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As deviance (of French devier , German differ ) or deviant behavior are in sociology and psychology called behavior that with current standards do not match and values. Delinquency is a subset of deviance. From the perspective of the labeling approach , deviant behavior is always the result of an attribution. In a traditional sense, traits and characteristics such as disability and skin color were also referred to as deviant.

Definitions of deviant behavior

There is no generally accepted definition of deviant behavior in the social sciences. The greatest common denominator is the classic definition by Albert K. Cohen , according to which deviant behavior always relates to the existence of a rule and is always linked to the occurrence of an action. Until the 1960s, the definition was more rigid, as deviant or deviant was described as an act that violates social norms and is threatened by sanctions. Critical sociologists of deviance looked at the setting of rules and their application and concluded that "social groups create deviant behavior by setting up rules whose violation constitutes deviant behavior". Howard S. Becker curtailed this assessment of the famous attribution sentence: “The person with deviant behavior is a person to whom this designation has been successfully applied; Deviant behavior is behavior that people call this. ”According to Edwin M. Lemert , this type of attribution and stigmatization can lead to secondary deviance , the adoption of a deviating self-image.

See also




Individual evidence

  1. Lothar Böhnisch calls this a "Solomonic formula", see this: Deviating behavior. An educational-sociological introduction , Weinheim / Munich 1999, p. 19.
  2. Helge Peters: Deviance and social control. An introduction to the sociology of deviant behavior , 3rd edition, Weinheim / Munich 2009, p. 17.
  3. ^ A b Howard S. Becker: Outsiders. On the sociology of deviant behavior , Frankfurt am Main 1973, p. 8.
  4. Edwin M. Lemert: The concept of secondary deviance . in: Klaus Lüderssen and Fritz Sack (eds.), Seminar: Deviant behavior I. The selective norms of society . Frankfurt am Main 1974, pp. 433-475.