BDSM is a collective term for a group of sexual preferences , which are often more vaguely described as sadomasochism ( SM for short or Sado-Maso ). The term encompasses a group of mostly sexual behaviors that can be related, among other things, to dominance and submission , playful punishment as well as pleasure pain or bondage . "BDSM" is a multi-layered acronym, which is formed from the first letters of the English terms "Bondage & Discipline, Dominance & Submission, Sadism & Masochism". The term first emerged on the Internet in the 1990s and is now also used in scientific literature.
In the practitioners' subcultural scene, certain rules of conduct, their own "language", safety conventions and symbols have become established. The scene meets, for example, at round tables and SM parties, the Internet plays an important role in communication within the subculture. BDSM is sometimes associated with sexual violence and a stereotypical female role, which is why both within the subculture and from feminism, sometimes violent criticism is formulated. This connection can also be seen in the legal assessment, which varies widely across the world.
It is unclear how many people actually practice BDSM and fantasize about such practices; the empirical studies range from 2 to 62% of the population. Consensual sadism and masochism are placed in medical classification systems; the BDSM scene is working against it in various associations and with public relations and is campaigning for more understanding for these special preferences. Sociological studies also deal with the distribution of individual preferences and their design in different groups of the subculture. In psychoanalysis , various theories arose on the origin of the preferences known as paraphilias . In this context, modern psychology primarily examines whether there are common character or personality traits among the practitioners, which may provide an explanation for the preferences.
Historical references to sadomasochistic practices go back a long way, from the middle of the 20th century the subculture slowly emerged from the leather scene and began to define itself as such from the 1970s. There are numerous examples of sadomasochistic practices in the literature. The best-known authors include the Marquis de Sade and Sacher-Masoch , from whom the terms sadism and masochism were derived. BDSM references can be found in contemporary music, film, television, theater and marketing. BDSM as a subject in art is often associated with fetishism ; there are many comics, photographs and drawings that portray both subjects.
BDSM is a collective term for certain types of sexual behavior and experience. The term combines various subcultures , some of which use very different terms and their own “language”. All variants of BDSM have in common that those involved voluntarily move from their equality and into a changed power structure. The submissive partner gives up a certain part of his autonomy and leaves it to the dominant partner (power exchange) .
Code of Conduct
Voluntariness as a decisive criterion applies in principle to all sexual acts. In order to ensure consensus between those involved in potentially risky activities and thus clearly differentiate the practices used from criminal sexual violence , there are largely accepted rules of behavior in the BDSM scene. The consensus between the parties involved differentiates BDSM legally and ethically from offenses or crimes against sexual self-determination and from violence and abuse. Consent to a sadomasochistic event can therefore only be given by someone who can adequately assess the consequences of his consent. In general, it must be possible to revoke your consent at any time, for example with a previously agreed signal word, a so-called safeword .
These basic principles have been summarized under the English name safe, sane and consensual (SSC) since the 1990s . This means something like "safe, with a clear mind and by mutual consent". Some supporters of BDSM prefer a slightly different code of conduct called RACK ( risk-aware consensual kink ), which means something like " risk-aware , consensual sexual activity"; they want to emphasize the personal responsibility of the partners involved in terms of the risk potential.
Despite the extensive conventions in the area of security, attacks also occur in the BDSM area. A 2015 study by the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom of 4,598 people found that 29% of those surveyed had experienced a violation of the agreed framework in connection with BDSM. 8.9% of the respondents were penetrated orally, anally or vaginally without their consent (12.5% women, 3% men, 10.6% queer and 8.7% transgender ). Only 29 people reported these incidents, despite 96 sustaining injuries that required medical attention.
Widespread role models
Top and bottom
In BDSM, the partner is called top or dom , who has the active role in a BDSM act that is mostly characterized by the exercise of pain, humiliation or submission. The partner known as the bottom or sub voluntarily exposes himself to such actions for a certain period of time and is the so-called passive part. The bottom is often the one who essentially determines the action, for example by setting limits and taboos. This framework is generally determined by extensive communication in advance of the actual action, in which safety-relevant aspects such as safeword, health restrictions, etc. are discussed.
Some BDSM followers switch , which means they take on both the dominant and the submissive role. They either practice this within a single act or take on these different roles in different sessions with the same or different partners.
BDSM acts usually take place in the form of an erotic role play for a fixed period of time ; a single BDSM game is called a session . Many of the practices practiced within BDSM, such as inflicting pain, humiliation, or submission, would be perceived as uncomfortable without the connection to specific sexual preference. Sexual intercourse such as oral , vaginal or even anal intercourse can occur within a session, but is not essential .
In addition to the general recommendations for safer sex , BDSM sessions usually require more extensive security measures than so-called " vanilla sex ", i. H. as a sex life without BDSM elements. To ensure that the actions always remain within the framework desired by the participants, a number of security conventions have been established in the BDSM scene. This dogma of safety is explained by the fact that BDSMers try to break away from the inherent connotations of sex and violence. You are against the assumption that BDSM is fundamentally dangerous, pathological and abusive.
In order to ensure the consensual nature of the practices, an intensive preliminary discussion is generally recommended - especially between unknown partners - about the wishes of those involved and the course and limits of the planned activities. Corresponding detailed discussions are common practice, but these usually become increasingly informal in the course of a relationship. In addition, a safeword is usually agreed, and if it is mentioned, the action must be stopped immediately at any time. For real meetings of virtually initiated contacts, some BDSM organizations and websites provide cover options that serve as protection against blind dates .
The wide range of different BDSM “ toys ” as well as applied physical and psychological manipulation and control techniques often require detailed knowledge from different areas such as anatomy , physics or psychology . Practical safety aspects are generally of crucial importance. Many of the techniques used cannot be applied intuitively and require not only knowledge but also practice and guidance. This can e.g. B. in special workshops or through the guidance of experienced BDSMers. In a study from 2009, 85% of the 1405 practicing BDSMers (mostly US Americans) surveyed stated that they had a mentor and had exchanged both practical and theoretical knowledge with him.
The aftercare of the bottom is also located in the area of safety . After a session , due to the release of opioid peptides , especially endorphins, when the experience is intense, it is quite possible that the bottom needs a few minutes or even hours in order to be able to fully perceive his physical needs again. At this stage of recovery, it is seen as the top's duty to take care of the bottom and act accordingly. This also applies to sessions that are canceled because the bottom feels mentally or physically overwhelmed (so-called crash).
The multi-layered acronym BDSM stands for several physical and psychological aspects combined under this generic term.
- B & D Bondage and Discipline (restraint and discipline )
- D & S Dominance and Submission (domination and submission)
- S & M Sadism and Masochism (sadism and masochism)
This model for differentiating three aspects of BDSM is increasingly used in the literature today, but it is only an attempt at a phenomenological separation. In the individual expression of sexual preferences, the aspects separated here often overlap.
Bondage / Discipline
The English term bondage refers to practices of tying to arouse and increase sexual pleasure. Bondage plays a more or less important role in all areas of BDSM, but it can also be practiced separately from the other types of BDSM as an independent practice. Sexuality and eroticism are important aspects of bondage, but they are often not ends in themselves. Other focal points such as B. in Japanese-inspired Shibari in aesthetics, sensation and concentration.
Studies conducted in the United States in 1985 found that around half of all men and many women consider bondage games to be erotic. In 1996, when surveying US students, 24% of those surveyed said they had sexual fantasies about bondage, led by gay and bisexual men at 40%, lesbian and bisexual women at 32%, while the figure was at heterosexual women fell to 24% and heterosexual men to 21%. 48% of lesbian and bisexual women, 34% of homo- and bisexual men and 25% of all heterosexuals had practical experience with bondage.
Under Discipline is understood in the range of BDSM disciplining of the Bottoms to his behavior with rules and rituals to the wishes of the Tops adapt. A system of corporal punishment and rewards can be used by the top . A merging with practices from the area of bondage is often, the differentiation from purely painful sadomasochism is sometimes difficult. The term discipline is often used incorrectly to describe educational games in the field of dominance and submission .
Dominance and Submission
The pair of terms dominance and submission (D / s) also comes from English and means rule / dominance as well as submission / subordination. It is used to describe a desired unequal power relationship or a playful change in social status between partners. Although this can also be the case in other partnerships that do not see themselves as sadomasochistic, it is consciously lived as a part of BDSM. The range of variation in the individual characteristics is great. The desired effect can be achieved, for example, through parenting or status games. These types of games include a. Role-playing games such as ageplay , in which a played age difference emphasizes the power gap, as well as petplay , in which the status difference between owner and animal is simulated or variants of chastity . In the BDSM scene, D / s is also often associated with the terms master / slave or dom / sub.
D / s can be acted out without further BDSM elements or include others as an essential element; the duration of the shift in power ranges from individual sessions to integration into everyday life (so-called 24/7 ) to permanent submission of a partner in the sense of the Total Power Exchange . Compensating elements for domination and submission are care and devotion, which complement each other and thus enable stable relationships. The relationship between top and bottom is occasionally sealed with so-called "slave contracts", which have no legal meaning, but can have a great emotional and symbolic meaning for those involved.
In the sub-area of sadomasochism, practices are used that serve to receive pain ( pleasure pain ) or to inflict. Sadomasochism can be practiced on its own, but as with the other subsections, intermingling is common.
Looking at sadomasochism on a physical level, it can be seen that it is associated with the deliberate infliction of physical pain and other intense sensory impressions. The effects of the endocannabinoids released as a result are often compared by BDSM fans with the so-called runner's high or the after-effects of an orgasm .
According to a 2016 study of masochistic people attending a session, masochism was described as an addiction- like tendency that is similar in proportions to drug addiction. It is also described how the first experience with pleasure pain is exaggerated and then repeatedly tried to repeat this experience. These patterns described in the study suggest an association with the behavioral change in addicted gamblers ; As the process progresses, the person concerned finds it impossible to stop, even if he is aware of the unwelcome effects. In the masochists examined, this change in behavior was shown to be a repetitive process of participating in sadomasochistic activities, solidifying them and thus binding oneself to this behavior.
As in the general population, there are all conceivable types of relationships within the BDSM scene, ranging from casual sex to marriage to polyamorous relationships. These relationships are often differentiated on the basis of the proportion or quality of BDSM within the overall design of the relationship.
There is no fixed definition of this term. Analogous to erotic role play, one speaks of play relationships and means, on the one hand, equal partnerships in which BDSM is part or prelude to sexuality, on the other hand, the term play relationships can also mean sex relationships that are exclusively aimed at living out certain sexual fantasies together.
Long term relationships
Early writings from the academic field and the BDSM scene made little mention of long-term relationships. The leather gay scene saw short-term gambling as the only possible way to act out BDSM and recommended getting married and satisfying the addiction outside of marriage in gambling. The first study, which showed that long-term functioning relationships with BDSM elements exist among practicing BDSM, appeared in 2003. 17 heterosexual couples were examined. They described their interest in their inclinations as an ongoing process and showed flexibility and adaptation to their partner's interests.
A perfect match in sexual preferences was rare, most couples had to put some of their own preferences aside or accept some of their partner's. Most couples stated that they did not have enough time to act out their dominant or submissive role in everyday life within a so-called 24/7 relationship (24 hours / 7 days a week). In the case of these relationships, BDSM goes beyond a purely sexual aspect and extends into the everyday life of a couple with no erotic connotations.
A woman who offers dominant and / or sadistic BDSM practices for a fee is called a dominatrix. According to the Prostitution Act, the activity of dominatrixes is considered sex work because, although they usually do not practice sexual intercourse with their customers, they do offer a sexual service. The male equivalent of the dominatrix is called "Sado". In the same environment work professional bottoms called "slave" or "maid". Australian scholars found that with the legalization of prostitution in their country, the proportion of BDSM-related services had increased.
Scene, subculture and society
There is a BDSM scene in which like-minded people can exchange information about BDSM-related topics and problems. This scene has the character of a subculture because BDSM is still mostly viewed by the public and the media as "bizarre", "perverted" or "sick". Because they fear incomprehension and exclusion, many people hide their inclination from society.
This scene is particularly evident on the Internet in communities such as FetLife or the slave headquarters , in scene media such as magazines and at events such as SM parties, regulars and the BoundCon trade fair, as well as at some erotic fairs . With the Folsom Europe Parade , which takes place annually in Berlin, there is an event in Germany that emerged from the leather subculture and that addresses BDSM as part of public street events. The scene is also represented with groups at the numerous CSD parades .
One of the most widespread symbols in the BDSM scene is a variation of the triskele within a circle. The triskele has had many different meanings in many cultures over time; their use is derived in BDSM of the description of the ring of O in the book Story of O from. In Europe in particular, the ring of O is a symbol of belonging to the BDSM scene, worn as jewelry, but can also be found in the Gothic scene and as costume jewelry.
The Leather Pride flag is a symbol that originally comes from the leather movement, but is also used throughout the scene. Based on this flag, the BDSM rights flag was created, which has a triskele in the middle. It is intended to express the conviction that people who live out elements of BDSM in their sexuality or relationship have the same basic rights and should not be discriminated against for the consensually practiced BDSM.
BDSM and fetish motifs have spread in everyday life in Western societies due to factors as diverse as avant-garde fashion , rap , hip-hop , heavy metal , science fiction television series and feature films, and many people are no longer aware of them associated with their BDSM roots.
BDSM is practiced by all strata of society and all sexually active age groups and occurs in the most varied of forms and intensities in every sexual orientation in all binary and non-binary gender identities . These range from “bondage games” by couples in the bedroom that are unfamiliar with the scene and who do not consciously associate themselves with the term BDSM, to staged demonstrations at major public events such as the Folsom Parades that take place in several major cities around the world.
Recent research on the diffusion of BDSM fantasies and practices has varied considerably in the range of its results. In summary, however, it can be stated that the authors assume that between two and 62% of the population regularly engages in sexual practices that involve pleasure in pain, power and powerlessness or corresponding fantasies. The lowest number comes from an Australian study of 19307 participants interested in BDSM, of which 2.2% of men and 1.3% of women reported having been involved in BDSM-related activities in the last year. The proportion of the population with such fantasies was 62% in a Canadian study from 2015; 64.6% of women and 53.3% of men had fantasies in which they were sexually dominated, 46.7% of women and 59.6% of men reported fantasizing about sexually dominating someone.
According to a consumer survey of 317,000 people in 41 countries in 2005, around 20% of those surveyed worldwide have already used masks, blindfolds or other bondage utensils, 5% expressly admitted to sadomasochism; In the previous year, 19% of respondents around the world admitted to practicing spanking and 22% to the use of blindfolds and / or handcuffs. In particular, the publication of the book 50 Shades of Gray in 2011 led to an increased interest in BDSM practices. Before the film adaptation premiered in 2015, the London fire brigade warned of the Shades-of-Gray effect and expected an increase in deployments to free people from handcuffs or similar emergencies. The fire department documented the sex accidents under the hashtag Shades of Red . English hardware stores were also preparing for increased demand and stocking up on cable ties, ropes and adhesive tape. In addition, they gave their employees a handout to be able to respond to inquiries from this special customer group.
Subgroups according to orientation
Contrary to the ideal of a tolerant, inclusive and pansexual scene cultivated by many BDSMers, which actually exists in some virtual and local communities, the subculture is divided into different subgroups. There is a clear dividing line between heterosexual and homosexual orientations, which becomes apparent at events in which predominantly heterosexuals or gays and lesbians take part, but mixed groups are much less common.
This shows a clearly perceptible differentiation of the scene into heteronormative lifestyles and a marginalization of the alternative LGBT I * community within the BDSM scene. In their historical development, gay-lesbian and queer BDSMers have developed their own subcultures tailored to their needs and do not want to give them up in favor of another, heterosexually-centered subgroup. Some BDSMers move between these subgroups, but in practice the BDSM scene defined as neutral appears to be predominantly oriented towards heterosexuals.
Gender distribution and differences
The gender differences and personal characteristics of BDSMers have been studied more recently. Wismeijer and van Assen's 2013 study showed that role and gender identification are strong and meaningful. Only 8% of the women saw themselves as dominant in contrast to 75% who defined themselves as submissive. In the study by Hébert and Weaver from 2014, similar proportions were found, here 9% of the women were dominant and 88% of the women were submissive, while in 2017 at Weierstall and Giebel 19% of the women were dominant and 74% of the women were submissive. They concluded that men are more likely to be more dominant, while women are more likely to be more submissive. This conclusion is in line with a 2015 study that showed that women overall prefer dominant men; and for short-term relationships and sex choose not only dominant, but also aggressive partners. Studies of the differences in sexual fantasies have also shown that women prefer submissive and passive to dominant and active fantasies, the fantasies often referring to coercion and rape.
Women and masochism
While most outsiders assume that women disproportionately often define themselves as submissive or masochistic, Roy Baumeister came to different conclusions in a study from 2010; in his opinion, no assumptions should be made about gender and the masochistic role in BDSM. One explanation that society accepts such ideas are cultural and social ideas of femininity. Masochism can even adopt some of these typically feminine stereotypes through the feminization of men or through emphatically feminine clothing. Such notions of the submissive masochistic role, however, should not be interpreted as a connection between the same and a stereotypical female role; Masochistic roles do not involve any of these ideas.
Psychologist and anthropologist Prior argues that while women appear to be in traditional and submissive roles, BDSM allows them and the dominant women to express and experience their own strength through their sexual identity. In a 2013 study, the majority of women defined themselves as bottom , sub , prisoner or (sex) slave without this representing a break with their feminist attitude. In fact, women feel that their chosen role reinforces their feminist identity. For them, these roles are sexually and emotionally satisfying. Prior noted that the third wave of feminism made it possible for BDSMers to express their sexuality without contradicting the ideals of feminism; they perceive themselves as integrated, balanced and strong women.
Prejudice and criticism
As with all other sexual minorities, there are numerous prejudices, clichés and stereotypes about BDSM in society. These prejudices are particularly favored by a conservative attitude that connects BDSM with crime, illness and non-heteronormative behavior. The rejection of non-reproductive sexuality can also lead to such ideas. A typical problem is, for example, that it is often not clear to outsiders whether it is consensual sexual practice or violence. Even simply looking at an action, for example a screening or a film scene, does not make it possible to see whether or not it is a staging with agreed rules for those involved.
Many people know from the media and porn movies that male customers buy sadomasochistic services from dominatrixes, from this also many clichés arise, for example that of the successful man who lets himself be tormented by a dominatrix at night. In addition to the cliché of the dominatrix wielding the whip, the leather-clad sadomasochist is an equally widespread role cliché that stems primarily from film scenes and images of the leather scene.
In fact, a study carried out in 2008 with 3,058 members of the BDSM scene from different countries found that 37.5% of the participants had already been victims of discrimination, harassment or prejudice on one or more occasions.
In the 1970s, originated in the US radical feminist anti-pornography activist group Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media (Engl. Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media ) the BDSM as ritualized violence against women profoundly rejected and fought. These were against Samois , an organization that campaigned for the rights of lesbian BDSMers. The fiercely-run clashes between radical feminists and sex-positive feminists led to the Feminist Sex Wars (Engl. Sex War of feminists ) that continue to this day (see. This also feminism and Femdom ). In the German-speaking area, the radical feminist position against pornography and violence etc. a. taken up by Alice Schwarzer , who initiated the PorNO campaign in 1987 . She criticizes the mixing of sexuality and violence and strictly rejects any form of BDSM. This position, which is also shared by other feminists, is criticized because, on the one hand, it negates the existence of female dominance and, on the other hand, it has alienated sadomasochistic women from the women's movement. The campaign is reissued again and again, most recently in 2007.
BDSM and fascism
Various historians, including William L. Shirer, saw a connection between National Socialism and sexual deviance , for example, in the rise and fall of the Third Reich, he describes the publisher of the striker Julius Streicher as a notorious pervert and depraved sadist who always carried a whip with him. At the other end of the sadomasochistic spectrum, he locates Adolf Hitler with a masochistic tendency to be dominated by a loving woman. A connection between sadomasochism and fascism is discussed in particular in the feminist lesbian view of BDSM . This discussion was triggered by the 1975 article by Susan Sontag Fascinating Fascism in which she a.o. a. occupied with the sexualized eroticism in Leni Riefenstahl's work. Sontag sees a natural connection between BDSM and fascism. Irene Reti later argues that BDSM techniques such as punishment, discipline, and humiliation were imported directly from applied Nazi practices.
After the Second World War, the House of Dolls, written by the Auschwitz survivor Yehiel Feiner , was created in Israel , in which female camp inmates are forced to perform sexual services. The success of the book is regarded as a literary door opener for the semi-pornographic stalagim, a Naziploitation genre in which, in particular, erotically sexualized brutalities by female SS camp guards are emphasized. In 1969 Love Camp 7 was the first Nazi propaganda film to be made in the USA, followed by films such as Ilsa, She-Wolf of the SS (1975). The critic Lynn Rapport calls this genre Holocaust Pornography and points out that in such films the connection is made between Nazi iconography, political ideology and violence with sexuality. In the 1975 film 120 Days of Sodom directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini , a film adaptation of the book of the same name by de Sade, a direct connection between torture, rape and murder with sadomasochistic motifs is established by setting the plot in a fictional fascist state. Within the scene, these associations are largely negated, but there are, especially in connection with uniform fetishes, erotic Nazi role-playing games and pornography in which these fantasies are thematized.
Controversies within the subculture
There are some controversial discussions within the BDSM scene, in particular about terminology, demarcations and role models. One of the topics is the question of whether sadomasochistic practices are violence or not. This question, which is also important for the external presentation, is answered differently. Some BDSMers assume that, analogous to medical interventions, which represent physical harm even with consent, it is always a matter of sexual violence. Other BDSMers reject this view and see the practices as a theater-like representation in which the violence is not real. For part of the scene, the question already represents an inadmissible mixture of sexual offenses and consensual BDSM, they see BDSM as the socially acceptable variant of sexual violence. The discussion was shaped , among other things, by the feminist criticism of BDSM. Ultimately, it becomes clear from the debate that despite consensus, the SSC and the legal situation, it is not easy to draw the line between legitimate and illegitimate violence.
The use of the term slavery is also discussed . Some BDSMers find the reference to the historical, real cruelty of slavery strange, which is mainly shown through the use of the term master / slave. People of Color , who are clearly underrepresented in the scene, describe not only rejection but also feelings of guilt when using them in BDSM.
Some people who feel attracted to the situations described by the term BDSM, come out in the course of their lives. While homosexuals are increasingly professing their sexual orientation in public, sadomasochists are still comparatively covered. Although, depending on the survey basis, around 5 to 25% of the US population have this tendency, apart from a few artists, almost no celebrities are known as sadomasochists. A corresponding awareness of one's own inclinations can still have devastating professional and social effects for sadomasochists. Nevertheless, in a study published in 2008, 57% of the 3098 BDSMers surveyed said they were open about their inclinations. The cases of UN weapons inspector Jack McGeorge from 2003 and the Spanner case in Great Britain show, for example, that the discovery of private involvement in this area can still lead to considerable professional problems and stigmatization of those affected . Here is an important difference to the only rudimentary comparable situation of homosexuals. The psychological stress that arises in individual cases is usually neither publicly discussed nor acknowledged, but often leads to a difficult psychological situation in which those affected are exposed to high emotional stress. Regardless of age, coming out can sometimes lead to a life crisis that can escalate to suicidal intentions or realized suicide .
After the first interest groups were formed in the USA in 1997 and in Great Britain in 1996 with the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF) and the Sexual Freedom Coalition (SFC) , which set themselves the task of proactive public relations work on the subject of BDSM a similar development is also taking place in German-speaking countries. The larger regional associations such as BDSM Berlin, founded in 1999 and SMart Rhein-Ruhr , founded in 1992 , but also the Federal Sadomasochism Association founded in 2003, with the development of information material and press work , often appear on the outside . With the website and mailing list Datenschlag , which has been in operation since 1996, one of the largest bibliographies and one of the most detailed historical sources on the subject of BDSM was created.
SM parties and clubs
SM parties are events at which BDSM supporters and interested parties meet to communicate, exchange experiences and “play”. The parties often resemble those of the black scene with a more or less strict dress code ; As a rule, this is frivolous clothing or partial clothing made of lacquer (vinyl, PVC), leather, latex, Lycra or the like, which clearly emphasizes the body or particularly emphasizes the primary or secondary sexual characteristics. The aim of such dress codes is to create an erotic mood and to keep tensioners away. BDSM is lived out publicly at these parties, for example on a stage , or more or less privately in private rooms. Sexual intercourse is not the focus of the activities. One reason for the relatively widespread use of this type of event is the presence of “play equipment” there, for which no space is given in most apartments, such as St. Andrew's crosses, penalty stands or cages. Furthermore, there is generally no problem of noise pollution at these locations, which can limit many BDSM activities in private. Such parties also offer exhibitionists and voyeurists a forum to live out their inclination without social rejection. BDSM parties are now in every major city.
In some cities there are special BDSM clubs (such as the Hamburg Club de Sade ) with a more or less regular program in which theme parties alternate with theme-free "game evenings", analogous to the business operations of conventional discos . However, the social control at these parties or in the clubs is usually much higher than in a normal discotheque. On consensuality in public SM games is strictly respected. In addition to commercial events, there are also privately organized or non-profit or only moderately profit-oriented parties organized by BDSM groups and individuals. Minors are not allowed to parties or clubs.
Medicine and psychology
In the past, many of the practices lived within BDSM were generally attributed to sadism or masochism and, in terms of an instinctual disorder, were assessed as pathological by psychiatry and cataloged as a disorder of sexual preference ( paraphilia ). Due to a changed perception and a shift in social norms, BDSM will only be seen as a problem in medicine if the person concerned cannot obtain sexual satisfaction other than through the practice of sadistic or masochistic practices, or if he himself rejects his own sadistic or masochistic sexual preference and feels restricted in his living conditions or suffers in some other way.
According to ICD-10 as a “disorder of sexual preference” (Code F65.5), which is described there as follows: “Preference is given to sexual activities with the infliction of pain, humiliation or restraints. If the person concerned experiences this type of stimulation, it is masochism; when she inflicts it on someone else for sadism. Often the person concerned feels sexual arousal during masochistic as well as sadistic activities. ”The organization ReviseF65 has been working on the subkeys F65.0, F65.1 and F65.5 (fetishism, transvestism and sadomasochism) from the ICD and since the mid-1990s to remove the various classification systems. On April 24, 1995, Denmark was the first member state of the European Union to completely remove sadomasochism from its national classification system for clinical pictures, followed by Sweden in January 2009. Norway and Finland also decided to cancel in 2009 and 2010.
With the publication of the provisional version of ICD 11 in July 2018, most of the disorders listed in F65 were no longer classified as pathological, but only when they are compulsively exercised, are associated with significant damage to health or death, or the person performing them suffers from them . The consensual exercise of sadomasochistic practices was expressly not classified as pathological. As a variant of individual sexual arousal, treatment is neither indicated nor sought after. The ICD-11 will come into effect in 2022.
According to the WHO ICD-11 working group, the stigma and discrimination of fetishists and BDSMers is incompatible with human rights, which the United Nations and the World Health Organization consider fundamental.
In the past, BDSM was viewed as a disorder of sexual preference by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which provides the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic guidelines. After campaigns by various organizations, including the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom, which campaigns for the depathologization of BDSM, these criteria were changed from 1994 onwards. With the appearance of DSM IV in 1994, new diagnostic criteria were published according to which BDSM was clearly no longer categorized as pathological.
In the current DSM-5 (2013), deviant sexual behavior such as sadomasochistic preferences is no longer ascribed disease value in principle, but only if they are associated with the affected person with psychological stress or are not socially acceptable, i.e. damage society. A superposition of sexual preference disorders and the practice of BDSM practices can, however, occur.
Psychoanalytic theories of origin
There have been and are numerous psychoanalytic theories to explain why people derive pleasure from pain, infliction of pain, humiliation, humiliation and other aspects of BDSM. Most early sexologists, psychiatrists, and psychoanalysts assumed that such behavior predominantly occurred in men. It is now known that the proportion of women is noticeably higher than in the other behaviors classified as paraphilia .
One of the earliest theories of origin is the degeneration model formulated by Bénédict Augustin Morel in 1857. He gave a religious interpretation to mental disorders. In his opinion, it was a matter of deviations from the God-willed image of man as a result of the Fall .
Richard von Krafft-Ebing explains in his work Psychopathia sexualis , published in 1886, all the perversions and anomalies of sexual life known at the time. He categorized the disorders into new terms such as masochism and sadism. For him, the bourgeois understanding of “natural sexual characters” was decisive for the assessment of the pathology of behavior. A sadistic man and a masochistic woman were to be classified as close to the norm in terms of reproductive sexuality and corresponded to the understanding of roles of the time, whereas a sadistic woman and a masochistic man as "perversion of the psycho-sexual nature" are the furthest from the norm.
In his Studies of the Psychology of Sex , published from 1897, Havelock Ellis differentiated for the first time between consensual sadomasochistic practices, which he termed algolagnia , and general cruelty, and emphasized the emotional connection between those involved. His views were not generally shared and were drowned in scientific discourse.
Sigmund Freud published his Three Essays on Sexual Theory in 1905 , in which he understood the emergence of sadism and masochism as a disruption of the development of early childhood sexuality (cf. Infantile sexuality ). In his view, a person's sexual development begins at birth, and if that person develops healthily, he would have achieved healthy and mature sexuality by the end of his sexual development. According to Freud, disturbances in this development manifest themselves in undesirable developments such as paraphilias or sadism and masochism. In 1915 he supplemented these explanations with the drive theory , according to which sadism is part of the man's natural makeup. He orients himself here on Krafft-Ebing, who ascribed men a naturally aggressive gender role. His contemporary and student Isidor Sadger finally coined the term “sado masochism” in 1913. Freud's theories dominated scientific discourse for decades.
Schorsch and Becker pursued a further psychoanalytical approach in the 1970s. They saw sadism as a disruption in early childhood development, which in the course of time could trigger a fragile male identity and a fearful and conflict-laden relationship with women. According to Schorsch and Becker, the sadistic man thereby overcomes the fear of submission, while the masochistic man overcomes fears of castration. Women are missing from consideration. Also influenced by Freud was the theory of Robert Stoller ( Perversion - Die erotic form von Hass , 1975), which attributed the development of sadomasochism to a child's frustration. He initially described SM as sexualized hatred, but revised his opinion in 1991 after reviewing his studies and advocated understanding and an alternative approach to sadomasochism. From 1974 onwards, Fritz Morgenthaler described deviant sexual behavior, to which he included homosexuality in addition to SM, as a "seal" with which the crack caused by trauma suffered in narcissistic development should be repaired. In contrast to other researchers, Morgenthaler was reluctant to make therapeutic recommendations because of the risks involved.
Explanatory models from other schools of thought
In addition to the psychoanalytic theories of explanation, there are other models that attempt to explain the emergence of sadomasochistic preferences. This includes the learning-theoretical explanatory model, in which it is assumed that through classical and operant conditioning, originally non-sexual stimuli become sexually arousing stimuli; As with traditional sexuality, she believes that deviant sexuality is learned. Other models are for example the biological-cultural explanatory approach by Ford and Beach (1951), the Lovemaps - inner-psychic schemata for sexuality by John Money (1986), and masochism as compensation for everyday stress by Roy Baumeister (1988)
There are only a few studies that consider psychological aspects of BDSM while taking modern scientific standards into account. A central study on the topic comes from the American sexologist Charles Moser and was published in 1988 in the Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality . He comes to the conclusion that there is generally a lack of data on the psychological problems of BDSM fans, but that some basic facts are emerging. He stresses that there is no evidence whatsoever that BDSM followers share symptoms or any common psychopathology, nor has there been a consistent picture of BDSM followers in the clinical literature. Moser points out that it cannot be proven that BDSM followers have any special psychiatric problems or problems that are based on their preferences and that only arise specifically for them and that are directly related to their orientation. In his work, Moser comes to the conclusion that there is no scientific basis whatsoever that could justify denying persons in this group work or safety certificates, adoption opportunities, custody rights or other social rights or privileges.
An Australian survey study with more than 19,000 submitted answer questionnaires came to the conclusion in 2008 that a BDSM inclination and the exercise of it should be regarded as a regular sexual variety of a minority. There is no connection with psychological trauma and problems with sexuality. A study from the same year confirmed a connection between the personality trait Experience Seeking (need for new and strong stimuli) and actually practiced BDSM.
In 2013, Wismeijer and van Assen carried out a comparative study on the psychological characteristics of practicing BDSMers. The results showed that BDSMers are less neurotic, more extroverted, more open to new experiences, less prone to rejection, less insecure within their relationship and subjectively feel better than the comparison group without BDSM preferences. Within the individual groups, these positive aspects are more pronounced within the dominant group of people than with the submissive ones. According to Wismeijer, the role taken on also allows conclusions to be drawn about personality; People who often take on the dominant part appear mentally stronger. They are most balanced within the group, with switchers in the middle. Submissives are at the bottom of the group, but according to the study, they still do better than people who do not practice BDSM sexual practices. Wismeijer stated that one study on its own shouldn't determine whether BDSM should be categorized as a disease in the DSM, but combined with other studies, these more recent results would suggest that BDSM is more of a lifestyle choice, albeit possibly a strange one.
The development of the term BDSM is complex. Originally, sadism and masochism were pure technical terms for psychological phenomena that were classified as mental illness. The terms are derived from the authors Marquis de Sade and Leopold von Sacher-Masoch . 1843 the Hungarian physician published Heinrich Kaan under the name of sexual psychopathology a font in which he converts the sin conceptions of Christianity into medical diagnoses. The originally theological terms “perversion”, “aberration” and “deviation” thus became part of the scientific language for the first time. The German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing introduced the terms “sadism” and “masochism” into medicine for the first time in his book New Research in the Field of Psychopathia sexualis in 1890. After Sigmund Freud described sadism and masochism as diseases arising from a defective development of the child's psyche in his Three Essays on Sexual Theory in 1905 and thus fundamentally influenced the further assessment of the topic for decades, the Viennese psychoanalyst Isidor Sadger finally made his mark in 1913 in his article Über the sado-masochistic complex first used the compound term "sado-masochism".
Erwin J. Haeberle , President of the DGSS , problematized these terms, which were originally derived from singular historical figures, and which also contained a pathological reference. Masoch protested in vain that his name had to be used for a simplistic drawer. According to Haeberle, naming homosexuality as " Leonardism ", " Michelangelism " or " Tchaikovskyism " would not have objectified the discourse, but only degraded the respective historical personality.
The BDSM scene today distances itself greatly from de Sade, as his amoral philosophy is not compatible with the moral principles of RACK or SSC . The BDSM scene tried to differentiate itself from the pejorative connotation “S&M” with the expression “B&D” for bondage and discipline . The abbreviation BDSM was probably coined in the subculture around the newsgroup alt.sex.bondage in the early 1990s . It can be detected there for the first time in July 1991. Later, the area of dominance and submission was integrated into the scope of BDSM, which resulted in the multi-layered acronym used today .
Sadomasochistic practices are already described on some of the oldest cuneiform tablets in the world, combined with rituals in honor of the goddess Inanna . These prove that the early Sumerian city kings performed rituals in which they had to submit to the goddess (or her priestess as a manifestation of the goddess). Reference is also made to ancient writings such as Inanna and Ebih, in which rituals are mentioned which are “permeated with pain and ecstasy”, which led to the initiation of the Ensis (city prince) and to journeys with altered states of consciousness. Since the 9th century BC In Artemis Orthia - one of the most important religious sites of the ancient Greek city of Sparta - with the cult of Orthia, a pre- Olympic religion was practiced. This resulted in regular ritual flagellations . These floggings, called diamastigosis , were carried out by the priestesses on young adolescent men. These rituals are mentioned by a number of ancient authors, including Pausanias .
One of the oldest graphic evidence of sadomasochistic practices comes from an Etruscan tomb in Tarquinia . In the Tomba della Fustigazione (tomb of chastisement, late 6th century BC) two men are depicted beating a woman with a rod and with the hand while making love. Another witness to flagellation is found in the sixth book of the Satires of the ancient Roman poet Juvenal (1st or 2nd century AD. Chr.), And the Satyricon of Petronius , is whipped into the sexual arousal of a delinquent.
In the Kamasutra , four types of blows in love play are shown, the hit zones of the human body that are permitted for blows and the types of pleasure-filled pain sounds of the bottom. The collection of texts expressly points out that punching games as well as pinching and biting during sexual intercourse may only take place in mutual agreement, since not all women find them pleasurable. From this point of view, the Kamasutra is likely to be the first written text on SM practices and safety rules. Other sources use a much more extensive definition and describe BDSM-like behavior in even earlier epochs and from completely different cultural areas, for example the medieval flagellants or the divine courts of some American Indian peoples .
Some authors see the medieval phenomenon of courtly love in all of its slavish submission and devotion as an at least partial forerunner of D / s. The first printed work on flagellantism is the Tractus de usu flagrorum in re Medica et Veneria (Latin for a treatise on the use of the whip in medicine and sexuality ) by the German doctor Ioannes Henricus Meibomius, published in 1639 . In 1749 John Cleland's novel Fanny Hill appeared in which also flagellation scenes are described. With the publication of the book, the flagellation became known throughout Europe as a sexual variety, the French referred to the erotic flagellation as le vice anglais , the English sin. Reports of brothels specializing in flagellation date back to 1769. The first known SM piece of furniture is the Berkley Horse, which was designed in 1828 by the London domina Theresa Berkley and made her a fortune.
Development of modern BDSM
The roots of modern BDSM culture are in the dark. BDSM motifs and images have existed on the fringes of Western culture throughout the 20th century. Robert Bienvenu sees the roots of modern BDSM in three main sources, which he describes as “European fetish” (since 1928), “American fetish” (since 1934) and “gay leather movement” (since the 1950s). Another source is the sexual practices practiced in brothels, which date back to the 18th century.
Large parts of today's BDSM ideas can be traced back to the subculture of the male homosexual leather scene, which developed from the American motorcyclist subculture after World War II.
In his 1972 published book Leatherman's Handbook , Larry Townsend summarized these ideas, which would later be referred to as the " Old Guard " leather movement. The code of conduct described in this work was based on strict formal requirements and defined roles with regard to the behavior of those involved. The leather movement is now mostly viewed as a subset of BDSM culture rather than a development derived from gay culture, although in the past a large part of the organized BDSM subculture was actually homosexual. The so-called New Guard leather movement emerged in the 1990s as a reaction to the restrictions underlying the Old Guard leather movement. This movement was positive about switching, accepted a much wider range of erotic varieties, and promoted the number of pansexual clubs.
In the mid-1990s, the Internet offered the opportunity for the first time all over the world, but also especially in the respective local regions, to find other people with special sexual preferences and to exchange ideas with them anonymously. This led to a massive increase in the dissemination of information and interest in the subject of BDSM. In this early phase, the Usenet group alt.sex.bondage played a pioneering role. In the period that followed, in addition to conventional sex shops , more and more providers in online sex shops also began to include BDSM toys in their range or to specialize exclusively in the increasingly emerging “new” target group. The former niche segment thus developed into an integral part of the erotic accessories business.
It depends on the legal situation of individual states whether practices from the BDSM have a legal relevance or can constitute a criminal offense. In Germany , BDSM can also be viewed as immoral if there is a risk to life and limb, but consensual BDSM is usually considered legal. In the Netherlands , Japan , Canada and the Scandinavian countries, these practices do not usually constitute a criminal offense as long as the act has been consented to and those involved are aware that this consent is still to be signaled. In Austria and Italy there is no stable legal situation, while in Switzerland BDSM practices can be punishable in some cases. In the United States the legal situation is not uniform, in the UK and consensual practices are prohibited. Even in countries where consensual BDSM practices are legally permitted, pornographic representations from the BDSM field (such as pornographic literature, comics, drawings, photographs or videos) can fall under the term " violent pornography " and thus be punishable, for example in Germany Criminal Code .
BDSM in culture, art and media
In fiction, especially sadomasochism is a recurring motif and has produced some classics, e.g. B. The story of O by Dominique Aury (under the pseudonym Pauline Réage), Justine by Marquis de Sade, Venus in Furs by Leopold von Sacher-Masoch or the cult comics by Eric Stanton . Martha's letter to Leopold Bloom in Ulysses by James Joyce should be mentioned as a literary curiosity . The 1978 novel 9 1/2 Weeks. Memories of a love affair with Elizabeth McNeill formed the content basis for the very successful Hollywood film 9½ weeks , together with the Sleeping Beauty trilogy (1983–1985) published in three volumes by the well-known American author Anne Rice under the pseudonym AN Roquelaure also international interest in the subject. A modern German-language sadomasochistic autobiography is Decemberkind by Leander Sukov from 2005. In 2011, the first volume of the Shades of Gray trilogy by British author EL James, one of the most commercially successful titles in the genre, has been translated into 52 languages . This trilogy and the accompanying films are rejected by many BDSM players because they do not represent consensual BDSM, but the submission of the protagonist bears clear traits of domestic and sexual violence.
In non-fiction, the book Coming to Power: Writing and graphics on Lesbian S / M , published in November 1981 by the American feminist lesbian group Samois , in which short stories alternate with specific tips and instructions, is considered the world's first BDSM manual . His concept was adopted worldwide by many later publications. Since the end of the nineties at the latest, there has been corresponding literature in Germany, which is aimed at both heterosexual and homosexual reader groups. The best known of these publications in the German-speaking area is probably Das SM-Handbuch by Matthias TJ Grimme . With the non-fiction book Die Wahl der Tor by Kathrin Passig and Ira Strübel, a publication has been on the market for the first time since 2000, which is not aimed at people from the BDSM subculture, but rather provides broad sections of the population with a broad knowledge base on the subject of BDSM and thus reduces prejudices want. In addition to the non-fiction books with specific practical relevance, there is extensive literature on scientific publications related to the topic (see under literature ).
As early as 1967, the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground released the song Venus in Furs , which, inspired by the novella Venus im Pelz by Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, contains numerous allusions to BDSM practices. The British synth-pop group Depeche Mode released the song Master and Servant on their album Some Great Reward in 1984 . Other BDSM-related songs followed such as Strangelove (1987) and In Your Room (1993). With the song Sweet Sweet Gwendoline , The Doctors composed in 1986 an homage to the fictional character Sweet Gwendoline by bondage artist John Willie . Two years later follows the song Please Please , which describes the wishes of a male sub. In the more than seven-minute "Domina-Mix", which appeared in 1994 on the Best of Das Beste from shortly after earlier to now , the befriended Dominique Dominique explains BDSM terms. The song Happiness in Slavery , published in 1992 by Nine Inch Nails , borrows the title and chorus from the preface to the history of the O by Jean Paulhan . The NDH band Rammstein flirts with a BDSM reference several times in their songs. B. Punish me , Bück dich und Feuerwheels (all 1997) and I hurt you (2009). Well-known artists such as Madonna ( Erotica , 1992), Janet Jackson ( Discipline , 2008), Rihanna ( S&M 2010) deal with BDSM in their music.
With Umbra et Imago , Ordo Rosarius Equilibrio , Die Form , Genitorturers and Grausame Töchter, there are also better-known BDSM concept bands from the black scene who used BDSM elements in stage shows and even entire BDSM performances. The Swiss musician Carlos Perón , who became known with the band Yello , has with the so-called "fetish soundtracks" Terminatrix (1993), La salle blanche (1994), La salle noire (1996) and La salle violette (2002) several BDSM- Concept albums composed.
Theater and cabaret
There are indeed some productions in which sadomasochistic practices were also used as stylistic devices in classical theater, but very few plays deal with BDSM itself. Examples of this are the Austrian "What bodies are capable of", an adaptation of Peter Kern written and staged Jean Genet's film Un chant d'amour and the German "Ach, Hilde" by Anne Schwemmer, playing with the image of the dominatrix. Axel Tüting is a German cabaret artist and BDSM pantomime who performs with erotic SM cabaret.
Drawing, comic and photography
Drawings and, more rarely, paintings on sadomasochistic subjects have existed for several centuries, even if these do not necessarily conform to today's understanding of BDSM. Many drawings clearly show the era in which they were created, for example Rudolf Schlichter , a representative of New Objectivity , who painted predominantly female-dominated subjects, Raphael Kirchner , who is assigned to Art Nouveau, and Pierre Mac Orlan , who used a number of artist names and that Illustrated book "Les Grandes Flagellées" or Georges Töpfer , who had a passion for flagellation and chastisement. In addition to these artists, analogous to film and television, there are also many extremely explicit and pornographic representations from the field, e.g. B. by Joseph Farrell, DeMentia (Tom Sutton) or Namio Harukawa.
After the now rather awkward looking pornographic depictions of early photography, Irving Klaw produced the first advertising films and photographs with BDSM motifs during the 1950s and 1960s and published comics by the now famous bondage artists John Willie and Eric Stanton for the first time . His model Bettie Page also became one of the first successful models in the field of fetish photography and one of the most famous pin-up girls of the US mainstream. The Italian graphic artist and author Guido Crepax , who was inspired by Willie, had a decisive influence on the style of European adult comics in the second half of the 20th century. The artists Helmut Newton and Robert Mapplethorpe are the most prominent examples of the increasing use of BDSM motifs in modern photography and the resulting public discussion.
Exhibitions on the closely related genres of BDSM and fetish art take place around the world in erotic and sex museums such as the Erotic Art Museum Hamburg or the Erotic Museum in Amsterdam, as traveling exhibitions or as a supplement to corresponding trade fairs. A museum expressly dedicated to BDSM and the leather movement is the Leather Archives and Museum in Chicago with a branch in Amsterdam.
Movie and TV
After the sexual revolution, literary works such as Die Geschichte der O (1975) and Venus im Pelz (1969) were filmed very explicitly from the 1960s onwards . Including the costume film Marquis de Sade: Justine (1969), the moral painting de Sade (1969) or the direct Sade adaptation Justine - Screams Behind Monastery Walls (1972). Sadomasochistic imagery and rituals also found their way into more aesthetically demanding films or auteur films such as The Last Tango in Paris (1972), Maîtresse (1975), The Cage (1985), Lulu (1990) or Tokyo Decadence (1992). Were worked Neosurrealistisch-absurd Fando and Lis (1968) by Arrabal play, or by Roland Topor written script for the bizarre puppet film Marquis (1989) belong to this genre also Dorothea's Revenge (1974) or The Cruel Woman (1985), a Adaptation of Sacher-Masoch's Venus in Fur.
Unfulfilled erotic power fantasies from literature served as a template for the inquisition drama The Witches Hunter (1968) or The Devils (1971) based on the novel by Aldous Huxley , in which non-consensual atrocities are depicted. Sadomasochistic scenes that were misleadingly adapted characterize the group of sadiconazista films of the 1970s; they imply a direct connection between political barbarism and sexual perversion; These films include, for example, the film noir Der Nachtportier (1974) and the SS brothel in Salon Kitty (1976). Films such as The Image (1975), In the Realm of the Senses (1976) or The Piano Player based on the book by Elfriede Jelinek delve much deeper into the dominant-submissive soul life of the protagonists .
Documentary or biographical films were initially a rarity, like the film Exhibition No. 2 (1978) that investigates the relationship between a dominatrix and her slave. From the late 1990s onwards, films like Preaching to the Perverted (1997) managed to combine commercial claims and authenticity. With SICK: The Life and Death of Bob Flanagan, Supermasochist (1997), the documentary series KinK (2001) and Wir Leben… SM! (2004) developed a further cinematic approach to the topic, which is aimed specifically at broad audience groups.
Public successes such as 9½ weeks (1986), Secretary (2002) and the trilogy Fifty Shades of Gray (from 2015) have in common, in addition to an aesthetically smooth processing, that they particularly represent idealized heteronormative relationships and erotic bourgeois fantasies of power / powerlessness in the sense of a "clean" Sado Maso fairy tale "satisfy.
In addition to these more aesthetically oriented films, there is a broad market for sadomasochistic pornography in the form of porn films . As a typical representative of the exploitation genre, the Spanish director Jess Franco created a large number of films that are based, among other things, on the works of the Marquis de Sade and are partially indexed in Germany.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, BDSM motifs have been used again and again in the context of larger marketing campaigns. Well-known examples in German-speaking countries are poster motifs for the cigarette brands Camel and West , which feature a camel draped in “typical” leather clothing or a dominatrix with a whip. While West still had to withdraw the motif at the time because of "offending against morality", BDSM motifs were used again and again in the following years. For example, in March 2007 the fashion chain H&M advertised the sale of a fashion collection put together by Madonna with a promotional video on German television. The artist, who was repeatedly criticized for the use of sadomasochistic subjects, showed this as a dominant lifestyle icon who gave an inappropriately dressed schoolgirl fashion wisdom such as "Don't think it - you need to know it" while popping her whip then have it completely fashionably converted.
In Canada, Mini 2005 presents the winter equipment of the Mini-Cooper in the form of an interactive BDSM session, in which the user can try out a wide variety of striking tools on the vehicle with the support of a virtual dominatrix and the optional special equipment is explained. The German dowel manufacturer Fischer also uses sadomasochistic subjects in a satirizing video clip to depict the quality of its products. In the USA, Anheuser-Busch sponsors the Folsom Street Fair, and the jeans brand Diesel has repeatedly placed sadomasochistic advertisements in fashion magazines in recent years. The brand providers satirize sometimes widespread clichés.
- Norbert Elb: SM sexuality. Self-organization of a sexual subculture . Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2006, ISBN 3-89806-470-0 .
- Matthias TJ Grimme : The SM manual . 14th edition. Charon-Verlag, Hamburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-931406-01-1 .
- Olaf May: criminal law and sadomasochism . Shaker Verlag, Aachen 1997, ISBN 3-8265-5595-3 (also Diss. Univ. Kiel 1996).
- Kathrin Passig, Ira Strübel: The choice of agony . 3. Edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-499-62408-7 .
- Elisabeth Wagner: Borderline conscious sadomasochism: SM sexuality between breaking norms and confirming norms . transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2014, ISBN 978-3-8376-2870-8 .
- Thomas A. Wetzstein among others: Sadomasochism. Scenes and rituals . Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-499-19632-8 .
- Ariane Cruz: The Color of Kink: Black Women, BDSM, and Pornography . New York University Press, New York 2016, ISBN 978-1-4798-2746-6 .
- Dossie Easton, Janet W. Hardy: The New Bottoming Book . Greenery Press, San Francisco 2001, ISBN 1-890159-35-2 .
- Dossie Easton, Janet W. Hardy: The New Topping Book . Greenery Press, Oakland 2002, ISBN 1-890159-36-0 .
- Robin Ruth Linden: Against Sadomasochism: A Radical Feminist Analysis . Frog in the Well, 1983, ISBN 978-0-9603628-3-7 .
- David M. Ortmann, Richard A. Sprott: Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities . Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham 2013, ISBN 978-1-4422-1736-2 .
- Jay Wiseman : SM 101: A Realistic Introduction . 2., revised. u. extended Edition. Greenery Press, San Francisco 1998, ISBN 0-9639763-8-9 .
Educational pages on the topic
- daten-schlag.org - Datenschlag , the oldest German-language educational project
- SM-Outing.de - advice on outing and any problems associated with it
- bvsm.de - Bundesvereinigung Sadomasochismus e. V.
- bdsm.at - BDSM in Austria
- ig-bdsm.ch - BDSM in Switzerland
- maydaySM.de - crisis intervention and addressing in emergencies
- smjg.org - SMJG e. V. (BDSM youth association up to 27 years of age)
English language websites
- David M. Ortmann, Richard A. Sprott: Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities. Rowman & Littlefield, 2013, ISBN 978-1-4422-1736-2 , pp. 15-16 (English)
- Dossie Easton, Janet W. Hardy: The New Topping Book . Greenery Press, CA 2002, ISBN 1-890159-36-0 , pp. 71 .
- Craig J. Forsyth, Heith Copes: Encyclopedia of Social Deviance. SAGE Publications, 2014, ISBN 978-1-4522-4033-6 , p. 609.
- National Coalition for Sexual Freedom : Consent Violations Survey , 2015 (PDF), accessed on May 30, 2020
- David M. Ortmann, Richard A. Sprott: Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities. Rowman & Littlefield, 2013, ISBN 978-1-4422-1736-2 , p. 38 ff.
- Jay Wiseman : SM 101: A Realistic Introduction . Greenery Press, CA 1998, ISBN 0-9639763-8-9 , pp. 47 .
- David M. Ortmann, Richard A. Sprott: Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities. Rowman & Littlefield, 2013, ISBN 978-1-4422-1736-2 , p. 20.
- Phillip Miller, Molly Devon, William A. Granzig: Screw the Roses, Send Me the Thorns: The Romance and Sexual Sorcery of Sadomasochism . Mystic Rose Books, 1995, ISBN 0-9645960-0-8 , pp. 55 .
- Jay Wiseman: SM 101: A Realistic Introduction . CA 1998, ISBN 0-9639763-8-9 , pp. 305 .
- David Stein: S / M's Copernican Revolution: From a Closed World to the Infinite Universe .
- Meg Barker, Alessandra Iantaffi, Camel Gupta: Kinky clients, kinky counseling? The challenges and potentials of BDSM. In: Lindsey Moon (Ed.): Feeling Queer or Queer Feelings: Radical Approaches to Counseling: Sex, Sexualities and Genders. Routledge, London 2007, ISBN 978-0-415-38521-3 , pp. 106-124 (English)
- Jill D. Weinberg: Consensual Violence. Univ of California Press, 2016, ISBN 978-0-520-29066-2 Negotiated Consent, pp. 54 ff.
- Bill Henkin, Sybil Holiday: Consensual Sadomasochism: How to Talk About It and How to Do It Safely. Daedalus Publishing Company 1996, ISBN 1-881943-12-7 , pp. 80-94 (English)
- David M. Ortmann, Richard A. Sprott: Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4422-1735-5 , pp. 38 ff. (English)
- Datenschlag - The Paper Tiger: Covers cf. SMJG - covers
- Arne Hoffmann: The Lexicon of Sadomasochism. The Inside guide to dark eroticism: practices and instruments, people and institutions, literature and film, politics and philosophy. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, 2000, ISBN 3-89602-290-3 , p. 42 .
- Phillip Miller, Molly Devon, William A. Granzig: Screw the Roses, Send Me the Thorns: The Romance and Sexual Sorcery of Sadomasochism . Mystic Rose Books, 1995, ISBN 0-9645960-0-8 , pp. 95 ff .
- David M. Ortmann, Richard A. Sprott: Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4422-1735-5 , p. 38, study carried out by CARAS (Community-Academic Consortium for Research on Alternative Sexualities), 2009 (English)
- David M. Ortmann, Richard A. Sprott: Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4422-1735-5 , pp. 38 ff. (English)
- Jay Wiseman : SM 101: A Realistic Introduction . Greenery Press, CA 1998, ISBN 0-9639763-8-9 , pp. 111 .
- Gavin Brown, Jason Lim, Kath Browne: Geographies of Sexualities: Theory, Practices and Politics. Ashgate Publishing, 2012, ISBN 978-0-7546-7852-6 , p. 97. (English)
- Matthias TJ Grimme : The bondage manual. Instructions for mutual restraint . 9th edition. Charon-Verlag, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-931406-71-4 .
- Norman Breslow, Linda Evans, Jill Langley: On the Prevalence and Roles of Females in the Sadomasochistic Subculture: Report of an Empirical Study . In: Archives of Sexual Behavior . tape 14 , 1985, pp. 303-317 . (English)
- Leland Elliott, Cynthia Brantley: Sex on Campus: The Naked Truth about the Real Sex Lives of College Students . Random House, New York 1997. ISBN 978-0-679-74630-0 (English)
- EL Discipline: The Seduction of Discipline. AuthorHouse, 2017, ISBN 978-1-5246-9603-0 . See "Introduction"
- data key : paper tiger - DS
- cf. Pets library: gameplay
- Peter L. Dancer, Peggy J. Kleinplatz , Charles Moser : 24/7 SM slavery. In: Journal of Homosexuality. Volume 50, Issue 2–3, 2006, pp. 81–101, doi : 10.1300 / J082v50n02_05 (English)
- data key : paper tiger - slave contract
- Steeltoys: Example of a slave contract
- David M. Ortmann, Richard A. Sprott: Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4422-1735-5 , p. 39. (English)
- Bensimon, Baruch, Ronel: The experience of gambling in an illegal casino: The gambling spin process. European Journal of Criminology. Volume 10, No. 1, 2013, pp. 3-21. (English)
- Kurt & Ronel: Addicted to Pain. In: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Issue 61, number 15, November 2017. PMID | 26847638 (English) doi: 10.1177 / 0306624X15627804
- Bert Cutler: Partner selection, power dynamics, and sexual bargaining in self-defined BDSM couples. The Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality, San Francisco 2003. (English)
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