Bondage [ ˈbɒndɪdʒ ] describes practices within the BDSM scene to restrain or restrict freedom of movement. The term comes from English and stands for bondage or bondage, among other things . The goal is predominantly sexual stimulation ; However, there are special forms in which bondage is used for aesthetic or other reasons. The seldom used term Vincilagnia (from Latin : vincio , "I am fettering" and from ancient Greek: λαγνεία ( lagneia ), "lust") denotes sexual excitability through restrictions or fetters.
Bondage with all its variants is represented by the letter B in the multi-layered acronym BDSM . The acronym is made up of bondage & discipline , dominance & submission , sadism & masochism . Bondage plays a role in all of these areas, but can also be practiced separately from the other practices of BDSM as a separate practice. Sexuality and eroticism are important aspects of bondage, but they are often not ends in themselves. Further priorities can be set in aesthetics, sensation and concentration.
As in all other areas of BDSM, the equality of the partners is lifted during the actual action, here the bondage. The person who lets himself be tied up (bunny or bottom) gives control and independence for a defined period of time to the person who is actively tied up ( rigger or top ). The term often used for this transfer of power in subculture jargon is Power Exchange , the period of time is often referred to as a session or bondage session . This transition to a phase marked by the power imbalance takes place voluntarily and consensually, while the action itself is carried out with adapted security measures or a risk that is acceptable to those involved. In the parlance of the BDSM scene, the guiding principles " Safe, Sane, Consensual " (SSC) and "Risk aware consensual kink" (RACK) have become established. Consent and mutual consent between the parties involved differentiates erotic bondage, legally and ethically, from deprivation of liberty or offenses against sexual self-determination (such as sexual coercion ).
Motivation and dissemination
Bondage is one of the best-known practices from the spectrum of BDSM types and is often combined with other practices. The techniques used range from playful use within non-BDSM-related sexuality, so-called vanilla sex, to professional use and demonstration by Japanese bondage artists. Bondage can be the prelude to erotic role play, the only practice used in a session, or used as an aesthetic element outside of a sexual act or session.
As with many studies on human sexual behavior and sexual fantasies, not all available studies are reliably scientifically founded; for example, they come from newsgroups or are based on surveys in scene magazines; some studies are out of date. Due to the proximity of the sadomasochistic practices to bondage, statistical separation in surveys and studies was rarely made.
In 1995 an analysis of the psychologists Ernulf and Innala was published in Sweden, which presented the behavior of the members of the bondage-related newsgroup alt.sex.bondage . The majority of the contributions (76%) came from men; the active role in erotic restraint was preferred by 71% of the heterosexual men, 11% of the heterosexual women and 12% of the homosexual men. 29% of heterosexual men, 89% of heterosexual women and 88% of homosexual men stated that they let themselves be handcuffed. A third of the respondents engaged in sadomasochistic practices in connection with bondage or understood these practices as belonging together.
In a survey of US students by a magazine in 1996, 24% of respondents said they had sexual fantasies about bondage, led by homosexual and bisexual men with 40%, lesbian and bisexual women followed with 32% , while the number fell to 24% for heterosexual women and 21% for heterosexual men. 48% of lesbian and bisexual women, 34% of homo- and bisexual men and 25% of all heterosexuals had practical experience with bondage. As recently as 1985, studies in the USA found that around half of all men consider bondage games to be erotic, but only 11% of the average male and female American population had had bondage experience according to the 1993 Janus Report on Sexual Behavior .
There are many reasons why people let themselves be captivated. In the extensive physical passivity, some people feel free to focus on their heart to it and come to rest, as one participant describes a study of motivation: Some people have to be tied up to be free . (English "Some have tied being in order to be free ”) Other people feel powerless, fight against the fetters and sometimes also feel a masochistic pleasure in the limitations and pain ( pleasure pain ) as well as the symbolic degradation or the inevitable access for erotic stimulation by the partner.
The reasons for the active person to tie up his partner are mostly in the pleasure of the erotic subordination of his partner and the subjectively perceived power imbalance and its visualization. For the sadomasochist, bondage is often a means to an end, for example to know that the bound person is defenseless and fixated for subsequent sadomasochistic practices. Optics and haptics can also play a role; restraints based on aesthetic perception are common.
To avoid damage to health, precautionary measures should be taken during all bondage activities. BDSM advisors recommend discussing personal limits and agreeing on a code word or code sign for emergencies in which the game must be stopped immediately. In Germany, the word “Mayday” is recognized as a generally valid safe word at parties. In addition to basic and largely generally applicable safety measures in BDSM and safer sex , some specific safety rules are also established in bondage.
An essential condition for a successful restraint that is satisfactory for active and passive people is the full trust of all involved. Since the passive, tied up person may be at the mercy of the active partner, they must be able to fully rely on the agreed limits and the validity of the safeword. Conversely, the active part must be able to rely on the passive part being able to give a realistic and self-confident assessment of his possibilities and, above all, possible health and mental limitations. This communication about wishes, limits and ideas that takes place before the actual session is called negotiation, it is an essential factor for security.
In principle, accidents and permanent damage to health can be avoided by applying simple safety measures and a minimum of anatomical knowledge . The simplest precautionary measures are, for example, having bandage scissors ready, securely storing duplicate keys for locks and handcuffs or avoiding tying the neck and joints to prevent fainting and permanent nerve damage.
Many particularly impressive scenes depicted in bondage photos and videos were staged by experts known as riggers and should not be imitated without precise knowledge of the technique, basic anatomical and physical knowledge and appropriate experience. This applies in particular to the border regions of bondage and BDSM, which play with the fears of the tied up, use breath control or suggest killing scenarios. Some of the very artful Japanese bondages are only safe or at least risk-optimized for the passive person after years of experience and a very high professional level.
Self-restraint is a particularly high-risk special form of bondage. Self-bondage , the common term, is a type of bondage in which a person ties himself up for sexual gratification. For a feeling of being tied up as authentically as possible, timers are sometimes used, keys frozen in blocks of ice or self-developed devices are used so that the bondage cannot be removed again within a certain time window (so-called tunnel game ). From a safety point of view, self-bondage is problematic and highly dangerous in extreme cases, because one of the basic safety rules of bondage - "never leave a tied person alone" - is violated from the start. A restraint that the person cannot loosen quickly enough in an emergency can lead to serious and irreversible physical damage. In particular, restraints that are combined with asphyxia to increase orgasm due to the lack of oxygen have repeatedly led to deaths in the past.
Due to its complexity and distribution, bondage can be divided into different types, which, however, make no or only limited statements about the technology and material used, but the classification is based on the purpose or motivation of the bondage:
- Purpose bondage
is one of the best known variants outside of BDSM and describes the restraint to fix the partner, for example to make him immobile for a subsequent spanking . If the bondage is purely an end in itself, for example to keep the bottom in an uncomfortable position, it is not a purpose-built bondage.
- Decorative bondage
are called bondages that are used as a decorative element, for example for photographs, to emphasize certain parts of the body or as a “piece of clothing” at a fetish party.
- Torture bondage
The aim is to put the bottom in an uncomfortable or painful position, possibly as a punishment or as a separate element of the sexual game. Any bondage, if used over a longer period of time, can assume the character of a torture bondage. One can only speculate about the frequency of use of this type, but it is shown disproportionately often, especially in Japanese drawings and photographs.
- Meditative form
is a rare form in European bondage. An important approach in Shibari, possibly a result of the monastic tradition, in which the focus of interest is not the physical, but the mental state of the bottom.
Bondage techniques fall into six main categories.
- tying body parts together (for example with handcuffs or ropes )
- spreading the body or parts of the body apart (for example on the St. Andrew's cross or with a spreader bar )
- tying to other objects (e.g. St. Andrew's cross, stretching benches , chairs or tables)
- hanging up the body (colloquially hanging bondage or suspension bondage )
- the restriction of movement (for example due to an ankle skirt , humbler or corset )
- wrapping or wrapping individual body parts or the whole body, for example with fabric, adhesive tape or cling film . The use of a restraint bag or vacuum bed also belongs to this category. This form, which is sometimes demanding in terms of security, is known as mummification .
Techniques with the rope
Another way of classifying bondage techniques with ropes is through their use in bondage.
- Wrap bondage
created by wrapping the body or body parts. Ropes are simply wrapped around the body or body parts.
(from English to weave = to weave) describes a complicated technique in which the rope is usually put on in two steps, first the ropes are attached to the body in a zigzag shape and then woven through with a second rope.
- Double rope technique
is a way to quickly form many, often decorative, turns with a double-laid rope.
- Single rope technique
is a less risky technique, especially for purpose-oriented restraint that is performed with only one rope.
Use of language / restraints
Within American-European bondage, fixed terms have developed for certain restraints. As in many areas of BDSM, the use of English-language terms is widespread in the German-speaking and European subculture, although many of the positions (Japanese kata ) or knots (Japanese musubime ) originally come from Asian bondage. Examples of some simple restraints are the " spread eagle ", in which all extremities are stretched out and attached to the bedpost, the " hogtie " , which attaches the wrists behind the back to the opposite one Ankle ties or " teardrop ", in which the wrists are fixed to the ankles on the abdomen. The crotch rope for women is also often mentioned, in which a rope is pulled between the labia in order to exert pressure on the genitals or to fix dildos . Even if own terms are used within the German-speaking BDSM, the English ones are usually better known and far more common. An example is the butterfly position for the English expression butterfly , in which the hands of the partner lying on their back are tied to the ankles (similar to a Frogtie ).
Japanese or Asian bondage
The Japanese bondage or Shibari is the most important special form. The main purpose of Japanese or Asian bondage is - in addition to immobilization - the creation of a "total work of art" from partner and rope. Riggers who strive for a high artistic level and expression try to find a match between the posture of the tied person and the rope pattern that conveys an emotional statement. In the West, this approach is less taken into account. The term Japanese bondage is now used in Europe for all forms of bondage that contain an aesthetic element. These do not necessarily have to come from Eastern influences. In its pure form, the bondage is carried out exclusively with jute or, more rarely, hemp ropes (Japanese Asanawa ). The rope guide follows certain traditional rules, so the ropes should run as parallel as possible, lie next to each other without space and lie close to the body.
There are various theories about the origin and development of Japanese and Asian bondage. One assumes that it is a further development of Hojōjutsu , which was developed as a punishment for crimes and for torturing opponents of war. Another theory sees the origin of this form of bondage in the medieval monasteries of Japan, where the bonds were used to support the meditation of both the bondage and the bondage, similar to the rock gardens that are constantly being reshaped with the rake. This meditative approach is almost completely absent in the western adaptation of Japanese bondage.
Other special forms
Other special forms differ, among other things, in seldom used materials and / or a special objective. For example, thread bondage only uses thread that tears easily. The purpose of the restraint is to maintain a certain position through the concentration and will of the restrained person and not the actual restriction of movement. Another special form that requires special techniques or knowledge is the plaster of paris bondage, which is generally used for mummification.
Materials & resources
Any material with which someone can be fixed or restricted in their movement can be used. Everyday objects or special bondage equipment are used depending on the play partner's preference and proximity to the BDSM scene. One of the most frequently used means is verbal bondage ; these can be current situation-related commands or instructions as well as permanently established rules within the relationship that limit the freedom of movement of the passive partner.
In the area of bondage, which is less influenced by sadomasochistic practices, and in vanilla sex , everyday materials are often used, for example silk scarves, scarves, tights, ties and belts. These soft materials are also used as blindfolds, and there are also specially made eye masks for this purpose, for example sleep masks .
In addition to chains, ropes are widely used in BDSM as a means of physical restraint. Almost all types of rope are used in western bondage, including those made of cotton, synthetic fibers or other materials. In contrast, hemp and jute ropes are used almost exclusively in the Shibari . In the latter area in particular, the ropes are often pretreated before their first use in order to make them as soft and supple as possible. Sometimes the ropes used are flamed or lightly moistened with oils. When using ropes as bondage material, in addition to the general injuries caused by being tied, burns from frictional heat , the so-called rope burns , are possible. For the fastest possible destructive rescue from ropes, a suitable cutting tool, such as clothing scissors , is recommended.
Metal and wood
Metal (often stainless steel ) is widely used in bondage, especially as handcuffs, ankle cuffs , thumbcuffs , hooks (hooks with balls attached to one side that can be inserted into different body openings) and chains , which are often combined with other materials. In addition to the high tensile strength of the material and the flexibility, e.g. through the use of carabiners , metal also appeals to some people because of the typical rattle noises and the intransigence of the bondage. In BDSM stories and comics, chains are often associated with historical torture or prison scenarios. So-called quick shackles or cable ties , which are also hard materials, are also used. These materials can leave significant pressure marks directly on the skin and, due to their intransigence, should only be used with caution on joints or over long periods of time. Chains should consist of welded chain links so that they do not bend under load. You can also occasionally find St. Andrew's crosses, spreader bars, stretching benches, strappados , pillory , gallows and the like made of metal or wood.
Leather, latex and lacquer
In particular, products made of leather are an important element in bondage due to their suppleness and tear resistance. The ease of care and the ability to obtain and process leather without any problems make leather a popular material for self-made bondage equipment. Some people call leather, lacquer or latex their fetish and therefore prefer to use these materials in their bondage, for example lockable cuffs, belts or collars. There are special Bondagekleider, pants or sacks made from these materials and the right equipment for specific role-playing games, which can be used for restraining, for example, be in Ponyplay Harnesses used, which were acquired in non-role-playing-bound bondage.
Gags / masks
In a broader sense include games (Engl. With gags gags ) into the region bondage. Ball, ring, bit and penis gags in different sizes and colors as well as inflatable balloon gags are popular. Adhesive tape (also called tape or duct tape ), items of laundry and towels or silk scarves are also used as gags . Toggles are often built into masks , which can be made of different materials. With attached D-rings or eyelets, the mask itself can be used to fix the head.
Other materials include foils and adhesive tapes, including the bondage tape specially designed for this purpose , but also the elastic tapes known from gymnastics . In the broadest sense, this group also includes cling film , which is used for mummification or film bondage.
Some materials have been borrowed from the clinic , especially the straitjacket and a belt system that is used to fix restless patients in bed. Materials such as self-adhesive bandages and other bandages are mostly only used in connection with the overall scenario of white eroticism . Another, seldom used material from the hospital environment is plaster of paris bandages .
In addition to very tight skirts, corsets can be used to restrict movement when it comes to clothing and underwear . The ability to move can also be restricted by high heels , especially the extremely high ballet heels ; these are often fixed on the feet with padlocks. In addition, there are a number of items of clothing that are mainly used today for bondage or have been developed for this, for example the bondage skirt (derived from the hobble skirt) or the monoglove . In order to create a comprehensive feeling of being tied up, the body bag or the vacuum bed are used , among other things . In addition to the effect of complete enclosure, the predominantly used material latex is very arousing for fetishists.
Bondage in art, culture and media
Due to the close connection between sadomasochistic practices and bondage, a section in most guides and non-fiction books on BDSM is devoted to European bondage or to the purpose-oriented restraint and the safety considerations of this practice. Exclusively for the theoretical and practice-oriented area of bondage there are some non-fiction books, mostly published in the English-speaking area. One of the few standard works in German is Das Bondage-Handbuch. Instructions for the amicable restraint from Matthias TJ Grimme . The Japanese Shibari places very high demands on both those who are tied up and those who are to be tied up and is usually presented independently (for example in Japan-Bondage - Bondage-Handbuch Spezial. By Matthias TJ Grimme), even if some standard knots and simple bondage are also used in BDSM Advisors.
In sadomasochistic fiction, bondage is seldom taken up as a stand-alone topic due to its interweaving with almost all BDSM practices. Descriptions of various bondage techniques, from mental control to verbal bondage and simply holding on to painful hanging bondages and elaborate constructions, appear everywhere in the literature. Just as in contemporary sadomasochistic literature, bondage is mentioned in all the classics of this genre and there are references and descriptions of the most diverse practices in connection with bondage, for example in Pauline Reage's Story of O. or Marquis de Sade's The Philosophy in the Boudoir . On its own, bondage appears as a central theme, particularly in erotic short stories, for example in the Best Bondage Erotica or Bound to Ecstasy collections .
The motif of erotic bondage can also be found in productions for a wide audience, the mainstream films, mostly in films that deal with BDSM and depict bondage as part of the spectrum, for example in Secretary with Maggie Gyllenhaal and James Spader or Undercover Cops , the was made into a film based on Anne Rice's novel Exit to Eden (see BDSM in film and television ). The multi-award-winning film by Luis Buñuel Belle de Jour - Beauty of the Day with Catherine Deneuve in the lead role comes from 1967 , in which the protagonist's BDSM and above all bondage fantasies are an essential element of the film and are used, among other things, to question bourgeois morality.
In the erotic or pornographic productions of the sadomasochistic genre, bondage techniques are common. One of the few films from this area that only deals with the interaction between active and passive partner and in which no further sexual or sadomasochistic acts take place on the actress is the film Samantha's Situation . In the session film The Art of Bondage , Jemina and Matthias T. Grimme show solo bondage and Japanese bondage, among other things.
Illustration and photography
Paintings and sculptures of bound people are known from many epochs, often in an erotic or aesthetic representation; but there is no clear reference to sexual practice. Purposeful European bondage was not an integral part of sadomasochistic art until the 18th century; early drawings and book illustrations date from this period. In the 19th century, some very explicit representations appeared; The graphic artist Marquis Franz von Bayros , for example, in 1912, with his series Pictures from the boudoire of Madame CC, addressed bondage among other practices. In addition to Bettie Page, one of the most famous cult figures of BDSM comes from the 20th century : Sweet Gwendoline . The character was created by John Willie , the comic was filmed in 1984 by Just Jaeckin as Gwendoline . The image of the Damsel in Distress , the “ Fräulein in Nöten ”, is a frequently used artistic motif in connection with bondage, often as a woman tied up on railroad tracks. In addition to contemporary illustrators such as Paul Alazar , Robert K. Bishop , Eric Stanton , Georges Pichard and Rebecca, who work on bondage as individual motifs in different ways, photographers such as Nobuyoshi Araki , Helmut Newton and Woschofius also deal with bondage.
Asian bondage is often performed as a typical pencil drawing in rather gloomy contexts by artists such as Shiraishi Hakuzan, Kato Kahoru and Ozuma Yoko. There are some photographers who deal almost exclusively with Shibari, for example David Lawrence, Steven Speliotis or Van Darkholme, whose picture book Male Bondage shows photos of men in Japanese bondage, an exception in this area, as mostly women are shown in bondage.
The element bondage rarely appears on its own in music texts, but there are a number of references in this direction, for example from Element of Crime in the song Sperr mich ein the line “Give me my punishment, I like it tough. I keep quiet whatever happens. In freedom I am nastily trapped I want to be. Made small and well tied. ”Or by Heinz Rudolf Kunze in the song Pech und Schwefel . "Take me naked in handcuffs across the marketplace. Put rings up my nose. Ride me backwards into the sunset But don't leave me alone "
Two of the few texts whose main theme is erotic bondage come from Die Ärzte , on the one hand the song Mondo Bondage , on the other hand a homage to John Willie's cult figure Sweet Sweet Gwendoline , which was also sung about by Umbra et Imago , the BDSM scene be close.
In some music videos and stage shows bondage is thematized or implied, mostly also in the context of other BDSM practices or erotic role-playing games. Examples can be found at Depeche Mode or Madonna , whose video for Express Yourself caused a worldwide sensation by lolling naked in heavy chains on a bed, based on the film Metropolis . In the music video Sweet about me by Gabriella Cilmi the band with different methods (ropes, tapes) is tied up.
The term bondage is also used as a title or name for some pieces of music and bands, mostly from the independent or alternative environment, for example the Swedish electro-punk rock band Bondage Fairies, the French punk band Senators in Bondage or pieces like Angels in Bondage by Velvet Acid Christ or Teenage Enema Nurses In Bondage by Killer Pussy.
In his 1992 winter collection "Bondage" , Gianni Versace showed a fashion inspired by BDSM and above all bondage , mostly in black leather, partly harness-like clothes with details such as D-rings, straps, etc. The collection was sometimes controversial. Away from the mainstream, bondage clothing, or clothing with bondage covers such as bondage pants, is also worn in certain subcultures such as punk or the gothic scene . Since the 1990s, corsets have also been worn more and more often outside of the BDSM scene, role models are often women from the music scene, for example Cyndi Lauper , who wears corsets when she performs.
Basics of BDSM
- Pat Califia : Sensual Magic. A guide for adventurous couples . Ikoo, Pullenreuth 1995.
- Philip Miller, Molly Devon: Screw the Roses, Send Me the Thorns. The Romance and Sexual Sorcery of Sadomasochism . Mystic Rose Books, Fairfield 1995, ISBN 0-9645960-0-8 (English).
- Mass sadist: BDSM 4 dummies . Lulu.com, 2006, ISBN 1-4303-0975-X (English).
Basics of bondage
- Tom Schmitt: Bondage. Leaving self-control. A manual . MännerschwarmSkript-Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-935596-07-3 .
- Jay Wiseman : Jay Wiseman's Erotic Bondage Handbook . 2nd Edition. Greenery Press, 2000, ISBN 1-890159-13-1 (English).
Further reading Bondage / Shibari
- Matthias TJ Grimme : The bondage manual. Instructions for mutual restraint . 9th edition. Charon-Verlag, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-931406-71-4 .
- Matthias TJ Grimme: Japan Bondage - Bondage Manual Special . Charon-Verlag, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-931406-70-7 .
- Midori: The Seductive Art of Japanese Bondage . Greenery Press, San Francisco 2001, ISBN 1-890159-38-7 (English).
- ↑ See Erotic Power Exchange and Total Power Exchange .
- ^ A b Kurt E. Ernulf, Sune M. Innala: Sexual Bondage: A Review and Unobtrusive Investigation . In: Archives of Sexual Behavior . tape 24 , no. 6 , 1995, pp. 631-654 .
- ^ Leland Elliott, Cynthia Brantley: Sex on Campus . Random House, New York 1997. (English)
- ^ Norman Breslow, Linda Evans, Jill Langley: On the Prevalence and Roles of Females in the Sadomasochistic Subculture: Report of an Empirical Study . In: Archives of Sexual Behavior . tape 14 , 1985, pp. 303-317 . (English)
- ↑ L. Cynthia, S. Samuel: Janus: The Janus Report on Sexual Behavior . Wiley, New York 1993. (English)
- ^ Marianne Apostolides: The Pleasure of Pain: Find out why one in 10 of us is into S&M . In: Psychology Today . September / October, 1999, ISSN 0033-3107 . (English)
- ^ A b Philip Miller, Molly Devon: Screw the Roses, Send Me the Thorns: The Romance and Sexual Sorcery of Sadomasochism . 1st edition. Mystic Rose Books, 1988, ISBN 0-9645960-0-8 , pp. 95-106 . (English)
- ^ Bill Henkin, Sybil Holiday: Consensual Sadomasochism: How to Talk About It and How to Do It Safely . Daedalus Publishing Company, 1996, ISBN 1-881943-12-7 , pp. 84-103 . (English)
- ↑ Two Knotty Boys, Larry Utley: Two Knotty Boys Showing You The Ropes: A Step-by-Step, Illustrated Guide for Tying Sensual and Decorative Rope Bondage . Green Candy Press, 2006, ISBN 1-931160-49-X , pp. 1-3 . (English)
- ↑ Frank Minyard: Wrapped to death. Unusual autoerotic death . In: The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology . Volume 6, No. 2 , June 1985, ISSN 0195-7910 , pp. 151-152 . (English)
- ^ Robert R. Hazelwood, Park Elliot Dietz, Ann Wolbert Burgess: Autoerotic Fatalities . Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts 1983, ISBN 978-0-669-04716-5 . (English)
- ^ R. Thibault, J. D. Spencer, J. W. Bishop, N. S. Hibler: An Unusual Autoerotic Death: Asphyxia with an Abdominal Ligature . In: Journal of Forensic Sciences . Volume 29, No. 2 , April 1984, ISSN 0022-1198 , pp. 679-684 . (English)
- ↑ a b c bondage games . In The Paper Tiger . Encyclopedia of Sadomasochism
- ↑ See also John Willie : The adventures of the Sweet Gwendoline . Widder Press, 1974.
- ↑ a b Pat Califia : Sensual Magic. A guide for adventurous couples . Ikoo, Pullenreuth 1995.
- ↑ Lustschmerz BDSM Magazin: Foil Bondage ( Memento of the original from November 2, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Jay Wiseman : Jay Wiseman's Erotic Bondage Handbook . Greenery Press, ISBN 1-890159-13-1 , pp. 193-203 . (English)
- ↑ Jim Manlos: DS-Arts: Japanese Rope Art . Retrieved December 15, 2010.
- ↑ Mass Sadist: BDSM 4 Dummies . Lulu.com, 2006, ISBN 1-4303-0975-X , pp. 30 . (English)
- ↑ Jay Wiseman: The Toybag Guide to Dungeon Emergencies and Supplies . Greenery Press, 2004, ISBN 1-890159-54-9 , pp. 72 . (English)
- ↑ Mass Sadist: BDSM 4 Dummies . Lulu.com, 2006, ISBN 1-4303-0975-X , pp. 65-66 . (English)
- ↑ Ruth Klein: Lexikon der Mode: Three millennia of European costume science . W. Klein (original from University of Michigan), 1950.
- ↑ Alison Tyler: Best Bondage Erotica . Cleis Press, 2003, ISBN 1-57344-173-2 . (English)
- ^ Vonna Harper: Bound to Ecstasy . Aphrodisia, 2007, ISBN 0-7582-2222-X . (English)
- ↑ Secretary in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- ↑ Undercover Cops in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- ↑ Galaxy Productions: Samantha's Situation , 1995.
- ↑ Examples are Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), Johann Heinrich Schönfeld (1609–1684), Johann Heinrich Füssli (1741–1825)
- ^ Rolf Agte et al .: The great lexicon of graphics: artists, technology, information for collectors . Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig 1984, p. 118 .
- ↑ "Damsel in Distress" in The Paper Tiger . Encyclopedia of Sadomasochism
- ↑ David Lawrence website (English)
- ↑ Van Darkholme: Male Bondage . Bruno Gmünder, 2008, ISBN 3-86187-909-3 .
- ↑ Gwendoline as the doctor's mascot
- ↑ Website of the band Bondage Fairies (English)
- ↑ Website of the band Senators in Bondage (English)
- ↑ Gianni Versace . In: Fashion Model Directory (English)
- ↑ James Servin: Chic Or Cruel? . The New York Times. November 1, 1992. Accessed December 15, 2010. (English)