Psychedelic rock

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Psychedelic rock

Development phase: 1965
Place of origin: United Kingdom , USA
Stylistic precursors
Rock 'n' Roll , Rhythm and Blues , Jazz , Classical Music
The Beatles , The Byrds , The Doors , Grateful Dead , Jefferson Airplane , The Jimi Hendrix Experience , Pink Floyd , Vanilla Fudge , 13th Floor Elevators
Instruments typical of the genre
Electronic organ - electric guitar - electric bass - drums - string instruments - wind instruments
Related topics
Hippie - Psychedelic Art - 1960s

Psychedelic rock is a variety of rock music that developed in Britain and the United States around 1965 . It asserted itself as one of the major components of western pop culture . The heyday lasted until the late 1960s , but many musicians often picked up elements of it again later. To this day there are psychedelic bands around the world. The main common features of the performers involved are the use of unusual and novel sounds as well as the sometimes experimental handling of song structures that were previously kept simple.


The term psychedelic was co- invented by Humphry Osmond and Aldous Huxley and describes the effects of hallucinogenic drugs on human perception. The term psychedelic was first mentioned in Osmond's Abstract A Review of the Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents from 1957 and has since established itself in psychiatry .

Instead of psychedelic rock , the term acid rock was often used in allusion to the drug LSD , as was the slightly modified spelling psychedelia . You can find terms like sixties psychedelia or neo-psychedelia . The short form Psych was also frequently used . In German-speaking countries, the technical term was often incorrectly Germanized as Psychodelic or Psychodelic . There were always ambitions to split the style into categories. For some extreme psychedelic rock bands, the acid punk category was invented in 1978 . There were also categories like raga rock , based on Indian raga music , or space rock .

The earliest known use of the term psychedelic in popular music is found on a version of the hesitation blues by the folk duo The Holy Modal Rounders on their first record from 1964.


1960–1964: The musical situation in the USA

Psychedelic Rock has its origins in the Bay Area around San Francisco and goes hand in hand with the development of the hippie movement as a counterculture. In the early 1960s, folk music, almost exclusively acoustically orchestrated, dominated San Francisco. The musicians played in the countless cafés and bars of the city. The folk wave in San Francisco was carried by the remains of the beatniks who settled in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood. Folk music, also known as the American Folk Music Revival , was popular in bohemian circles in other major cities in the USA . In the vicinity of San Francisco there were many small music labels whose bands were largely unnoticed based on rock 'n' roll of the fifties or surf music in the style of the nationally popular Beach Boys . In addition to the Beach Boys and some folk musicians, the girl groups and the poppy soul of the Motown label were represented in the charts . A turning point came with the British Invasion . The forerunners in the USA were the Beau Brummels and the Byrds , who dressed as mods and copied the sound of the British bands The Beatles and The Searchers with a 12-string electric guitar from Rickenbacker . In the spring of 1965, the Byrds reached number one on the Billboard charts with one of their first folk rock pieces, Mr. Tambourine Man , a cover version by Bob Dylan . The electrification of the folk scene favored the development of psychedelic rock.

1965: A musical niche culture flourishes

On June 29, 1965, the American band The Charlatans gave their first concert in the Red Dog Saloon in Virginia City ( Nevada ). The band member George Hunter created the first "psychedelic" poster, also called Seed , which was clearly inspired by Art Nouveau . These graphically complex concert posters were to become an important accompaniment to psychedelic rock. Bill Ham designed a light show for the Charlatans' appearance in the Red Dog Saloon . His equipment included z. B. overhead projectors on which various kinetic materials were used. His goal was to project an independently moving "light painting" onto the wall. Elaborately designed light shows were another feature that should accompany psychedelic rock. The style of music of the Charlatans differed from the folk or folk rock customary at the time. They sounded like an American version of the Rolling Stones and were reportedly the first rock band to give a concert under the influence of LSD. The Charlatans were an important band in the development of the San Francisco sound and psychedelic rock.

In July 1965, Jim Morrison and Ray Manzarek met in Los Angeles . A few months later, their decision to make music together led to the formation of the band The Doors . The band's name refers to the poet William Blake : “If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite” , translated into German: “If the gates of perception were cleaned, everything would appear to people as it is: infinite ” . Aldous Huxley quoted this phrase from Blake in his book The Doors of Perception , which The Doors presumably used as a source.

In Great Britain, the single See my Friends by The Kinks was released on July 30th , which reached number 10 as the highest chart position. The piece was directly influenced by traditional Indian music . A stopover in Mumbai during a trip to Australia and New Zealand in January 1965 inspired singer Ray Davies to write this composition . The Yardbirds also experimented with Indian instrumentation while recording Heartful of Soul . Your producer Giorgo Gomelski had invited tabla and sitar players to the recordings, but they remained unpublished at the time.

The single The Trip by Kim Fowley was released in the USA , lyrically a homage to LSD. Some regulars at the Red Dog Saloon founded the activist group The Family Dog in Haight-Ashbury . These included Luria Castell, Ellen Harman, and Alton Kelley . They organized a concert in Longshoremen's Hall on October 16, modeled on the Red Dog Saloon , which featured the Charlatans, The Great Society and Jefferson Airplane . The light show was designed by Bill Ham. A week later, another Family Dog event took place with the Charlatans and folk rock band The Lovin 'Spoonful . It was around this time that Stanley "Mouse" Miller joined Family Dog . Alton Kelley and Stanley Mouse successfully designed psychedelic concert posters and record covers in the future .

On November 27th, Ken Kesey launched the first acid test (LSD test). These involved lavish parties that were initially organized in La Honda , a country estate near San Francisco, and later in other locations by Kesey. Whoever wanted to be part of it had to dress crazy and pay one US dollar entrance fee. For this you could drink as much orange juice mixed with LSD as you wanted. The acid tests developed into a multimedia show with several films running at the same time, a light show with stroboscopes and spotlights with color filters and live music. During the second acid test in December 1965, a folk rock band called The Warlocks performed, later known as the Grateful Dead .

The Beatles released the album Rubber Soul on December 3, 1965 . George Harrison played a sitar on the Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown) track on the album . Sitar sounds, if only simulated with an electric guitar, and other Indian instruments, as well as Indian-sounding melodies subsequently became a fad.

1966: The multimedia style prevails

In Haight-Ashbury was on January 3, the first Head Shop , The Psychedelic Shop opened. In addition to science fiction literature, the business sold books by Hermann Hesse (e.g. Der Steppenwolf and Siddhartha ), Aldous Huxley , Timothy Leary , Alan Watts , as well as books on Far Eastern religions and occultism . There were also products from the burgeoning underground culture such as comics, magazines, art and smoking accessories. The Psychedelic Shop became a central point of contact for the scene. Towards the end of January 1966, the three-day Trips Festival took place in Longshorement's Hall in San Francisco . The Grateful Dead performed, which would become famous for their wild improvisations and excessive guitar solos during their live performances. Another part of the festival was the eighth acid test . The multimedia festival was considered an important event of the psychedelic movement in California due to its length, the scope of the performances and the number of visitors .

Chet Helms , a loose member of the activist group The Family Dog , founded the Family Dog Productions agency in early February and organized a large number of concerts in the San Francisco area under this trademark until 1970. In the same month, The Yardbirds released the single Shapes of Things . When recording this piece, guitarist Jeff Beck imitated the sound of a sitar with an electric guitar and a fuzz box . The Byrds recorded a second version of Eight Miles High , which was released in March. What was remarkable about this piece was the hectic, John Coltrane influenced, modal guitar playing.

The artist Andy Warhol , on April 8 under the name Exploding Plastic Inevitable a series of shows in the East Village section of New York . The band The Velvet Underground performed. The band members were dressed completely in black and wore dark sunglasses to avoid being blinded by the light show. On May 1, the show had a three-day stint in San Francisco. The light show consisted of a mirror ball , which was illuminated by spots with color filters. Static Warhol films such as Sleep and Empire State Building were shown , while The Velvet Underground sang about sadomasochism and heroin addiction . A dancer performed a performance with a whip. Commenting on the Exploding Plastic Inevitable in San Francisco, Charles Perry said :

“Well, that's what happened in New York: heroin, perversion, arrogance, stasis. Nothing groundbreaking other than realizing that San Francisco might not be so provincial after all. The psychedelic crowd went home relieved of the burden of keeping track of possible events that were happening elsewhere. "

- Charles Perry

The refusal was based on mutuality, because the singer and guitarist of the Velvet Underground was no less cautious:

“We had a very clear opinion of the San Francisco scene. She was boring, a lie, and untalented. You know, people like Jefferson Airplane, Grateful Dead were just the most untalented bores there has ever been. "

On May 16, the Rolling Stones released Paint It Black , which contained psychedelic elements. The guitarist Brian Jones played the sitar here. Just a few days later, the Beach Boys released the album Pet Sounds . In addition to the instruments commonly used in rock music until then, Brian Wilson used a theremin as well as harpsichords , flutes and church organs as additional instrumentation. Noises such as B. bicycle bells, recordings of passing trains and barking dogs. For the Beach Boys it was a departure from their previous compositional technique, which was based on the simpler structures of rock 'n' roll. The Pet Sounds album was far more complex in terms of the arrangements and compositions. It reached number 2 in the UK charts and 10 in the US as its highest position.

The Beatles released the album Revolver on August 5th . It contained several psychedelic pieces, of which Tomorrow Never Knows was the most extraordinary. The composer John Lennon quoted the Tibetan Book of the Dead in the text , using Timothy Leary's The Psychedelic Experience as a source. A variety of effects and studio tricks were used during recording. Loops were used which were based on ideas from Paul McCartney . He began to experiment with tapes after hearing the electronic composition Gesang der Jünglinge im Feuerofen by Karlheinz Stockhausen . Lennon's singing was electronically altered to sound, as he put it, as if he were the Dalai Lama singing on a mountain top.

The band The Electric Prunes released the single I Had Too Much to Dream (Last Night) in September 1966, which reached number 11 on the American Billboard charts and number 49 in the UK. The band used effects like reverb , fuzzbox, delay and backward running guitar solos during the recording , which gave the piece a dreamlike, strange atmosphere.

A fundraising event for the Free School in Notting Hill was held at All Saints Hall in London on October 14th . The Americans Joel and Tony Brown from Timothy Leary's Millbrook Center put on a light show, as was usual in the USA, while the band Pink Floyd played on the stage . With its bright colors and curved lines, the poster for the event also showed clear parallels to developments in the Bay Area. Pink Floyd were an unknown group at the time, but were already among the main players in the growing psychedelic underground culture in Great Britain.

In the fall of that year, the first two albums were released with the word Psychedelic in their title: The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators by the 13th Floor Elevators and Psychedelic Moods by The Deep . A little later the album Psychedelic Lollipop from the Blues Magoos followed .

1967: From underground to the charts

1967 began with the Doors being published. Their album with the simple title The Doors contained the nearly twelve-minute piece The End , which exuded an unusually dark atmosphere. The lyrics sung by Jim Morrison played with the subject of the Oedipus complex and dealt with madness, incest and parricide. The piece was also the subject of censorship by the record company Elektra , who insisted on removing the word " Fuck " from the lyrics. The piece Break on Through (To the Other Side) of the same album was also censored. The record company insisted on deleting the word "high" in the line of text "She gets high" (Eng: she is intoxicated ). The Doors' texts stood less for the romanticization of experiences under the influence of drugs, but rather were directed against social repression as a combative approach despite their surreality. The difference becomes clear with the release of Jefferson Airplane's album Surrealistic Pillow a month later. It includes the track White Rabbit , which was also released as a single later in June and peaked at # 8 in the US. In the text by White Rabbit, Grace Slick draws parallels between the experiences in the drug intoxication and the work Alice in Wonderland and the sequel Alice behind the mirrors by Lewis Carroll . A carefree and similarly transfigured dream world was created by John Lennon in Strawberry Fields Forever , published by The Beatles in February.

On March 11th, Arnold Layne , Pink Floyd's first single , was released . The band had meanwhile become a kind of house band of the UFO Club in London. In addition to live music and films, the UFO Club offered B. Andy Warhol and Kenneth Anger also readings, light shows and dance performances. This is where the London scene gathered and formed the center of the underground culture based on the American model. The club was also the organizer of the 14 Hour Technicolor Dream which took place on April 29, 1967 in London. It was the first major multimedia show in London with live music from Pink Floyd, Soft Machine , The Crazy World of Arthur Brown , The Pretty Things , John's Children and Social Deviants .

Also in the UK, the single was released in March Purple Haze by Jimi Hendrix Experience and reached there is room 3. Purple Haze designated an LSD pill of double thickness with a printed owl and was designed by Owsley Stanley made specifically for Hendrix. The single was released in the US only three months later, almost at the same time as Hendrix's album Are You Experienced? . The album peaked at number 5 in the US and number 2 in the UK. The title track confused the listener with backward running guitar and drum loops and was the most unusual track on the album.

The development of psychedelic rock - despite many parallels - was different in Great Britain than in the USA. While underground culture gradually grew in popularity in the United States from San Francisco, popular British music groups such as For example, the Beatles picked up on this trend themselves and helped to shape it, but the right underground culture in Great Britain took some time to develop. One reason for this was the radio stations in Great Britain, which were primarily focused on playing the top 40 from the hit lists. That only changed in May when the popular pirate broadcaster Wonderful Radio London broadcast The Perfumed Garden . The presenter John Peel , who had just returned to London from his stay in Los Angeles , played a mixture of folk, folk-rock, blues and psychedelic rock off the charts on his show . This improved the flow of information about musical developments in the USA. And so unknown British bands also got the chance to be broadcast.

On June 1st, the Beatles' concept album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was officially released in the UK . The album set new standards in terms of production technology and musical creativity. The symphony orchestra in A Day in the Life , increasing to a chaotic crescendo , became legendary. Also George Harrison's call and response game between his sitar and a symphony orchestra on Within You Without You , as well as the sound imitation of a steam organ on Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite! were, besides the song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds , which is often associated with LSD , other spectacular highlights of the album. The Sergeant Pepper album changed the sound carrier market. For the first time ever, an album sold better than singles. For the music industry, psychedelic rock developed into a profitable business:

“Acid music was LP music, and an LP cost four times as much as a single. If ever there was a drug that was appropriately named, it was LSD. The pound , shillings and pence (abbreviated: £, s, d ) that were earned with it had a strong influence on the entire industry [...]. "

In August 1967 the Small Faces used an unusually clearly audible flanger effect in the piece Itchycoo Park . The single reached number 3 in the UK charts. In September 1967, Capitol Records released the Beach Boys album Smiley Smile . It was the remains of a work supposedly planned as a concept album with the title Smile, which became the most famous unreleased album in music history. Various circumstances led to Brian Wilson not finishing the album. In various interviews, including in the documentary I just wasn't made for this times by Don Was , Brian Wilson cited personal circumstances and psychological problems as causes. The creative competition with the Beatles also supposedly played a role. But the consumption of marijuana, LSD, amphetamines and barbiturates at that time also had a disastrous influence on his work, according to Wilson. In October, the band announced The Who on their latest single I can See for Miles , reaching number 10 in the UK single charts. Shortly thereafter, The Who followed up with the concept album The Who Sell Out , and the Rolling Stones released Their Satanic Majesties Request . Until then, the Rolling Stones' repertoire had hardly any psychedelic pieces. After the enormous success of the Beatles with the Sgt. Peppers album, even the Rolling Stones saw themselves forced to release something comparable.

1968–1969: zenith and decline

In the years 1968 to 1969 many more bands should follow the trend and psychedelic rock reached its peak. At the same time, the Summer Of Love of the hippie movement in California made headlines, and the commercial version of psychedelic rock , infused with folk and pop artists, was marketed as flower power . This term was largely shaped by the positive hippie image of "Love, Peace & Happiness" and was thematically free from drugs. During this time, Vanilla Fudge had its greatest successes.

The wave would continue until fashion slowly ebbed in 1969. Many bands broke up or turned to simple rock or pop. Some bands and musicians composed ever longer pieces and increasingly understood psychedelic rock as an art form. A smooth transition to progressive rock took place here. The roots of some of the classic English hard rock bands of the 1970s such as Deep Purple , Black Sabbath , Led Zeppelin , Judas Priest and UFO lead back to blues-influenced psychedelic rock.

The influence of LSD on pop culture

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, LSD was touted in the US by the mass media as a cure for mental health problems. The prominent actor Cary Grant z. B. publicly praised the drug's positive effects on his sexuality. Many psychiatrists prescribe LSD to writers, actors, musicians, and directors to break creative blocks. The psychologists discovered it as a possible means to better understand the emotions of their patients, and LSD was the subject of the government-funded research projects. The use of LSD was legal in the USA until 1966 and found widespread use in various artistic scenes, in the upper classes, among students and the hippies. The use of drugs in artistic circles was essentially nothing special. What was new, and growing in the course of the 1960s, was the general open use of drugs and LSD in particular. Popular musicians publicly admitted their consumption and discussed questions of the effects and consequences of consumption as well as legal aspects with which musicians e.g. Some were confronted involuntarily. This is how drugs like marijuana and LSD became popular.

Timothy Leary

The renowned Harvard professor of psychology Timothy Leary has been experimenting with hallucinogenic drugs since 1960, especially with LSD since 1961 in several studies. Due to increasing criticism of Leary's studies, he moved them to Zihuatanejo in Mexico in 1962 and restricted them to the summer months. There, the experiences with the drug should be experienced and evaluated in a group. Already the second summer camp in 1963 was visited by many early hippies , which underlined the enormous popularity of Leary. Leary published the first results of the work in 1964 together with Richard Alpert and Ralph Metzner in the book The Psychedelic Experience . The book was a detailed guide to the use of LSD with the help of Asian philosophies based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead . The popularity and work of Timothy Leary made him a key figure in the US counterculture of the 1960s.

Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters

Rear view of the Further

In June 1964, Ken Kesey started with the Merry Pranksters , a trip in an old school bus called Further from La Honda, a country estate near San Francisco . His idea was to promote the use of LSD in the context of happenings and to make a movie that documented the trip. The destination of the trip was Millbrook, a place in New York State where Timothy Leary was staying at the time. During the entire trip, Kesey, the Pranksters and the guests of their happenings consumed marijuana and LSD, which was dissolved in orange juice. Arrived in Millbrook, Kesey met u. a. Jack Kerouac , Allen Ginsberg, and ultimately Timothy Leary, to finally return to La Honda in August 1964 with 45 hours of footage. The film was completed in the spring of 1965 but never released commercially. However, Ken Kesey's activities attracted national attention.


Sound characteristics

A fundamental prerequisite for the creation of this music was the work of Joe Meek , who revolutionized recording technology in the recording studio . On this basis, the musicians of a band could record separately and at different times. Producer Phil Spector did another important preparatory work . However, new technologies such as the wah-wah pedal, the fuzz and effects units played a major role. Feedback, phasing and echo effects were also characteristic. Tricks were also often used with the recording tapes: inserting guitars running backwards or parts of the whole piece, repetitions by creating loops or manipulating the speed of the recording tape were among the frequently used effects.

Many of the first bands were musically oriented towards rhythm & blues as well as American folk music. The US was under the influence of the British invasion at the time . So you can also see an influence of beat music on psychedelic rock . During the live performances of the bands, under the influence of drugs, there were sometimes long improvisations and wild experiments. For the time being, this hardly came into play in studio recordings. However, mainly due to the influence of the Beatles and the Beach Boys, the pieces became more and more complex. The focus was on tinkering with sound and compositions that, with an expanded set of instruments, broke with the simple structures and some traditions of rock 'n' roll . The expression could vary, however. In Great Britain the music was more poppy than in the USA, where the musicians orientated themselves more clearly to their musical roots. Even within the USA there were differences between the artistically ambitious and cool-looking bands of the east coast and the bands of the west coast, which were shaped by mysticism and hippie ideals.

When the first recordings of longer music titles appeared, there was also more freedom for experiments. With recordings that exceeded the radio format of three to four minutes at most, there were concerns about acceptance in the media and among the audience. The positive response to the first longer titles by the Rolling Stones, The Doors or The Beatles overcame this barrier. Musicians who had previously used their experiments only sparsely as a surprising element suddenly got a framework in which to live out their ideas.

Indian with sitar

The texts

The Far Eastern religions and the related topics of expanding consciousness had a great influence on the texts . Everything got a surreal and esoteric touch. Furthermore there was a direct influence from the literature of the beatniks and the science fiction - as well as the fantasy literature. Experiences from the consumption of drugs also flowed into the texts. In the underground scene, many bands also dealt with the nightmarish bad trip , thus the rather negative experiences with drugs. The topic was picked up in the media and many bands were accused of glorifying drugs. The single Eight Miles High by the Byrds z. B. landed on the index in the USA for glorifying drugs and was boycotted by radio stations. However, the text only describes guitarist Gene Clark's first flight to London. The Beatles' track L ucy In The S ky With D iamonds was also said to be drug- heavy , which Paul McCartney confirmed in a 2004 interview. However, no one had previously suspected that the text by She Said, She Said is about experiences in drug intoxication, as the Beatles said.

Importance and influence of music

Similar to rock 'n' roll , psychedelic rock changed the music world far-reaching. Things became natural that were previously considered risky, frowned upon or even impossible. There were strings or wind instruments used, which were previously used only in styles not zuordnete the skirt. Exotic instruments such as the sitar , tablas , the mellotron and the first synthesizers were also used.

In addition to the instruments, direct influences from other styles could also gain a foothold in rock music. In addition to jazz and folk , they also opened up to classical music . There was a tendency to view an album as a thematically closed work ( concept album ). In the underground these new tendencies led to the formation of the first “rock avant-garde ”. These included bands like The Velvet Underground , The Fugs , The United States of America and The Red Krayola .

Accompanying phenomena such as the psychedelic poster and the light show are now established components of rock music in the form of elaborately designed concert posters and more or less sophisticated stage lighting.

Influence on other styles

Psychedelic rock influenced numerous other styles, including:


In the early 1980s, the punk movement saw a revival known as neo-psychedelia . These included precursors such as the American band Chrome , the British bands The Soft Boys and the Television Personalities . In Germany, the 39 Clocks were among the earliest representatives of neo-psychedelia. The trigger for the revival was, on the one hand, the republication of old recordings from the 1960s on compilations , such as B. the Nuggets compilation from 1972, which was published in 1976 in a new edition. As well as the compilations of the Pebbles series from 1979 and the associated garage rock revival, in which there was a lot of overlap with psychedelic rock. On the other hand, revivals such as the mod revival , rockabilly revival (see also Psychobilly ) or the ska revival had become modern, especially in Great Britain . Neo-psychedelia followed this trend as another revival.

In the 1980s, the neo-psychedelic revival grew with countless bands, most of which went underground, unnoticed by the great rock world. Specialized fanzines such as the British Bucketful of Brains or the German Glitterhouse documented the scene. In Los Angeles , a scene was created that was summarized as the Paisley Underground . Their better-known representatives included Dream Syndicate , The Bangles and Green on Red . More and more bands were founded around the world that imitated psychedelic rock or made it one of its main influences, including bands like The Darkside , The Fuzztones , The Flaming Lips , Spacemen 3 , Spiritualized and Temples . The Church came from Australia , in New Zealand it was The Chills and in Germany it was the castrated philosophers who were a little better known.

Contemporary psychedelic rock in the 21st century

In the 1990s, electronic music with psychedelic influences gained popularity. The variety of electronic music known as Goa trance or psychedelic trance caused a revival of psychedelic culture. The setting and character of Goa events is often modeled on the psychedelic rock events of earlier times. The most important characteristic of psychedelic trance music, however, are synthetically generated sound surfaces in connection with ethnic sounds, which give the music a hypnotic sound character. Due to the subcultural ties between the two genres, both styles of music have always influenced each other. While space rock and acid rock had a decisive influence on many Goa productions of later years, psychedelic rock music based on the Goa sound was increasingly produced in the 1990s and 2000s. Not least because of the invention of the MIDI guitar , it became possible to fuse psychedelic guitar riffs and synthesizer sounds.

At the same time, the stoner rock game , which also has a psychedelic character, became popular in rock .

The style of numerous psychedelic rock bands that formed towards the end of the 1990s and in the 2000s combines various older varieties, in particular acid rock and space rock, with the musical character of psychedelic electronic music and also has elements from the Stoner direction Rock and heavy metal . In summary, contemporary psychedelic rock is a rather minimalistic amalgamation of numerous styles. The songs usually have a non-linear structure, but there are often passages in which short guitar riffs are repeated with different parameters. As a rule, vocal interludes are not included. In addition to guitar, bass and drums, a synthesizer or an organ is usually used. Songs longer than 20 minutes are not uncommon on album releases. Modern space rock releases seem a little more melodic and relaxed, while acid rock seems more minimalistic and techno-heavy according to a modern interpretation, although electronic sound generators only play a subordinate role and are sometimes not available at all.

Psychedelic rock is still popular at hippie festivals. Since the second decade of the 21st century at the latest , we can speak of a psychedelic revival that is being carried out in the manner of a retro movement. Especially well-known bands in Germany are Acid Mothers Temple , Causa Sui, Earthless , Electric Moon , My Sleeping Karma , Ozric Tentacles , Samsara Blues Experiment , Seven That Spells, Vibravoid , Space Debris and others.


  • Herbert Hopfgartner: Psychedelic Rock. Drug cult and spirituality in psychedelic rock music and its music-pedagogical reflection , Peter Lang. Frankfurt am Main 2003 (European University Writings, Series 36 Musicology, Volume 230) ISBN 3-631-50148-X .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The Albert Hofmann Foundation: Excerpts from: "A Review of the Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents" by Humphry Osmond . From the journal Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 66 (3), 1957, pp. 418-434
  2. ^ Greg Shaw: Acid Punk . In: Greg Shaw's Bomb! , RoRoRo, Hamburg 1982, ISBN 3-499-17659-9 .
  3. Michael Hicks: Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago 2000, p. 59. ISBN 0-252-06915-3 .
  4. ^ Robert Palmer: Rock & Roll - An Unruly History . Harmony Books, 1995, ISBN 0-517-70050-6 , p. 102.
  5. ^ Greg Shaw: The Bay Area . In: Greg Shaw's Bomp! , RoRoRo, 1982, ISBN 3-499-17659-9 , pp. 205ff.
  6. ^ Craig Morrison: The Folk Roots of San Francisco Psychedelic Music ( July 8, 2011 memento in the Internet Archive ) . Sighted: September 19, 2008.
  7. ^ Charles Perry: The Haight-Ashbury - A History . Random House, New York 1984, ISBN 0-394-41098-X , p. 9.
  8. ^ Bill Ham Lights: History ( Memento July 5, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) , page 1, accessed October 13, 2012.
  9. Harry Shapiro: Sky High - Drugs and Music in the 20th Century . Hannibal Verlag, 1995, ISBN 3-85445-148-2 , p. 187.
  10. Vernon Joynson: Fuzz, Acid And Flowers - A Comprehensive Guide to American Garage, Psychedelic and Hippie Rock (1964-1975) . Borderline Productions, 1993, ISBN 0-9512875-8-3 , p. 55.
  11. Melissa Ursula Dawn Goldsmith: Criticism Lighting His Fire : Perspectives on Jim Morrison from The Los Angeles Free Press , Down Beat , and The Miami Herald ( Memento of the original from December 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 888 kB). Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College 2007. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. Jonathan Cott: The Kinks - Ray Davies Talks. In: Rolling Stone magazine , November 10, 1969.
  13. a b Chris Welch: Text accompanying the CD The Yardbirds - For Your Love . Repertoire 4757-WY, London 1997.
  14. ^ Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco: Chronology of San Francisco Rock - 1965–1969 . As of January 15, 2008.
  15. The Wild Bohemian Home Page: The Haight-Ashbury 30 Years Ago: A Timeline. Status: January 12, 2008.
  16. Harry Shapiro: Sky High - Drugs and Music in the 20th Century. Hannibal Verlag, 1995, ISBN 3-85445-148-2 , p. 184.
  17. ^ Charles Perry: The Haight-Ashbury - A History . Random House, New York 1984, ISBN 0-394-41098-X , p. 49
  18. ^ University of Saskatchewan: Kevin M. Moist: Dayglo Koans and Spiritual Renewal: 1960s Psychedelic Rock Concert Posters and the Broadening of American Spirituality. ( Memento of the original from January 9, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, Volume VII: Summer 2004. As of January 20, 2008
  19. Merry Prankster's History Project: The Trips Festival Page. ( Memento from June 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Status: January 20, 2008
  20. ^ Robert Palmer: Rock & Roll - An Unruly History . Harmony Books, New York 1995, ISBN 0-517-70050-6 , p. 110.
  21. ^ Victor Bockris, Gerard Malanga: Uptight: The Story of the Velvet Underground . Omnibus Press, London 2002, ISBN 0-7119-9170-7 , p. 54.
  22. ^ A b Charles Perry: The Haight-Ashbury - A History . Random House, New York 1984, p. 46.
  23. ^ Victor Bockris, Gerard Malanga: Uptight: The Story of the Velvet Underground . Omnibus Press, London 2002, ISBN 0-7119-9170-7 , p. 71
  24. Nick Bromell: Tomorrow Never Knows - Rock and Psychedelics in the 1960s . The University of Chicago Press 2000, ISBN 0-226-07562-1 , p. 96.
  25. ^ The Electric Prunes Website : Newspaper and Magazine Articles . Mark Paytress: How To Make It In The Record Industry - The Sobering, Lunatic Story of The Electric Prunes . In: Mojo . June 2003.
  26. HISTORYtalk: Notting Hill History Timeline, Chapter 10: Dancing In The Street. ( Memento of the original from August 21, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. As of January 23, 2008
  27. ^ Joynson: p. 84
  28. Absolute Elsewhere: 14 Hour Technicolor Dream. Status: May 22, 2008
  29. ^ Harry Shapiro: Sky High - Drug and Music in the 20th Century , Hannibal Verlag, 1995, ISBN 3-85445-148-2 , p. 190.
  30. Harry Shapiro: Sky High - Drug and Music in the 20th Century , Hannibal Verlag, 1995, ISBN 3-85445-148-2 , p. 175.
  31. ^ David Farber: The Intoxicated State / Illegal Nation - Drugs in the Sixties Counterculture . In: Peter Braunstein and Michael William Doyle (Eds.): Imagine Nation: The Counterculture of the 1960s and '70s . Routledge, New York 2002, ISBN 0-415-93040-5 , p. 21 ff.
  32. ^ Arion - A Journal of Humanities in the Classics, Third Series, Vol. 10, No. 3: Camille Paglia: Cults and Cosmic Consciousness - Religious Vision in the American 1960s, Chapter 7, Psychedelic Drugs. ( Memento of March 29, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Status: January 17, 2008.
  33. Example: On April 1, 1967, the London Times published a letter to the editor from Manfred Mann in which he spoke out in favor of the legalization of marijuana. The politician and judge Quintin McGarel Hogg replied, “I sincerely hope that you find yourself in Old Bailey and that regardless of your position in the top ten thousand, you will be treated as criminals deserve. You have a responsibility to the youth… ”In: Tony Palmer : Electric Revolution . Bärmeier & Nikel, Frankfurt am Main 1971, p. 175 ff.
  34. Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner, Richard Alpert: The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead ( Memento June 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) at Erowid Online Books.
  35. Tom Wolfe: Unter Strom - The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test - The legendary journey of Ken Kesey and the Pranksters . Knaur, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-426-02807-7 .
  36. Detlef Diederichsen : The Byrds - Everything about the most important band of all time . In: Spex . Issued December 12, 1986, Spex Verlagsgemeinschaft, Cologne 1986.
  37. ^ Victorino Matus: The Truth Behind "LSD" . The Weekly Standard. June 2004. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
  38. Neo-Psychedelia in London . In: Sounds . Edition 10/81, Sounds Verlag GmbH, Hamburg 1981, p. 8.