed , Iggy and the Stooges , Ian Curtis from Joy Division or Scott Weiland from the Stone Temple Pilots with his appearance and habitus of the revolting rock star .
The US director Francis Ford Coppola , who had visited the UCLA Film Institute together with Morrison, used Doors music in addition to Richard Wagner's Valkyries for the soundtrack of his anti-war film Apocalypse Now in 1979 . The opening sequence of the film was underlaid by Coppola with the song The End .
The first Morrison biography No One Here Gets Out Alive (German: No one comes here out alive ) by Jerry Hopkins and Danny Sugarman in 1980 with more than four million copies sold to a box office hit and led to a resurgence of interest in the late Doors -Singer. The title of Hopkins / Sugerman's rock star biography was borrowed from the Doors song Five To One (1968). In connection with Hopkins / Sugermans speculations about Morrison's survival, the genre of fictitious Morrison biographies and novels, the subject of which are the fictitious adventures of the “living on” Doors frontman, arose.
The American film director and Oscar winner Oliver Stone filmed the Morrison biography and the story of the band in 1990 under the title The Doors . The film, which was mainly based on the Morrison biography of Hopkins and Sugerman, contributed significantly to the posthumous image formation and consolidation of Morrisons. Actors like Richard Gere , Michael O'Keefe and John Travolta had shown an interest in the role of Morrison, which was eventually taken over by Val Kilmer . Meg Ryan played Pamela Courson. The British rock musicians Eric Burdon and Billy Idol as well as Robbie Krieger, John Densmore and Patricia Kennealy appeared in cameo appearances . The authenticity of Stone's cinematic portrait of Morrison as a modern shaman has been controversial. Stone hadn't seen the Doors live in Morrison's lifetime. While Kilmer's acting was critically acclaimed, the Doors members and friends of Morrisons attacked the portrayal of the singer as a runaway sociopath . Manzarek said after the film premiere that it was a good film that showed an American rock band, but never the Doors and certainly not Jim Morrison. The film ends with a recording of the grave in the Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris, for which a new Morrison bust was briefly placed on the grave.
Stone's feature film introduced a new generation of followers to Jim Morrison, whose enthusiasm for the rock icon took on at times bizarre forms in the 1990s. On the 20th anniversary of Jim Morrison's death in 1991, the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité , a barracked special unit of the French national police, had to intervene at the Père Lachaise cemetery . The special unit prevented Morrison fans, who had increasingly traveled from the former Eastern Bloc countries after the fall of the Iron Curtain , from breaking through the locked cemetery doors with a stolen car and from forcibly entering the cemetery. After the early death of the Nirvana singer Kurt Cobain in the spring of 1994, the construction of a club 27 was coined by the public media, to which several popular musicians with an excessive lifestyle and early death such as Jim Morrison and Cobain were assigned; a statistically significant accumulation of deaths in 27-year-old musicians, however, could not be empirically proven.
Even decades after the Doors singer's death, the reception of Morrison's songs and lyrics continues, such as a Morrison memorial inaugurated in Berlin-Baumschulenweg in 2003 , the late success of a US initiative to revise the Miami ruling before the Florida State pardon committee in December 2010, documenting a number of new releases in different languages, numerous samples of Doors songs by other bands, fan clubs, cover bands and the regular flow of visitors to Morrison's grave. In 2009, the first full-length cinema documentary about Morrison and the Doors was released under the title When You're Strange . The film by the American director Tom DiCillo tells the story of the band from its beginnings on Venice Beach in 1965 through the six studio albums to Jim Morrison's death in 1971 (speaker: Johnny Depp ). The feuilletons of the German-language newspapers discussed the “sensational documentary” mostly positively. The reviewer of the Süddeutsche Zeitung clearly differentiated DiCillo's approach from that of his predecessor: “When recording legendary songs, from ' Light my Fire ' to 'People are Strange', you are so close that Oliver Stone's 1991 feature film version is quite exalted , ridiculous and artificial. "
In November 2010, a graphic novel based on Morrison's biography was published in France . In May 2011 the Leipzig ballet director Mario Schröder choreographed and staged a ballet about Jim Morrison at the Leipzig Opera House . The new production in Leipzig followed on from an earlier Morrison ballet from January 2001 that Schröder had produced at the Mainfranken Theater in Würzburg . According to Jim Morrison, a giant lizard that existed 40 million years ago was named Barbaturex morrisoni in 2013 .
- The Collected Works of Jim Morrison. Poetry, Journals, Transcripts, and Lyrics. Harper Design, New York 2021, ISBN 978-0-06302-897-5 .
- Jim Morrison & The Doors - The Complete Lyrics . Edited and translated by Heinz Gerstenmeyer. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1992 (new editions: 2000, 2004), ISBN 3-88814-467-1 .
- The American Night . German translation by Barbara Jung and Sabine Saßmann. Maro, Augsburg 1991, ISBN 978-3-87512-206-0 .
- An American Prayer / An American Prayer and other poems . Edited and translated by Reinhard Fischer and Werner Reimann. Kramer, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-87956-098-6
- Distant Arden. Far Arden . Edited and translated by Werner Reimann. Kramer, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-87956-173-7 .
- The lords and the new creatures. Texts and poems on film, vision, alchemy and magic . Edited and translated by Reinhard Fischer and Werner Reimann. Kramer, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-87956-078-1 .
- The Lords - The Lord Gods. Notes on vision - notes to see . New translation, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-945980-09-5 ( PDF ).
- Wilderness. The Lost Writings of Jim Morrison . Translated by Karin Graf , afterword by Arman Sahihi. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-88814-337-3 .
- Thomas Collmer : Arrows against the sun. The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro-Verlag, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-87512-148-1 ; revised, updated & expanded new edition ibid. 1997, ISBN 3-87512-149-X ; 2. (…) New edition ibid. 2002, ISBN as before; 3rd revised edition with a long afterword in 2 volumes, ibid. 2009, ISBN 978-3-87512-154-4
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, ISBN 1-59240-099-X (paperback), ISBN 1-59240-064-7 (hardcover)
- John Densmore : Riders on the Storm: My Life with Jim Morrison and the Doors . Hannibal, Innsbruck 2001, ISBN 3-85445-066-4 (English: Riders on the Storm - My Life With Jim Morrison And The Doors . Delacorte Press, New York 1990, ISBN 0-385-30033-6 )
- The Doors with Ben Fong-Torres: The Doors: The Band's Illustrated Authorized Biography . Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-89602-785-6 (English: The Doors . Hyperion, New York 2006, ISBN 1-4013-0303-X , ISBN 978-1-4013-0303-7 )
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The King of the Lizards: The Definitive Biography and the Big Interviews. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-88814-673-9 (English: The Lizard King - The Essential Jim Morrison . Charles Scribner's Sons / Macmillan, New York 1992, ISBN 0-684-19524-0 )
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman : Nobody gets out of here alive. The Jim Morrison biography . Heyne, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-453-19784-4 (English: No One Here Gets Out Alive . Warner Books, New York 1980, ISBN 0-446-97133-2 , German first edition: Maro Verlag, Augsburg 1981, ISBN 3 -87512-050-7 )
- Dylan Jones: Jim Morrison. Poet and rock rebel. Wilhelm Heyne, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-453-07554-4 . (English original edition: Jim Morrison. Dark Star. Bloomsbury Publishing, London 1990; With numerous black and white photographs and bibliography)
- Patricia Kennealy-Morrison : Strange Days, my life with Jim Morrison . Egmont, Copenhagen 1998, ISBN 3-8025-2522-1 (English: Strange Days - My Life With And Without Jim Morrison . Dutton Books / Plume / Penguin Group, New York 1992)
- Frank Lisciandro: Hour of Magic . Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-88814-715-8 (English: Jim Morrison - An hour for magic . Delilah Communications, New York. 1982 ISBN 0-933328-22-2 )
- Ray Manzarek : The Doors, Jim Morrison and I: My life with the Doors. Hannibal, Vienna 1999, ISBN 978-3-85445-165-5 (English: Light My Fire - My Life with The Doors . GP Putnam's Sons, New York 1998, ISBN 0-399-14399-8 )
- Rainer Moddemann: The Doors . 2nd revised edition. Heel, Königswinter 2001 (first edition: Heel, Königswinter 1991), ISBN 3-89365-927-7
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through. The Life and Death of Jim Morrison . William Morrow, New York 1991, ISBN 0-688-08829-5
- A Feast of Friends (1968/69, DVD 2014), directed by Paul Ferrara
- HWY: An American Pastoral (1969) directed by Jim Morrison, Paul Ferrara
- The Doors Are Open (1968, DVD 2014), directed by John Sheppard
- The Doors: Live in Europe 1968 (1968, DVD 1998), directed by Paul Justman, Ray Manzarek et al.
- Live at the Hollywood Bowl (1968, DVD 2001), directed by Ray Manzarek
- The Doors: A Tribute to Jim Morrison (1981)
- The Doors: Dance on Fire (1985, DVD 2001), directed by Ray Manzarek
- The Soft Parade, a Retrospective (1991, DVD 2001), directed by Ray Manzarek
- The Doors - Legends (1997), VH1, producer: Mary Wharton, narrator: Henry Rollins
- Jim Morrison: The Final 24 (2006), Discovery Channel, Global Television Network, Oprah Winfrey Network, directed by Mike Parkinson
- The Doors: When You're Strange (2009), directed by Tom DiCillo
- The Doors: R-Evolution (2013)
Doors feature film
- The Doors (1991, DVD 2002), feature film by Oliver Stone with Val Kilmer and Meg Ryan
- Literature by and about Jim Morrison in the catalog of the German National Library
- Jim Morrison in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Jim Morrison at Discogs
- Earlier studies commercials from Florida State University with Jim Morrison (English)
- doors-online.de , oldest German-speaking Doors website
- Doors Fanclub / Doors Quarterly Magazine Online (37 issues between 1983 and 1999) (English and German)
- seelenkueche.com , German Doors fan project
- Mike Clifford: The new illustrated Rock Handbook . Salamander Books, London 1986, p. 67.
- The Doors with Ben Fong-Torres: The Doors: The Illustrated Authorized Biography of the Band . Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2007, p. 10.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 7-8. - Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody can get out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 14-15.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 28.
- Ray Manzarek: Light My Fire. My Life with the Doors . Century, London 1998, pp. 270-271.
- addition, in detail Mark Opasasnick: The Lizard King Was Here: The Life and Times of Jim Morrison in Alexandria, Virginia . Xlibris, Philadelphia 2006.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 41, 47. - See www.signonsandiego.com: George "Steve" Morrison; rear admiral flew combat missions in lengthy career . Retrieved August 25, 2009.
- Jim Morrison: The Scream of the Butterfly / The Scream of the Butterfly. Pictures, poems, texts . Compiled by Daniel Dreier. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich [a. a.] 1996, p. 13.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, p. 20.
- Jim Morrison: The Scream of the Butterfly / The Scream of the Butterfly . Compiled by Daniel Dreier. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich [a. a.] 1996, p. 14.
- Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 2009, p. 10.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 197.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 64-67. - Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 56-57, 60-62.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 163-164.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 75.
- Ray Manzarek: Light My Fire . Century, London 1998, pp. 54-55.
- Rainer Moddemann: The Doors . 2nd revised special edition. Heel, Königswinter 2001, p. 118.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 204.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 68, 74.
- John Densmore: Riders on the Storm: My Life with Jim Morrison and the Doors . Hannibal, Innsbruck 2001, pp. 44, 72.
- Ray Manzarek: Light My Fire . Century, London 1998, p. 183. - In detail Patricia Butler: Angels Dance And Angels Die: The Tragic Romance of Pamela and Jim Morrison . Schirmer Books, Farmington Hills 1998.
- Brian Hinton: Celtic Crossroads: The Art of Van Morrison. Sanctuary, London 1997, p. 67 [translation: Wikipedia]. - See Ray Manzarek: Light My Fire . Century, London 1998, pp. 189-190.
- John Densmore: Riders on the Storm: My Life with Jim Morrison and the Doors . Hannibal, Innsbruck 2001, p. 79.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 192, p. 203.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 126-127.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 116, 167, 171.
- Greg Shaw: The Doors On The Road . Omnibus Press, London 1997, p. 24.
- In the same year, the Doors made various other television appearances on US television, the following year they made recordings for British, German and Danish television stations, as well as a lavish appearance on December 15, 1968 in the CBS sitcom "The Smothers Brothers Show" with orchestra accompaniment. Only after the Miami incident did the television stations lose interest - apart from their last Doors appearances on June 25, 1969 on the show "Critique" ( PBS ) and on August 1, 1970 on "The Now Explosion" (WPIX-NY) on a singer who now had to answer to the judiciary.
- Excerpts from an Elektra press release from 1967. Reprinted in Danny Sugerman: The Doors. The Illustrated History . Quill / William Morrow, New York 1983, p. 9. - Translation: Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 232.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, p. 126 [translation: Wikipedia].
- Statement from the Miami trial of September 1970, quoted from Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - the poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 2009, p. 885 [translation: Wikipedia].
- Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 2009, p. 85.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, p. 151. - See, however, the “Los Angeles Free Press” interview, January 1971, in Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, pp. 231–244, here p. 243.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 223.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 142-144.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 240. - James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 209, 305, 375.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 202.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 55, 246.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 163-165.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 259-263.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 246.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, pp. 231–244, here p. 237.
- After the ZDF recorded two Doors songs for the show " 4-3-2-1 Hot & Sweet " on September 13, 1968 at Römerberg , the band performed twice the following day in the (now demolished) congress hall in Frankfurt on the Main.
- Greg Shaw: The Doors On The Road . Omnibus Press, London 1997, p. 134. Rumors reported by other authors such as Moddemann that Morrison was involved in the background vocals for the song (“On this recording, Jim sang along with the background vocals, but his voice became almost Made inaudible because they feared legal involvement. "Rainer Moddemann: The Doors . Heel, Königswinter 2001, p. 58.), Shaw describes as" unfounded and highly unlikely ".
- Ray Manzarek: Light My Fire . Century, London 1998, pp. 305-309. - James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 270-271. However, two years earlier, in the spring of 1966, the Doors had already recorded improvised instrumental music for the 25-minute customer relations film Love Thy Customer by Ford (Director: David Bowen) (see: The Doors: R-Evolution . London: Eagle Rock Entertainment 2013 [DVD booklet]).
- This position was represented by Elektra founder Jac Holzmann, who led the negotiations with Buick, in his biography: Jac Holzman, Gavan Daws: Follow the Music: The Life and High Times of Elektra Records in the Great Years of American Pop Culture . FirstMedia Books, Santa Monica 2000, p. 283. - Likewise, Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 297. - In contrast, Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 177. - Greg Shaw: The Doors On The Road . Omnibus Press, London 1997, p. 134.
- The warrior song was originally called Hit Me , but Morrison had insisted on changing the name to Touch Me , "because he feared that people would take it literally when the song was performed on stage." S. Rainer Moddemann: The Doors . 2nd revised special edition. Heel, Königswinter 2001, p. 63.
- Greg Shaw: The Doors On The Road . Omnibus Press, London 1997, pp. 150-154.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 235.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, p. 306.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, pp. 206-207.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 292, 308.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 324. - James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 398-419. - Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 185-196.
- Ray Manzarek: Light My Fire . Century, London 1998, p. 331. - In contrast, James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 271-272, 306.
- John Densmore: Riders on the Storm: My Life with Jim Morrison and the Doors . Hannibal, Innsbruck 2001, p. 173.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 216.
- John Densmore: Riders on the Storm: My Life with Jim Morrison and the Doors . Hannibal, Innsbruck 2001, p. 209.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 353-354.
- Patricia Kennealy Morrison: Strange Days: My Life With and Without Jim Morrison . Harper Collins, London 1998 (= Harper Collins, London 1992), pp. 211-224.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 215.
- Greg Shaw: The Doors On The Road . Omnibus Press, London 1997, p. 205.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, p. 315.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, p. 417.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 225, see, p. 236.
- US Justice Rehabilitated Jim Morrison. In: Spiegel Online , December 10, 2010.
- Rainer Moddemann: The Doors . 2nd revised special edition. Heel, Königswinter 2001, p. 127.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 220.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 415.
- Michelle Young: The Apartment in Paris Where Jim Morrison Died at 17 Rue Beautreillis. untappedcities.com, July 1, 2014, accessed December 1, 2014 .
- Jim Morrison: The Mysterious Death of the Doors Singer. In: RollingStone. November 12, 2020, accessed February 21, 2021 .
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 420.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 303-310, here pp. 307, 309.
- Danny Sugerman: Wonderland Avenue: Tales of Glamor and Excess . Sidgwick & Jackson, London 1989.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 457-472, here pp. 457-460.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 442-459.
- Daniel Martin: Marianne Faithfull reveals: My ex-lover killed Jim Morrison. In: Express , August 9, 2014.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, p. 305.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 305-306. - On suspicion of drugs, see in particular Bob Seymore: The End: The Death of Jim Morrison . Palmyra, Heidelberg 1993, pp. 122-123, 127-128. - James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, pp. 450-453. - Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 450-451. - Particularly on the omitted autopsy: Heinz Gerstenmeyer: The mysterious death of Jim Morrison . Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2009, p. 126.
- Hervé Muller: Jim Morrison - Mort ou vif . Ramsay, Paris 1991. - Bob Seymore: The End - The Death Of Jim Morrison . Omnibus Press, London 1991. - Hervé Muller: Jim Morrison au-delà des Doors . Editions Albin Michel, Paris 1993. - Jan-Erik Hubele: Between heaven and hell . Kramer, Berlin 2000. - Sam Bernett: The End: Jim Morrison . Editions Privé 2007. - Heinz Gerstenmeyer: The mysterious death of Jim Morrison . Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2009.
- Bob Seymore: The End: The Death of Jim Morrison . Palmyra, Heidelberg 1993, pp. 98-118, 144-155 (English: The End - The Death Of Jim Morrison . Omnibus Press, London 1991).
- See Sam Bernett: The End: Jim Morrison . Editions Privé, 2007 (French). See also How Jim Morrison Died . In: Time
- Heinz Gerstenmeyer: The mysterious death of Jim Morrison . Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2009, pp. 48–130, here pp. 111–112, 128–129. - On the assumption of a late date of death see Bob Seymore: The End: The Death of Jim Morrison . Palmyra, Heidelberg 1993, p. 122.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, p. 458. - Translation by Heinz Gerstenmeyer: The mysterious death of Jim Morrison . Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2009, p. 181.
- “Situation de sépulture” of Jim Morrison's grave, Père Lachaise, February 1972 , accessed on January 17, 2016
- Peter Jan Margry: The Pilgrimage to Jim Morrison's Grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery: The Social Construction of Sacred Space . In ders. (Ed.): Shrines and Pilgrimage in the Modern World. New Itineraries into the Sacred. Amsterdam University Press 2008, pp. 143–171, here p. 149.
- Siegfried Schmidt-Joos , Wolf Kampmann: Rock-Lexikon 2 . Rowohlt, Reinbek 2008, p. 1160.
- Peter Jan Margry: The Pilgrimage to Jim Morrison's Grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery . In ders. (Ed.): Shrines and Pilgrimage in the Modern World. Amsterdam University Press 2008, pp. 143–171, here p. 170, footnote 12.
- Stig Söderholm: Liskokuninkaan mytologia: rituaali ja rocksankarin kuolema. Jim Morrison-cult etnografinen tulkinta . Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki 1990, p. 303, quoted from Peter Jan Margry: The Pilgrimage to Jim Morrison's Grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery . In ders. (Ed.): Shrines and Pilgrimage in the Modern World. Amsterdam University Press 2008, pp. 143–171, here p. 148.
- Peter Jan Margry: The Pilgrimage to Jim Morrison's Grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery . In ders. (Ed.): Shrines and Pilgrimage in the Modern World. Amsterdam University Press 2008, pp. 143-171, here pp. 158, 168-169. - See Patricia Fournier, Luis Arturo Jiménez: Representaciones e interpretaciones del chamanismo en el rock clásico: el caso de Jim Morrison y The Doors . In: Patricia Fournier, Walburga Wiesheu (ed.): Arqueologia y Anropologia de las Religiones . Mexico City: Escuela Nacional de Antropología 2005, pp. 293-314. - Jeannie Banks Thomas: Communicative Commemoration and Graveside Shrines: Princess Diana, Jim Morrison, My "Bro" Max, and Boogs the Cat . In: Spontaneous Shrines and the Public Memorialization of Death . Edited by J. Santino. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan 2006, pp. 17-40.
- Rainer M. Holm-Hadulla :, Alina Bertolino Creativity, alcohol and drug abuse: the pop-icon Jim Morrison . In: Psychopathology , 2014, 47, pp. 167-173, doi: 10.1159 / 000354617 .
- Slightly hoarse tenor-baritone . In: Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: No One Here Gets Out Alive . Warner Books, New York, 1980, p. 82.
- Jim Morrison in the Los Angeles Free Press interview, January 1971; see Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, pp. 231–244, here p. 239.
- Karin Riedl: artist shamans. On the appropriation of the shaman concept with Jim Morrison and Joseph Beuys. transcript, Bielefeld 2014. ISBN 978-3-8376-2683-4 , p. 122 f. (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
- Wilderness. The Lost Writings of Jim Morrison . Penguin, London 1988, p. 211.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 224.
- Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 2009, p. 117.
- Wilderness. The Lost Writings of Jim Morrison . Penguin, London 1988, p. 2.
- Glenn D. Walters: Jim Morrison, Pop Culture's Tragic Hero: A Lifestyle Analysis . In: Glenn D. Walters: Lifestyle theory: past, present, and future . Nova Publishers, Hauppauge 2006, pp. 63-86, here p. 74, pp. 77-78.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, pp. 175, 183 [translation: Wikipedia].
- 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. In: Rolling Stone . December 2, 2010, accessed August 9, 2017 .
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, p. 123.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, p. 76 [translation: Wikipedia]. - See Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 183.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, p. 88 [translation: Wikipedia].
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 88.
- James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992, p. 122.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 192.
- The American Night. The Writings of Jim Morrison . Viking, London 1990, p. 208.
- Ray Manzarek: Light My Fire . Century, London 1998, pp. 77-78.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 43.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, p. 134.
- Jim Morrison in the Los Angeles Free Press interview, January 1971, in Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, pp. 231–244, here p. 242.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 133 [translation: Wikipedia].
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 199.
- After Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 2009, p. 101 [There without the original literature reference].
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993, p. 198.
- Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 2009, p. 65.
- Jim Morrison in the Los Angeles Free Press interview, January 1971; see Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993. pp. 231–244, here p. 241.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993. p. 193 [Morrison quote from the WNET show "Critique", May 23, 1969].
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004. pp. 32-33.
- Greg Shaw: The Doors On The Road . Omnibus Press, London 1997. p. 162. Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004. p. 330.
- Rainer Moddemann: The Doors . 2nd revised special edition. Heel, Königswinter 2001. p. 128.
- Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 1994 (new editions 1997, 2002 and 2009). - Wallace Fowlie: Rimbaud and Jim Morrison. The Rebel as Poet. A memoir. Duke University Press 1994. - Hans-Peter Rodenberg: Subversive Fantasy: Investigations into the poetry of the American counterculture 1960-1975. Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, Bob Dylan, Leonard Cohen, Jim Morrison . Focus, Giessen 1983. - Viktória Sereg: Jim Morrison - The Poet and the Singer. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Saarbrücken 2008. - Tracey Simpson: L'intertextualité de l'œuvre poétique de Jim Morrison . Univ., Diss., Pau 1997.
- Siegfried Schmidt-Joos, Wolf Kampmann: Rock-Lexikon 1 . Rowohlt, Reinbek 2008. p. 492.
- The Doors: R-Evolution . London: Eagle Rock Entertainment 2013 [DVD booklet].
- Jim Morrison memorabilia: The 10 most valuable items. justcollecting.com, accessed February 27, 2021 .
- Often only a single film is reported: James Riordan, Jerry Prochnicky: Break on Through . Quill, New York 1992. pp. 65-66. - Ray Manzarek: Light My Fire . Century, London 1998. pp. 54-60, 65-66.
- Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 2009, p. 97.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993. p. 201.
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 170–171, 228. - Thomas Collmer: Arrows against the sun - The poet Jim Morrison and his role models . Maro, Augsburg 2009, p. 538.
- Rainer Moddemann: The Doors . 2nd revised special edition. Heel, Königswinter 2001. p. 60.
- Jim Morrison: The Hitchhiker (An American Pastoral). In: The American Night. The Writings of Jim Morrison . Viking, London 1990, pp. 69-82.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004. p. 35.
- The American Night. The Writings of Jim Morrison . Viking, London 1990, p. 207.
- HWY on Youtube
- Jerry Hopkins, Daniel Sugerman: Nobody gets out of here alive . 3. Edition. Heyne, Munich 1991, pp. 270-271.
- An extensive Finnish study on rock idol culture deals primarily with Jim Morrison: Stig Söderholm: Liskokuninkaan mytologia: rituaali ja rocksankarin kuolema. Jim Morrison-cult etnografinen tulkinta . Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki 1990.
- This genre includes, among others, Craig Strete : Us Burns the Night: A Novel with Jim Morrison. March, Berlin and others 1983. Mike Farren: Jim Morrison's Adventures in the Afterlife . St. Martin's Press, New York NY 1999. - Ineke Verheul: The Tenth Life of Jim Morrison . Private press, Utrecht 1999. - Ray Manzarek: The Poet in Exile: A Journey Into the Mystic . Avalon, New York 2001. Marshal Lawrence Pierce III: The Lost Diaries of Jim Morrison . Wasteland Press, Shelbyville, KY 2003. - Jürgen Kaizik: Me and the other . Braumüller, Vienna 2021.
- Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993. p. 172.
- See for example Jerry Hopkins: Jim Morrison. The king of the lizards. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1993. pp. 174-178.
- The Doors - Pere Lachaise. (No longer available online.) The-doors-world.com, archived from the original on October 6, 2010 ; accessed on December 1, 2014 .
- Riot Rocks Remembrance. In: The Washington Post , July 5, 1991. p. B3.
- Jim Morrison Fans Riot at Paris Cemetery. In: San Francisco Chronicle , July 5, 1991.
- Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend . Gotham, New York 2004, p. 470.
- Thomas Groß: Waste your virtue. In: Die Zeit , No. 27/2010, p. 52.
- Anke Sternborg: Young God at the gas pump. A time travel trip: The film "The Doors - When you're strange" by Tom DiCillo . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , July 3, 2010, p. 13.
- Frédéric Bertocchini, Jef: Jim Morrison. Poète du Chaos . Emmanuel Proust, Paris 2010, ISBN 2-84810-307-8 . - German translation: Frédéric Bertocchini and Jef: Jim Morrison - Poet des Chaos . Splitter Verlag, Bielefeld 2011, ISBN 3-86869-337-8 .
- Kerstin Leppich: Ballet premiere: acclaimed Mario Schröder's "Morrison" at the Leipzig Opera. In: Leipziger Volkszeitung , May 16, 2011, accessed on October 7, 2016.
- Nina Weber: Giant lizard named after Doors singer. In: Spiegel Online , June 5, 2013, accessed November 17, 2013.
- A Feast of Friends in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- HWY: An American Pastoral in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- The Doors in the Internet Movie Database (English)
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Morrison, James Douglas|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American rock 'n' roll singer and lyric poet|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 8, 1943|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Melbourne (Florida)|
|DATE OF DEATH||3rd July 1971|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Paris , France|