Jean Genet

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jean Genet, 1983
Signature of Genets

Jean Genet ( ʒɑ̃ ʒəˈnɛ ) (born December 19, 1910 in Paris , † April 15, 1986 ibid) was a French novelist, playwright and poet .

Genet stands out above all for its pictorial language. In his autobiographically tinged works mainly pimps, thieves and other marginalized existences of their time appear. Genet entered the military in 1929, from which he deserted. He was sentenced to life imprisonment for various offenses; In 1948 several writers, including Sartre and Cocteau , obtained his pardon. These experiences had a direct impact on the work. Genet's works are not only homosexual but also strongly influenced by sadomasochistic motifs and moral re-evaluations. His theater performances were ahead of their time and were also taken up by Rainer Werner Fassbinder in the film.


Childhood and youth

Genet was born in Paris in 1910 . His mother was Camille Gabrielle Genet (1888-1919), the father unknown. When Genet was about half a year old, his mother turned him over to the public welfare service. The very next day, Genet was handed over to the married couple Eugénie and Charles Regnier from Alligny-en-Morvan as a foster child. He started school in this village in autumn 1916. According to his own account, he began stealing from his foster parents when he was ten. It was at this point that he also realized his homosexuality.

Genet's foster mother died in 1922. Her daughter Berthe was appointed as the new foster mother. In 1923 he finished school. He was the best student in his community and was one of the minority of welfare children who even had a school leaving certificate.

Jean Genet returned to Paris on October 17, 1924. He began an apprenticeship as a printer at the Public Welfare Training Center. But just two weeks later, most of which he had spent in the infirmary, he fled. Seven days later he was picked up in Nice . He lost his apprenticeship. From April to October of the following year he stayed with a Parisian couple. It ended up with embezzling money entrusted to him and spending it. Psychiatric examinations and various placements in public institutions followed. After several more attempts to escape, he ended up in La Petite-Roquette prison .

In June 1926 he was assigned a job as a farm laborer in Abbeville . He held out there for a month. His escape ended in Meaux , where he was accused of vagrancy and convicted. There was another trial before the child and juvenile court in which he was acquitted. He was then taken to the Mettray Correctional Colony . He fled from there on December 3, 1927, but the police caught him two days later and he was temporarily taken to Orléans prison until he was brought back to Mettray.

Military time

To escape the inhumane conditions in Mettray, he volunteered for the military. He came to Montpellier on March 3, 1929 and to Avignon on May 1, 1929 in the 7th Pioneer Regiment. He rose to the rank of corporal and asked to be transferred abroad. On January 28, 1930, he left France by ship from Marseille for the Levante and reached Beirut seven days later . From there it went on to his new unit in Damascus . He stayed there until the end of December. Then he came back to Avignon.

His first military service ended on January 1, 1931. Five and a half months later he rejoined the army, this time he came into the 7e RTM ( 7e régiment de tirailleurs marocains = 7th Moroccan Rifle Regiment ). He stayed in Morocco until February 7, 1933, and ended his second term in Toul on June 15 .

After traveling on foot to Barcelona, ​​where he stayed for several months, and on his return to France, he enrolled again in the army on April 24, 1934. He stayed in France with the 22e régiment de tirailleurs algériens in Toul. In October 1935 he extended his tenure for another four years. He came to Aix-en-Provence in the RICM ( Régiment d'Infanterie Coloniale du Maroc = Colonial Infantry Regiment of Morocco ). But before he was transferred to Morocco, he deserted on June 18, 1936.

Escape and prison

From July 1936 to July 1937 Jean Genet was on the run as a deserter . He walked through many European countries and allegedly covered 8,500 km. He came to Italy, Albania, Yugoslavia, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Germany, Belgium and finally to Paris. He was repeatedly arrested, imprisoned for a few days or weeks, and deported to the next country.

He also stayed in Berlin for a few days and, as so often during this trip, made a living from prostitution . In Berlin he met Wilhelm Leuschner , who was later hanged for allegedly participating in the assassination attempt on July 20, 1944 . Lily Pringsheim later writes: “It is an eternal pity that Genet was not destined to murder Hitler. As an unknown vagabond and beggar who is politically unsuspicious and a foreigner, he could have succeeded. "

Back in Paris, the series of arrests began:

  • September 16, 1937: First arrest. He was sentenced to one month in prison for theft, albeit under the name "Genest", against which nothing had been reported, and so the sentence was suspended.
  • September 21, 1937: Identification as a deserter. Transfer to the Santé prison. At the end of November, the verdict was pronounced for theft, forgery of passports and illegal possession of weapons: five months in prison.
  • January 13, 1938: Transfer to the military prison in Marseille. Another four months passed before he was convicted of desertion . The verdict was two months. However, his previous prison term was taken into account, so he was released immediately.
  • October 14, 1938: fourth arrest, again for theft. His release fell on January 17, 1939 and he returned to Paris.
  • May 7, 1939: Arrested in Auxerre for vagrancy. He was imprisoned for a month.
  • June 16, 1939: day of release and re-arrest. Again indictment of vagrancy, and he could not show his anthropometric identification papers. The first charge was dropped and the second resulted in two weeks in detention.
  • October 16, 1939: Two months for theft.
  • December 31, 1939: The year 1940 began in the dungeon, and he said that writing a late Christmas card was the trigger for his writing.
  • April 23, 1940: Eighth conviction (there are contradictions in the sources here). Genet appealed and ten months became just under two.
  • December 3, 1940: Ninth prison sentence, until March 4, 1941.
  • December 9, 1941: Tenth stay in prison, until March 10, 1942.
  • April 14, 1942: Paris occupied by German troops, Jean Genet was imprisoned until October 15, 1942 for stealing books.

First works

The first publication was the poem The Condemned to Death, printed at his own expense . It was published in September 1942 in an edition of around 100 and was largely given away to friends and acquaintances. One copy found its way to the famous writer Jean Cocteau , who expresses himself enthusiastically ( “This long poem is wonderful” [Jean Cocteau: Journal 1942–1945]). The poem is about Maurice Pilorge, who was executed as a murderer at the age of twenty.

Like this poem, his first novel, Notre-Dame-des-Fleurs, was written in prison between 1941 and 1942 . On February 16, 1943 he read it to Cocteau, whose protégé he was now gradually becoming. Cocteau passed the manuscript around. It was so openly gay that u. a. Paul advised Valéry against publication. Paper was scarce during wartime, and so the work did not go on sale until 1944. But Genet's level of fame rose suddenly in 1943, although most of the artistic Parisians hadn't read anything about him.

Despite his increasing recognition, he continued to try his hand at thief and was arrested again on May 29, 1943. This time he was not alone before the judge because Cocteau found him a lawyer immediately. A psychological report was drawn up, which stated as a result: "Genet should be described as someone who belongs to that category of people whose moral responsibility is slightly reduced." He faced life imprisonment because of his previous convictions, but the judge stuck to his sentence exactly one day below this limit. He was released on August 30, 1943.

Still was Notre-Dame-des-Fleurs not appeared, the last corrections and questions have been clarified. But Genet has already received an advance on his second novel, Miracle of the Rose . In addition, the play Under Supervision was almost finished and the drama The Maids in the planning phase. Nevertheless, on September 24, 1943, he was arrested again for stealing books. The verdict was passed in early November: four months in prison. An “administrative internment” law allowed Genet to be detained in the Tourelles prison in Paris for an indefinite period. In his letters he often expressed concern that he would be transferred to a concentration camp . During his detention he suffered from hunger and had his friends and his publisher bring him food parcels. He was released on March 15, 1944 after various personalities had stood up for him. Shortly thereafter, an excerpt from published Notre-Dame-des-Fleurs in a literary magazine, along with Closed Society of Jean-Paul Sartre .

From 1944 to 1947, Genet's legal status was very uncertain. He had two more years in prison and would have been carried out if he had committed again. So he was in danger of being imprisoned again.

Paris circles

After his release from prison, Jean Genet found increasing acceptance in the artistic circles of Paris. At first he socialized a lot in the company of Jean Cocteau , where he learned a. a. Boris Kochno , Christian Bérard (who later designed the set for The Maids ) and the actor Jean Marais . Then he increasingly oriented himself to the scene in Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Here he met Jean-Paul Sartre , Simone de Beauvoir , Roger Blin , Alberto Giacometti , Pablo Picasso , Dora Maar and Jacques Prévert .

In 1945, work on Querelle progressed, only the working title changed frequently: Tonnerre des Brest , Les mystères de Brest , Querelle d'Égypte . At the same time he wrote to Das Totenfest . He fell in love with 18-year-old Lucien Sénémaud; a platonic love since Lucien was straight. In March 1946 Wunder der Rose was published by his friend Marc Barbezat's publishing house in an edition of 475 copies. A year later Das Totenfest was published, this time by the renowned Gallimard publishing house , but without a publisher's name. Genet had become a respected author. Sartre said: "We currently have an absolute literary genius in France: his name is Jean Genet, and his style is that of Descartes ." In America, the English translation of Ein Liebesgesang appeared in a magazine , later two excerpts from Das Feast of the dead . Louis Jouvet staged Die Maiden in Paris as a prelude to Giraudoux 's The Apollo by Belac Genet . The play was largely negative in the press, but there were still 92 performances.

In Das Totenfest Genet praised the SS massacre of Oradour (the extinction of the entire population of Oradour-sur-Glane ) as poetry .

In July 1947, Genet received the “Prix de la Pléiade” from Gallimard for Die Maiden and Under Supervision (only Albert Camus and Jacques Lemarchand voted against). It was also Camus who in 1948 did not sign the request to the French President to have Genet finally released from the criminal record. The following year the ballet Adame Miroir premiered. The music was written by Darius Milhaud , the stage design was by Paul Delvaux , the costumes by Leonor Fini and Janine Charrat was responsible for the choreography . It was a success. But a shadow soon fell on Genet: There was still a life sentence threatened if there were further charges and convictions. To prevent this from happening, Sartre and Cocteau wrote an open letter to then-President Vincent Auriol . The letter was dated July 15, 1948. In 1949 Genet was pardoned.

The literary agent Monique Lange put in contact with the Spanish author Juan Goytisolo , who saw him as his spiritual father and moral guide. Both share the view of the Atlantic Ocean from the cemetery in Larache (Morocco).

Depression and inactivity

The first creative phase ended in 1948. Jean Genet had written his main work in just a few years, which appeared in a new edition as early as 1949 as Complete Works . On February 26, there was the premiere of Under supervision , followed in 1950 by the film Un chant d'amour (English: A love song , camera: Jacques Nattau), which could not be shown publicly due to its pornographic representations. It wasn't until 1964 that the first public performance took place in New York, whereupon the organizer Jonas Mekas was beaten up by the police and arrested. Over the years, the film has been increasingly touted as a masterpiece, while Genet hated and condemned it.

This was followed by the script for the film Mademoiselle , which Tony Richardson completely failed to implement. But the stormy urge to write was over. Again and again he reported to Cocteau that he had burned his current works or otherwise destroyed them. Increasing depression and an unhappy love affair resulted in several suicide attempts. In 1952 Sartre's "Saint Genet, Comedian and Martyr" appeared, a psychoanalysis focusing on Genet's work.

Second creative phase

Between 1955 and 1957 Genet created his three full-length plays: The Balcony , The Negroes and The Walls . At that time he met the sculptor Alberto Giacometti and soon a deep friendship connected these artists. Giacometti created four drawings and three paintings by Genet, who in turn wrote a critically acclaimed essay about him, L'Atelier d'Alberto Giacometti , from 1957. They discussed for hours and both were inspired by this in their work. In January 1956, Genet was sentenced to eight months probation. The occasion were illustrations for Die Galley (by Leonor Fini ) and for Querelle (by Jean Cocteau ). According to the court, these images were a violation of common decency.

The balcony was premiered in London in 1957 under Peter Zadek . During a rehearsal, Genet spoke out so clearly against the production that he was banned from theater. In France the piece could not be performed until 1960.

Die Neger was commissioned by the director Raymond Rouleau , who wanted a piece for an all-black ensemble. But Rouleau and Genet failed because of the staging, and the world premiere on October 28, 1959 was directed by Roger Blin , who had edited the text together with Genet. The piece received the "Grand Prix de la Critique" in the same year.

At the end of 1955, Genet's relationship began with the then 18-year-old artist Abdallah Bentaga. They traveled together for many years through Europe, on the one hand because Abdallah had deserted from the French army, on the other hand to advance his training as a tightrope artist and to look for circus engagements.

Meanwhile, Genet was working on The Walls and was planning an extensive work with the working title La Mort ( Death ). It was to consist of the novel La Mort I and a cycle of seven plays (including The Walls , Le Bagne [ the penal colony based on the script of the same name], La Fée ). But it just stayed with the plan. His second creative phase came to an end. He continued to write night after night, but more on changes to his plays and at the end of Die Walls than on new things.

The first performance of Die Walls was abridged in 1961 in Berlin. In the same year, Genet moved further and further away from Abdallah Bentaga. After several falls, Bentaga was no longer able to work as an artist and had to rely on financial help from Genet. But the latter left him alone, and on February 27, 1964, Abdallah committed suicide. This act shocked Genet so much that less than two months later he made a vow never to write again. His depression got worse and in May 1967 he attempted suicide in Italy with an overdose of the sleeping pill Nembutal .

Later fame

Although Genet stopped writing, his star rose incessantly. His books sold very well in the United States and England, there was even a paperback edition published, for which Genet received a large advance. In France he achieved cult status and more and more internationally renowned theaters played his pieces - with the exception of Die Neger , since here Genet did not deviate from the requirement that the play be exclusively cast with blacks.

The walls was first performed in France in 1966, directed by Roger Blin. The piece is a closed-loop criticism of the Algerian war in France and its most political work. Genet prohibited a new production until 1983. Unabridged, it has a playing time of about five hours and contains 96 acting roles plus extras. In the conception, Genet wanted each actor to play five or six people. He worked very closely with Blin on the first French production. From his comments, notes, etc. The collection was later letters to Roger Blin . The play quickly aroused the displeasure of right-wing circles who were against the withdrawal from Algeria at the time. There were repeated interruptions, even fights and stage occupations during the performances. Every evening a group would show up in front of the theater entrance trying to block access. One of its leaders was the right-wing extremist Jean-Marie Le Pen . Even the French National Assembly dealt with it and the then Minister of Education, André Malraux, had to answer a few inquiries regarding the subsidization of this piece.

Political activities

The 1968 student unrest in France also affected Genet. He wrote an article about the then leader Daniel Cohn-Bendit , in return the favor, so to speak, for his work in the defense of The Walls , in which Cohn-Bendit was one of the blockade breakers. When the revolt reached the United States, he was sent there to cover the Democratic Congress. He met a number of authors who praised him for his influence on their literature: William S. Burroughs , Allen Ginsberg , Jack Kerouac , Gregory Corso . During the congress there were numerous demonstrations and rallies by opponents of the Vietnam War, at which Genet also spoke.

Mural painting on Genet's political activities as part of an exhibition in 2011

From 1970, when he first met representatives of the Black Panthers in Paris, Genet only worked for his political activities. He campaigned for the release of Bobby Seale , visited Brazil and called for the release of actress Nilda Maria, wrote a political foreword to the letter collection of the black prisoner George Jackson , wrote an article about Angela Davis, who was (politically) persecuted in the USA and remained loyal to the black and Palestinian movement for a long time. He met Yasser Arafat in November 1970 , wrote benevolent articles about the Palestinian struggle for freedom, and became an opponent of the Israeli conquest, but never an anti-Semite.

In 1974 Jacques Derrida published Glas , in which he dealt with the philosophy of Hegel and the poetry of Genet.

Genet's political interest was abroad. He hardly cared about French domestic politics. He remained silent when there were numerous riots and uprisings in French prisons in 1971/72. He did not participate in Michel Foucault's group , which publicly denounced abuses in the prisons.

With his clear partisanship for the Palestinians, Genet turned against a large part of the Parisian left-wing intellectuals. a. to break with Sartre, who acted and wrote pro-Israeli. In early 1974, Genet stood up for François Mitterrand as the United Left's presidential candidate. But Valéry Giscard d'Estaing prevailed in the elections. A week later, Genet published an article about the new president calling him “right-wing extremist” and “anti-Arab”. In the summer of the same year he met his last partner: the Moroccan Mohammed El Katrani. He took the 26-year-old former soldier to France.

Hardly any new texts appeared. Although he continued to make a lot of notes, copies of which were always sent to his publishing house Gallimard, they were unstructured and could not be published. A novel announced in 1975 was not written, instead a long interview was published, conducted and recorded by the German writer Hubert Fichte , initially in excerpts in the weekly newspaper Die Zeit and six years later in book form. At the time a close friendship developed with the Moroccan author Tahar Ben Jelloun , which lasted for many years. On the other hand, Genet did not always part on good terms with some other friends. He had nothing but contempt for Sartre.

In 1976 Genet threw himself into a new film project with great vigor. For almost two years he worked with Ghislain Uhry on the script with the working title Dusk . But shortly before the realization he got out and the film was never shot. While he was still working, he began working on a libretto for an opera with music by Pierre Boulez . But nothing came of it either.

At that time he came into contact with the Red Army Faction (RAF) and their lawyer Klaus Croissant through the Roussopoulus couple . Genet increasingly sympathized with the RAF and wrote a benevolent foreword to the French edition of the Baader-Meinhof Group's publications, which appeared on the front page of Le Monde on September 2, 1977 ( Violence et brutalité , German violence and brutality ). There was harsh criticism and the newspaper had to endure serious allegations. Genet was increasingly isolated in the intellectual scene. In the article he castigates the "brutality" of the state and glorifies the "violence" of the RAF. Ten days later the text appeared in German in the Spiegel , at a time when the kidnapping of Hanns Martin Schleyer and the murder of three policemen had just been a week. The mastermind behind this action was Croissant, who was later arrested in Paris. Genet blamed Paul and Carole Roussopoulus for the arrest and broke off all contact. Hardly any friends remained with him. One of them was Tahar Ben Jelloun, who wrote a friendly article called Pour Jean Genet , which also appeared in Le Monde on September 24th .

Slow end

Genet in Vienna, December 19, 1984
Jack's Hotel, Genet's last accommodation at 19 rue Stéphen-Pichon
Memorial plaque on Jack's Hotel

In May 1979, Jean Genet was diagnosed with cancer of the larynx and began a year of cobalt therapy , which left him very debilitated. A prostate operation and dental problems made matters worse. He spent a lot of time in Morocco with Mohammed El Katrani and his wife in the house in Larache paid for by Genet . Despite his health, he gave two film interviews, made in 1981 and 1982. At the same time he started work on another screenplay: Le Langage de la muraille ( The language of the walls ). Another project that he gave up shortly before implementation and that joined the group of unpublished scripts.

Seriously ill, he traveled to Beirut , Lebanon, in September 1982 , at a time when the city was being besieged by Israeli troops. The situation in the city came to a head when the international protection forces withdrew, the newly elected Lebanese President Bachir Gemayel was assassinated, Israeli soldiers marched into Beirut in violation of all agreements, surrounded the Palestinian camps and began bombing the city. In the Chatila camp , the Phalange militia massacred the Palestinians. The Red Cross counted 210 men, women and children dead, but estimated the total at 800 to 1,000. Genet and his travel companion Leila Chahid did not find out about the carnage until two days later. On September 19, Genet got an idea of ​​it on site. Three days later he traveled back to Paris and worked all October on the essay Quatre heures à Chatila ( Four hours in Shatila ).

He began his last book, A Prisoner in Love , in the summer of 1983 in Morocco. In December he received the “Grand Prix des Arts et des Lettres”. His main occupation now was the new book. He seldom interrupted this work. a. in December 1984, when he opened a documentary exhibition on Sabra and Chatila at the invitation of the Austrian philosopher Hans Köchler in the Albert Schweitzer House in Vienna and read from his text Quatre heures à Chatila , and in the summer of 1985 for a two-day television interview for the British broadcaster BBC entitled Saint Genet . In November 1985 he delivered the manuscript and in the spring of the following year he began correcting the proofs. His cancer of the larynx got worse again, and he mostly worked lying down in severe pain. Nevertheless, in March 1986 he traveled to Spain and Morocco. Back in Paris he stayed in a small, decrepit hotel.

On the night of April 15-16, 1986, Jean Genet fell down a step on the way from the bedroom to the bathroom, hit the back of the head and died. It was the day after Simone de Beauvoir's death . His body was transferred to Morocco as requested and was quietly buried in Larache. There is now a memorial stone on the hotel on Paris Avenue Stéphen Pichon.

Reception in Germany

Jean Genet's works first appeared in German translation in the West (FRG and West Berlin), and since the 1980s also in the GDR. But even in the West he was subject to restrictions and censorship for "lewdness". Scientific publications on Genet's works have been published in Germany since the 1960s, and his publications later shaped gay activists. In 1980 Genet was shortlisted for the most important literature in the weekly newspaper ZEIT. Today Genet is being read anew in Germany and authors are encouraging them to rediscover it.


While personalities like Albert Camus repeatedly campaigned for Genet's work, the author was not allowed to travel to the USA himself because of “sexual deviations”, was targeted by the Federal Testing Office for Media Harmful to Young People and was defeated for a long time with some of his works in France due to their “pornographic nature “Character of several prohibitions. Nevertheless, in 1985 his work Le balcon was included in the repertoire of the Académie française .


Works in individual volumes

  • Volume I Notre-Dame-des-Fleurs (original version). Merlin, Gifkendorf 1998 ISBN 3-926112-67-0
  • Volume II Miracles of the Rose (original version). (Miracle de la rose.) Merlin, Gifkendorf 2000 ISBN 3-926112-97-2
  • Volume III The Festival of the Dead (original version). (Pompes funèbres.) Merlin, Gifkendorf 2000 ISBN 3-87536-207-1
  • Volume IV Querelle de Brest (original version). (Not released yet.)
  • Volume V Diary of the Thief (original version). (Journal du voleur.) Merlin, Gifkendorf 2001 ISBN 3-87536-213-6
  • Volume VI A Prisoner in Love . (Un captif amoureux.) Merlin, Gifkendorf 2006 ISBN 3-87536-253-5
  • Volume VII Poems . (Le condamné à mort / Marche funèbre / La Galère / La Parade / Un chant d'amour / Le pêcheur du suquet / Le funambule.) Merlin, Gifkendorf 2004 ISBN 3-87536-236-5
  • Volume VIII Dramas . (Pour La Belle / Haute Surveillance / Les Bonnes / Le Balcon / Les Nègres / Les Paravents.) Part 1, Merlin, Gifkendorf 2014 ISBN 978-3-87536-278-7
    • Part 2, ibid. 2017
  • Volume IX Essays (Not yet published.)
  • Volume X Interviews (Not yet published.)
  • Volume XI Nachlass (Not yet published.)


  • Notre-Dame-des-Fleurs. 1944, German 1960
  • Miracle de la Rose. 1946, German 1963
  • Querelle de Brest. 1947, German 1955: Querelle.
  • The feast of the dead. 1947, German 1966
  • Diary of a thief. 1949, German 1961
  • A prisoner in love - Palestinian memories. 1986, German 1988


  • The condemned man. 1942, German 1969
  • Funeral march. 1945, German 1999
  • The galley. 1947, German 1991
  • A love song. 1946, German 1983
  • The parade. 1948, German 1985
  • The fisherman from Le Suquet. 1948, German 1970
  • The tightrope walker. 1957, German 1967


  • Alberto Giacometti. 1957;
  • The criminal child. 1958, German 1961
  • Violence and brutality. 1977, German 1977
  • 4 hours in Chatila. 1982, German 1983


  • Letters to Roger Blin. 1966, German 1967
  • Chère Madame… Original German edition 1988


Poster for a performance of Les Bonnes
  • The Maids (Les bonnes) Premiere 1947 Paris, DE 1957 Contra-Kreis-Theater in Bonn
  • Under supervision (Haute surveillance) UA 1949 Paris, DE 1960 Städtische Bühnen in Kiel
  • The balcony (Le balcon) Premiere 1957 London, DE 1959 Schlosspark-Theater in West Berlin ( filmed in 1963); German translation by Georg Schulte-Frohlinde: 4th edition, Merlin, Gifkendorf 1999, ISBN 3-926112-88-3 .
  • Die Neger (Les nègres) Premiere 1959 Paris, DE 1964 Landestheater Darmstadt
  • The walls (Les paravents) premiered in 1961 at the Schlosspark-Theater in West Berlin
  • Splendid’s (Splendid's) (1948) Premiere 1994 Berlin Schaubühne
  • You (Elle) UA 1990 Parma

Script and direction


  • Mademoiselle.
  • Dusk. 1976, unpublished
  • The language of the walls. 1982, unpublished



Web links

Wikiquote: Jean Genet  - Quotes (French)
Single topics

Individual evidence

  1. Hoffmann, Arne: bound in leather. Sadomasochism in world literature, Ubooks 2007, p. 169 ff. With further references
  2. Wolter, Salih Alexander: The chain - and the ship, the sea, the whole world. For the 100th birthday of Jean Genet, Rosige Zeiten 2010, The chain - and the ship, the sea, the whole world .
  3. Spain says literary rebel Juan Goytisolo adiós. ZEIT, June 5, 2017, accessed June 6, 2017 .
  4. Find A Grave: Jean Genet's grave in Larache
  5. Wolter, Salih Alexander: Read the constellation of the sailor. Gay life - gay literature. Giessen 2020: Psychosozial-Verlag. P. 34f. ISBN 978-3-8379-3012-2
  6. ^ Luckow, Marion: The homosexuality in the literary tradition. Studies on the novels of Jean Genet. Stuttgart 1962: Ferdinand Enke Verlag, series: Contributions to sex research
  7. ^ Raddatz, Fritz J .: Jean Genet. "Querelle" (= 91st episode of the "ZEIT library of 100 books"). The time of March 21, 1980.
  8. Wolter, Salih Alexander: Read the constellation of the sailor. Gay life - gay literature. Giessen 2020: Psychosozial-Verlag. P. 34f. ISBN 978-3-8379-3012-2
  9. Lautmann, Rüdiger: Jean Genet and the gay movements. In: Mildenberger, Florian (ed.): Among men. Gift of friendship for Marita Keilson-Lauritz. Hamburg 2018: Männerschwarm-Verlag. Pp. 225-246. ISBN 978-3-86300-247-3
  10. Wolter, Salih Alexander: Read the constellation of the sailor. Gay life - gay literature. Giessen 2020: Psychosozial-Verlag. P. 34f. ISBN 978-3-8379-3012-2
  11. Different versions: additions, deletions etc. by the author are given.