The Velvet Underground
|The Velvet Underground|
The Velvet Underground 1968: Lou Reed, Maureen Tucker, Doug Yule, Sterling Morrison (from left)
|origin||New York City , United States|
|Genre (s)||Art rock , protopunk , experimental|
|Lou Reed (until 1970; 1993)|
|John Cale (until 1968; 1993)|
|Sterling Morrison (until 1971; 1993)|
|Maureen "Moe" Tucker (until 1971; 1993)|
Vocals, guitar, bass
|Doug Yule (1968-1973)|
|Angus MacLise (1965; 1966)|
Tambourine , vocals
|William Alexander (1971)|
|Walter Powers (1971)|
|Larry Estridge (1971)|
|Billy Yule (1970, 1972/73)|
|Don Silverman (1973)|
|Rob Norris (1972)|
|Mark Nauseef (1972)|
|George Kay (1972/73)|
The Velvet Underground was an experimental rock band formed in New York City in 1964 . In its early formation, it consisted of Lou Reed (guitar, vocals), John Cale (bass, viola, keyboard and vocals), Angus MacLise (drums, bongos, hand drums) and Sterling Morrison (guitar). From 1965 Maureen Tucker played drums instead of Angus MacLise, this formation was added in 1966 for the debut album by the German singer Nico .
The band became known as a group of protégées from Andy Warhol , who also produced their first album. With their provocative lyrics about sadomasochism , transvestism and drug addiction, the band remained commercially unsuccessful during its existence, but today they are counted among the most influential rock bands in music history.
The founding history of the band goes back to 1964. The singer, songwriter and guitarist Lou Reed had just formed a garage band called The Primitives and was working as a copywriter for Pickwick Records. Reed described the job as “ a poor man's Carole King ” (German: “a Carole King for the poor”).
Reed soon met John Cale, a young Welshman who had moved to the United States to study classical music . Cale had a classical composition training, had already worked with musicians of the New Improvisation Music such as John Cage or La Monte Young and was just like Reed interested in rock music. The influence of La Monte Young and its " drones " cadences on the sound of the Velvet Underground as well as Cales and Reed's later solo careers were significant. Cale was surprised to have found someone in Reed who, like himself, had an open ear for experiments: Reed often tuned his guitar strings to the same note ("ostrich tuning") and thus achieved the "drone" effect. The two jammed together more and more often, and a creative partnership developed that already set the direction for the later band project The Velvet Underground .
John Cale was working with Lou Reed soon after Tony Conrad introduced him to The Primitives . In 1965 he succeeded Jimmie Sims in the band that was now called The All-Night Workers . Reed and Cale left this band a little later and formed a new line-up together with percussionist Angus MacLise, whom they had met through Pickwick Records, and Sterling Morrison, a fellow student of Reed. The quartet initially roamed through small New York clubs and pubs and initially called themselves The Warlocks and The Falling Spikes . The group's style was initially more rock 'n' roll . John Cale described this prehistory and development phase of the later VU as “ reminiscence of beatnik - poetics with Angus MacLise as the relaxed rhythm drummer behind all the guitar and bass attacks.” Reed, Cale and Morrison recorded a demo tape , the Cale on a trip to England Marianne Faithfull in the hope that she would pass it on to Mick Jagger . Nothing came of that, however, and so all of the unpublished tape material disappeared in the archive, only to be published on a compilation thirty years later .
Angus MacLise only played a short time in this formation; when the band had accepted an offer brokered by Al Aronowitz , their manager at the time, for their first paid gig in the summer of 1965 , he announced his departure because he feared the band would be commercialized.
MacLise's successor on drums, Maureen Tucker , came into the band through Sterling Morrison, with whom she was friends, and impressed with her unusual drumming: she played standing up, did not use a kick drum pedal and had her own arrangement of the percussion instruments; she also liked to put a tambourine on her snare drum . Tucker was also one of the first female drummers in rock history. Angus MacLise returned to The Velvet Underground as a substitute for a short time in the summer of 1966 when Reed was sick with hepatitis ; Tucker took over the bass during this time.
Origin of the band name
"The Velvet Underground" is a book by Michael Leigh that is about sadomasochism and the remote sex life of the American middle class. Reed and Cale had found it in the trash of their previous tenant when they moved into Tony Conrad's former New York apartment. When choosing the group name, however, Reed and Morrison thought less of the subject of the book than of the underground films that were currently hip at the time , and the name also matched Reed's already completed song Venus in Furs (alluding to the sadomasochistic novel Venus in Furs of the same name by Leopold von Sacher-Masoch ). All band members agreed with the name, and so the book title immediately became the new name for the band project. The guitarist Sterling Morrison said:
“Whenever I hear the word 'underground' I feel reminded of that time in the early sixties, when the term first took on a special meaning. That meant underground films and the people who produced and supported this art form. And the person who introduced me to this scene was Piero Heliczer , a flawless 'underground filmmaker', the first I met […] We finally had a name! And we took it up and found it to be good not only because of the sadomasochistic theme, but because the term referred to our work in underground film and in the art scene. "
The band gave their first concert under the name The Velvet Underground , for the first time with Maureen Tucker on drums, on December 11, 1965 at Summit High School in New York.
The rise of the band began when the filmmaker Barbara Rubin became aware of the group shortly before Christmas 1965 in the Café Bizarre in Greenwich Village and told the pop-art artist Andy Warhol about it. Warhol was just looking for a band for his newly founded club "Andy Warhol's Up". A little later, Rubin and Warhol, accompanied by Gerard Malanga , Paul Morrissey and Edie Sedgwick, visited the restaurant to see the group. Warhol was immediately enthusiastic about the bizarre band, which had made it a habit to play stoically with their backs to the audience. "We definitely went outside to insult, there was a limit, we didn't give a shit about the audience, we turned our backs on them," said John Cale in a later interview. Warhol, who was always fascinated by curiosities, engaged the "Velvets", who performed like a sinister nemesis with all their cacophony of poetry , as a band for his new multimedia project " Exploding Plastic Inevitable " (EPI).
Andy Warhol and the Factory
The collaboration with Andy Warhol can be dated back to 1966 and the first half of 1967. In January 1966, the group had a joint appearance with Warhol at Delmonico's Hotel on Park Avenue, where Warhol was invited to speak at the banquet of the New York Society for Clinical Psychiatry . Warhol, who refused to speak in front of an audience, instead entertained the guests with music from Velvet Underground, to which he showed his films Harlot and Henry Geldzahler . During the performance Gerard Malanga performed a whip dance to which the model Edie Sedgwick , the Warhol muse at the time , danced in circular movements. The filmmakers Jonas Mekas and Barbara Rubin were meanwhile walking through the hall with a spotlight and asking the disturbed psychiatrists embarrassing questions about their sexual practices. The International Herald Tribune headlined the following day: "Psychiatrists flee from Warhol" .
As early as April 1966, the opening of a series of multimedia shows in the New York club The Dom , which Warhol had conceived together with Velvet Underground. Located in the busy East Village , the club had a large dance hall that Warhol rented for the entire month of April. The band then briefly belonged to Warhol's “ Factory ”, who as manager and producer now decisively promoted the group's career, made the Factory available to them as a practice room and integrated them into his provocative performance shows as a draft horse . He also designed the cover for the debut album The Velvet Underground & Nico with the banana (which can be screen-printed in the first edition) and designed an extensive promotion for “his” new product.
In return, Warhol demanded that the attractive blonde Cologne model Nico , who had since succeeded Edie Sedgwick in the "Factory", be accepted into the band, which the other band members only reluctantly accepted, as Reed and Cale believed she was had a strong erotic charisma, but had great intonation problems when singing. However, Nico's presence was decisive for the record company to give the band a record deal at all, which was particularly troubling for Reed. He had a liaison with her on the side, but that didn't prevent him from intriguing against her. There was also a conflict between Nico and Maureen Tucker. Both women couldn't relate to each other. Tucker later said in the ZDF documentary Nico Icon about Nico: “ To me she was just a great pain in the ass. ”(German:“ For me she was just a pain in the ass ”). Nico left the band after a last joint appearance on May 27, 1967 and began their solo career.
Starting on May 3, 1966, the EPI was a guest in Los Angeles , where the show ended prematurely after the third evening due to disturbance of the peace. In the following days, the band met Steve Sesnick there.
Towards the end of 1966, Warhol visibly lost interest in the EPI and in the group; The Velvet Underground last appeared in May 1967 in this context. When Andy Warhol brought Nico to another gig by the band, Lou Reed denied her access to the stage. Nico later suspected that Reed was offended because the newspapers were only interested in her:
“Everybody wanted to be the star. Of course Lou always something. But the newspapers came to me all the time. That's how I got fired - he couldn't take that anymore. "
“Everyone wanted to be the star. Of course, Lou always was. But the newspapers came to me all the time. So I was fired - he couldn't take it anymore. "
After a subsequent conversation between Lou Reed and Andy Warhol, Warhol was also released.
After the factory time
After their separation from Andy Warhol, the band tried to find their own premises in New York where they could continue to perform the EPI; there were fewer and fewer opportunities to perform for the cost-intensive show. However, their attempts to found their own club failed. The Velvet Underground did not give a single concert in their hometown between April 1967 and June 1970. An appearance at the Club Boston Tea Party on 26./27. May 1967 was their first attempt to establish themselves as an independent rock band.
In 1967 Steve Sesnick, who was more interested in the band's success than their artistic standards, took over management. With Tom Wilson , a friend of Nico, as producer, the band recorded the experimental album White Light / White Heat from September 1967 to January 1968 . After its release, there was an argument between John Cale and Lou Reed, so that Cale finally left the band after a last appearance on September 28, 1968. He then produced a few songs and recordings by Nico (including the albums The Marble Index , Desertshore and The End) and then devoted himself to his own solo projects.
Steve Sesnick was able to convince Reed to write songs for the band that were more oriented towards the general public taste. The three remaining band members recorded two more pleasing studio albums - The Velvet Underground and Loaded - reinforced by the addition of Doug Yule . The last concert with this line-up gave the band on August 23, 1970. Shortly thereafter, Lou Reed dropped out, and after a concert on August 21, 1971 he was followed by Sterling Morrison, who accepted a literary scholarship at the University of Texas at Austin .
Doug Yule, who had taken over the leadership of the band with the exit of Reed, and Maureen Tucker continued to appear with changing musicians until November 1971 as The Velvet Underground. After the end of this tour, the musicians wanted to start working on a new studio album, but Steve Sesnick fired all band members except Doug Yule before it could come, probably also to keep control of the fate of the band. After Tucker had withdrawn from the music business after the band's last appearance in January 1972 to devote himself to her family life, Yule saw no future in rock music either and began to work as a carpenter.
Despite the de facto breakup of the band, Sesnick stuck to their name. He was able to organize some concerts for The Velvet Underground in England and asked Doug Yule to go on tour again as The Velvet Underground ; Sterling Morrison and Maureen Tucker were also asked, but declined. From members of the band The Red Rockets , in which Doug's brother Billy Yule played, a new tour band was hastily put together, which also included Mark Nauseef .
In October 1972 Doug Yule recorded the album Squeeze with Ian Paice , the last concert of the accompanying tour took place on December 9, 1972 in Northampton . At this point, manager Sesnick had already lost interest in the band.
The last concerts under the name The Velvet Underground took place from the end of May 1973, when Doug Yule played in a band that had both cover versions of The Velvet Underground pieces and their own songs in their repertoire:
“We met someone who started booking us around New England . He was supposed to advertise us as being with me from The Velvet Underground , but he wasn't supposed to say it was The Velvet Underground. [...] The last gig was in some ski resort in Vermont, we went there, saw 'The Velvet Underground' and said, 'That's enough!' "
After a three-day engagement in Roslyn (New York) ended on June 3, 1973, The Velvet Underground's last line-up finally disbanded.
Another collaboration and reunion
In 1989 Lou Reed and John Cale played the song cycle Songs for Drella in memory of their former mentor Andy Warhol, who had died two years earlier. At the last performance on December 3, 1989, Maureen Tucker took over the drums in the song Pale Blue Eyes . On June 15, 1990 there was a spontaneous appearance on the occasion of an Andy Warhol exhibition in Jouy-en-Josas near Paris ; Reed, Cale, Morrison and Tucker played the song Heroin with the instruments of another band lying around . Recordings of this performance were later published on bootlegs.
In 1991 Reed, Cale, Morrison and Tucker recorded new studio material for Maureen Tucker's solo album I Spent a Week There the Other Night for the first time since 1968, with all four musicians playing I'm Not . The piece was to be their last studio collaboration. In 1992 there was a short-term reunification of The Velvet Underground in the "classic" line-up, who toured Europe for the first time since its foundation on the occasion; however, this reunion did not last long. The band gave their last concert under the name The Velvet Underground in July 1993 as the opening act for U2 . A live album recorded during this tour was later released as Live MCMXCIII .
Reed, Cale and Tucker most recently appeared on January 17, 1996 when they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame . They dedicated the piece Last Night I Said Goodbye To My Friend to Sterling Morrison, who died last year .
Lawsuit against the Andy Warhol Foundation
On January 11, 2012, Lou Reed and John Cale sued the Andy Warhol Foundation for Visual Arts for using the cover banana from the debut album on their merchandise, claiming the foundation's previous profits. The symbol was featured in the booklet of a CD collection in 1995 as the band's trademark. Warhol never applied for the copyright to the illustration. The litigation was resolved in May 2013.
The Velvet Underground & Nico (1967)
Velvet Underground's debut album, known as the "Banana Album" because of its cover, was produced, designed and marketed entirely by Andy Warhol , with the exception of the first track, "Sunday Morning", which was produced by Tom Wilson . The album is one of the classics of rock music .
The style of the follow-up album was already evident on this album: In addition to quiet pieces (including “Sunday Morning” and the “I'll Be Your Mirror” sung by Nico), there were also more experimental pieces such as “Heroin”, which was later among others was covered by Billy Idol . The lyrics of these experimental pieces deal, among other things, with substance abuse ( I'm Waiting for the Man , Heroin ) and sadomasochism ( Venus In Furs ).
“European Son” was dedicated to Lou Reed's mentor Delmore Schwartz at the first press .
White Light / White Heat (1968)
The second album White Light / White Heat , which was no longer under the influence of Andy Warhol, is in some ways much more radical than its predecessor. It is particularly noticeable due to the excessive use of distortion and feedback , e.g. B. in "I Heard Her Call My Name" and the 17-minute "Sister Ray" (among other things covered in 1980 by the English group Joy Division on the live album Still ).
The Velvet Underground was one of the first rock groups to consciously elevate the “noise” - that is, the “unsightly” sound or cacophony according to traditional aesthetic ideas - to a special characteristic of their aesthetics. Vigorous guitar feedback and driving, often metronome-like drums determine the sound of the album. In addition, the band experimented with stereo technology on this album by moving various acoustic elements from the left to the right channel. In The Gift , the story was told of a bizarre death case on guitar feedback.
With this radical break in style, The Velvet Underground went far beyond musical experiments by Jimi Hendrix (e.g. Star Bangled Banner ), the Beatles ( e.g. with Tomorrow Never Knows on the album Revolver ), the Rolling Stones (on the album Their Satanic Majesties Request ) and the psychedelic group The United States of America . However, this meant that White Light / White Heat almost completely missed those lyrical moments that the first album had with songs and ballads such as Sunday Morning or I'll Be Your Mirror . As a more experimentally conceived album, White Light / White Heat should not have any commercial success.
The Velvet Underground (1969)
In complete contrast to White Light / White Heat is the group's third album, which is simply titled “The Velvet Underground”. After Lou Reed had pushed his rival John Cale out of the band, he was now their only creative mind. This largely lost the band's experimental character. Reed now paid special attention to the lyrics. However, with the up-and-coming talent Doug Yule he again got internal competition: As a "man for all cases" Yule played the bass, was the second lead guitarist and took over the background vocals.
Despite, or perhaps because of, the abandonment of the experimental, raw sound of earlier works, “The Velvet Underground” met with a positive response from the US music press, sometimes with exuberant praise. Nevertheless, the sales figures remained below expectations.
After MGM did not release a fourth album , the band switched to Atlantic Records . There the album Loaded was released in 1970 , which became the group's greatest financial success. The title refers to the pressure from the record company to release a commercially successful album (loaded with hits) . With many relatively catchy songs (Rock and Roll , Sweet Jane , Who Loves the Sun) has Loaded no longer the characteristic Velvet Underground Sound. This is mainly due to the fact that Maureen Tucker had become pregnant and was replaced during the recording by Billy Yule, the brother of Doug Yule, and Doug Yule himself, and Lou Reed left the band before the record was released and thus almost half of the band Songs had to be completed without him.
After Lou Reed, the last original creative member, left the band, the group lost its identity. Regardless of this, manager Steve Sesnick wanted to cannibalize the name "Velvet Underground" to the end.
In 1973 the band finally broke up. The last album Squeeze , which was recorded by Doug Yule and Ian Paice , is considered a particularly weak album. At the time Squeeze was released , Nico, John Cale, and Lou Reed had long-standing solo careers.
VU / Another View (1984/85)
Already after the release of White Light / White Heat , but especially after the release of the third album The Velvet Underground , the band recorded other pieces that were not released by the MGM record company, because the commercial success was initially lacking. The material was only published in 1984 and 1985 on the two albums VU and Another View . In the course of the New Wave , The Velvet Underground had advanced to become a cult band, which saw artists such as David Bowie , the Sex Pistols , Siouxsie and the Banshees or Bauhaus as their most important role models.
1969 Velvet Underground Live With Lou Reed (Volume 1)
A compilation of various live performances by Velvet Underground in Texas and San Francisco from 1969. The album consists of two records and for the last time outlines the entire creative live spectrum of the group before its breakup; so there are long versions of heroin , ocean and rock and roll . Noteworthy is the almost nine-minute, annoyingly driving version of What Goes On , which is supported by metronome-like guitar and drums playing.
Bootleg series vol. 1: The Quine tapes
These live recordings, which were only released in 2001, were the first official Velvet Underground bootleg . With the band's official approval - with the exception of bootlegs - Robert Quine recorded some concerts in San Francisco in 1969. It includes three versions of Sister Ray , a piece that was otherwise rarely played live.
The Velvet Underground Live At Max's Kansas City (1972)
This live recording was made on August 23, 1970 during a concert at Max's Kansas City nightclub and restaurant in New York. It was made by the factory employee Brigid Berlin alias Brigid Polk with a cassette recorder. It was the last concert with Lou Reed before he left. Doug Yule's brother Billy replaces Maureen Tucker, who had become pregnant, on drums.
Live MCMXCIII (1993)
In 1993 there was a brief reunion of the band with a tour in the cast of the first studio albums (without Nico, who had died in 1988). Recordings of this tour, on which some new pieces were also played, can be found on the live album Live MCMXCIII . There were no more new studio recordings; Sterling Morrison died of cancer in 1995.
Pop culture influence
Velvet Underground's music didn't become popular until more than a decade after it was first released. Around the time their debut album was released, the hippie movement went from niche to mass culture with bands like the Beatles . The non-conformist Velvets represented the counterpart to the ideals of this movement.
Due to their experimental, raw music and their provocative lyrics on taboo topics such as violence, sadomasochism, trans- and homosexuality or drug addiction, the band, which, as part of Exploding Plastic Inevitable , had a disturbing, shocking effect on the public, was a curiosity the conservative USA. Until John Cale left, she rarely followed the general public taste and was not interested in chart positions. With Steve Sesnick's turn to the mainstream , this changed, but there were still no successes. Sterling Morrison said in an interview in 1969:
“I would love to see a hit single. It's really important to have one. Our previous singles are a joke. "
While the less experimental albums The Velvet Underground and Loaded received positive reviews from renowned critics such as Lester Bangs , general interest in the band was not aroused until later, when artists such as David Bowie cited them as an early source of inspiration. To this day, numerous bands, from Sonic Youth to The Strokes , from punk , gothic rock , new wave , industrial and alternative name The Velvet Underground as one of their musical role models. In the meantime, their influence can also be seen in the black metal of newer bands.
Top ranking, total weeks, awardChart placementsChart placements
(Year, title, music label , placements, weeks, awards, notes)
The Velvet Underground & Nico
DE89 (1 week)
US129 (14 weeks)
First published: March 12, 1967
Sales: + 300,000; with Nico
White Light / White Heat
US199 (2 weeks)
First published: January 30, 1968
The Velvet Underground
First published: March 24th, 1969
Sales: + 60,000
First published: September 1970
Sales: + 60,000
First published: February 1973
: no chart data available for this year
Movie and TV
The approximately 70-minute 16-mm black and white film The Velvet Underground And Nico (A Symphony of Sound) , shot by Andy Warhol in January 1966 and showing the group rehearsing in the Factory, is considered the best-known film document. The shooting was canceled by the New York police due to disturbing noise. The film was later shown as a silent film set in some appearances.
With the exception of the Warhol production, a total of four other films are known that are rarely seen: Rosalind Stevenson made some primitive film recordings of the band in her apartment in 1965; Jonas Mekas and Barbara Rubin filmed the Psychiatry Congress on January 8, 1966 in New York's Delmonico's Hotel , where the group had their first joint appearance with Andy Warhol; Ron Nemeth filmed an appearance at the Poor Richards in Chicago in June 1966 ; and in October 1966 a film crew made an appearance at New York's Balloon Farm (formerly the cathedral) . Some of these recordings were later released on video bootlegs.
The Velvet Underground had their first television appearance on New Year's Eve 1965 on the CBS news show with Walter Cronkite , which reported on the underground filmmaker Piero Heliczer , who in turn filmed the band playing heroin .
Literature and media
- Victor Bockris , Gerard Malanga: Up-tight. The Story of The Velvet Underground . Cooper Square Press, 1983 (Reprint 2003), ISBN 0-8154-1285-1 (English); German translation Up-tight. The Velvet Underground Story . Sonnentanz-Verlag, Augsburg 1988, ISBN 3-926794-00-3 .
- Lynne Tillman, Stephen Shore: The Velvet Years - Warhols Factory 1965–67 . Pavilion Books Ltd., London 1995, ISBN 1-85793-323-0 . (English)
- Victor Bockris, John Cale: What's Welsh For Zen . London 1999.
- Klaus Gier: Andy Warhol's record and cover design . Publishing house Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2001, ISBN 978-3-631-37418-4 .
- Richard Witts: The Velvet Underground . Indiana University Press, Bloomington 2006, ISBN 978-0-253-21832-2 . (English)
- Nico Icon . (Documentation by ZDF on the life and work of Christa Päffgen alias Nico)
- Richie Unterberger: White Light / White Heat: The Velvet Underground Day-By-Day . Jawbone Press, 2009, ISBN 1-906002-22-3 . (English)
- The Velvet Underground at Allmusic (English)
- The Velvet Underground Web Page
- The Velvet Underground at laut.de
- David Fricke in his comments on Peel Slowly and See ; 5-CD box ( Polydor , 1995)
- “ John Cale made me more aware of electronic music and he had worked with [avant-garde musician] Lamont Young. He had introduced me to the idea of drone. ”- Lou Reed in an interview with The Stranger , accessed May 25, 2009
- Olivier Landemaine: Lou Reed - A pre-VU discography. Retrieved November 6, 2013 : “It has been reported that Tony Conrad used to have a tape of The Primitives in rehearsal, presumably running through Do The Ostrich . (...) He mentioned it to Cale, who freaked out and demanded that Tony send it to him. "And don't let anybody hear it !!!" So he did. "
- Rare Tracks: Lou Reed before the Velvet Undergorund. Retrieved November 6, 2013 .
- “ They formed a band with John Cale and Angus MacLise, calling themselves the Warlocks (occasionally calling themselves the Falling Spikes). " Andy Warhol Chronology - 1965 , accessed 25 May 2009
- quoted by David Fricke in his comments on Peel Slowly and See
- Angus MacLise Biography on Pandora.com, accessed May 25, 2009
- The Velvet Underground - Live performances and rehearsals - 1965-66. Retrieved November 6, 2013 .
- Uwe Husslein: Pop Goes Art. Andy Warhol & Velvet Underground . Institute for Pop Culture, Wuppertal 1990, p. 9
- Victor Bockris: Andy Warhol . Claasen Verlag, Düsseldorf 1989, pp. 258f.
- Andy Warhol And The Dom , accessed June 6, 2009
- Lynne Tillman, Stephen Shore: The Velvet Years - Warhols Factory 1965-67 . Pavilion Books Ltd., London 1995, p. 64
- Uwe Husslein: Pop Goes Art. Andy Warhol & Velvet Underground , p. 5
- David Bourdon: Warhol . DuMont, Cologne 1989, p. 221ff
- The Velvet Underground - Live performances and rehearsals - 1967. March 7, 2010, accessed April 14, 2010 .
- Interview with Sterling Morrison ( Memento from August 19, 2005 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 18, 2009, version in the Internet Archive
- Andy Warhol Chronology - 1966. Retrieved April 14, 2010 .
- Andy Warhol Chronology - 1967. Retrieved November 3, 2013 .
- Victor Bockris : Lou Reed: The Biography . Vintage, London 1995, ISBN 0-09-930381-7 (American English).
- Uwe Husslein: Pop Goes Art. Andy Warhol & Velvet Underground , pp. 20f
- The Velvet Underground - Live performances and rehearsals - 1968. May 4, 2013, accessed November 3, 2013 .
- The Velvet Underground - Live performances and rehearsals - 1970 , accessed May 28, 2009
- The Velvet Underground - Live performances and rehearsals - 1971-73. February 6, 2010, accessed April 14, 2010 .
- Sounds # 34, November / December 1971: Velvet Underground is back. Retrieved June 10, 2011 .
- Henry Daniel: Velvet Underground . In: Frendz . 5th November 1971.
- Rob Jovanovic: Seeing the Light: Inside the Velvet Underground . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Homage to Songs for Drella on goedartpalm.de, accessed on March 8, 2013
- The Velvet Underground - Live performances and rehearsals - Reunions , accessed May 27, 2009
- The Velvet Underground - 1993 European Reunion Tour , accessed May 28, 2009
- Rock and Roll Hall of Fame The Velvet Underground in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
- laut.de : Velvet Underground - Dispute over the banana , January 12, 2012 - Accessed March 2, 2012
- Jamie Wetherbe: Velvet Underground, Andy Warhol group settle suit over banana image. May 29, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013 .
- “ Rejected as nihilistic by the love crowd in '67, the Banana Album (so named for its Warhol-designed cover), is the most prophetic rock album ever made. " Rolling Stone Magazine
- The title was marked accordingly on the Verve US pressing with "Produced by Tom Wilson"
- cf. Unterberger; Excerpts from 22 Myths and Legends about the Velvet Underground : “ Their third album (simply called The Velvet Underground), released in March 1969, received ecstatic reviews from numerous publications both major and underground, including Rolling Stone, Creem, Fusion (one of the first nationally distributed rock magazines), Jazz & Pop, and (as a reappraisal) Melody Maker; it even got good notices in stodgy trade papers like Cashbox, Variety, and Record World. Much the same acclaim followed for Loaded and their summer 1970 shows at Max's Kansas City, the latter of which even earned them a near-rave review in the New York Times. ”
- Head Held High , Interview with Doug Yule, accessed May 22, 2009
- Rarebird's Velvet Underground Reviews ( Memento from January 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- From Revolution to Reconstruction: What made the Velvet \ Warhol connection special ( September 19, 2008 memento in the Internet Archive ), accessed June 6, 2009
- “ I was the biggest fan in the UK, I believe. ”(David Bowie in an interview with Esquire ( Memento from July 5, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), 2004)
- Interview with Sonic Youth ( Memento from June 7, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) in the magazine Intro
- Torsten Groß: The Strokes: Julian Casablancas in a big uncut interview (motor.de story). (No longer available online.) December 22, 2005, archived from the original on November 4, 2011 ; Retrieved February 27, 2010 .
- nonpop.de: NONPOP> LIFELOVER: Powder (review)
- 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone , December 2, 2010, accessed August 8, 2017 .
- Victor Bockris, Gerard Malanga: Up-tight - Die Velvet Underground Story , p. 26f.
- Victor Bockris, Gerard Malanga: Up-tight - Die Velvet Underground Story , p. 83
- The Velvet Underground - DVDs, Home Videos & Laserdiscs , accessed June 3, 2009