Femdom is an abbreviation for female dominance and describes variants of BDSM in which a woman assumes the dominant role. The term can also refer to the dominant woman herself. Based on this, the dominance exercised by men or the male dominant is called Maledom (English: male "man" or "male"). The origin of the word is not clear; it is believed to have originated on the east coast of the United States in the late 1980s.
Within an erotic role play or a defined relationship structure (cf. EPE and TPE ), the bottom submits to the wishes and control of his active partner (top) within certain periods of time or permanently. This submission can only relate to the sexual area and the wishes of the top, but it is quite possible that this control extends into other areas of life. As in all areas of BDSM, the principle of voluntary submission is the basis ( SSC or RACK ).
In the BDSM scene, the female top is sometimes referred to as "Domse" or "Dome" in order to differentiate it from the dominatrix and thus from commercial interests. Salutations or titles are often used to underline the power imbalance between top and bottom, for example “Mistress”, “Mistress” or “Lady”, while the bottom is referred to as “slave”, “servant” or “sub”. The sifting of the top or the use of the 3rd person singular is also common.
The control of the top extends over the sadomasochistic addition, role playing, this type is considered the permanent new role understanding as a special form of Femdom and as an independent form of relationship with Female Supremacy , Female Superiority (Engl., "Female superiority") or female-led relationship (English, "female dominated relationship") referred to. A fundamental idea in this type of relationship is to achieve the reversal of patriarchal structures based on an assumed "natural superiority of women" within the relationship. It is quite possible that the typical practices of BDSM play no role, but that the submission of the bottom takes place in the emotional and everyday area.
In Černá , Czech Republic, the Other World Kingdom has created such an inversion of social structures in the context of a private environment, a kind of fantasy republic or micronation .
In addition to the practices that are widespread in BDSM in all constellations, such as bondage , spanking or parenting games, frequent types of play are, in particular, facesitting , CBT , trampling , feminization and other areas of sexual fetishism . In particular, cleaning rituals such as floor scrubbing, washing clothes or cleaning boots by the man are often practiced.
In addition to the events open to all types in the BDSM scene, there are now also pure play parties for dominant women and their companions, round tables (or offshoots of pansexual round tables) only for women or dominant women and also Internet communities that are predominantly or exclusively deal with the issues of female dominance.
Two studies in the 1990s suggest that between 11 and 28% of women active in the BDSM scene are dominant or sadistic. Dominatrix customers are stereotypically presented in the mass media as unattractive decision-makers in professional life. Presumably, however, they are average attractive people from different professional positions who are characterized by a particularly pronounced imagination .
Feminism and Femdom
In the early 1980s, in the course of the second wave of the women's movement, the discussion within the differently positioned feminist groups about female sexual morality and especially about the assessment of sadomasochism began to escalate. This ultimately led to a polarization of the women's movement and marks the beginning of the "third wave" (third wave). On the one hand there are radical feminists who reject any use of sexual violence, including the consensual use, and its spread in society (see PorNO campaign ), on the other hand sex-positive feminism has developed , which accepts all types of female sexuality (see Samois ).
Within this discussion and also in the third wave, the submission of women to the sexual dominance of men - depending on the feminist position through violence, role models or consensuality - is the central theme of the arguments, while female dominance and sadism are rarely discussed or by radical feminists how Alice Schwarzer were negated. A quote from Giesela Breiting from PorNO. Victims & perpetrators. Resistance & backlash. Responsibility & Law. describes this view: "That female violent fantasy against men should be erotic or sexually intended ... is a psychological impossibility" and further "that women can be sexually aroused in this way should hardly be realistic."
Gayle Rubin , one of the most important representatives of the sex-positive BDSM discussion in feminism, sums up the situation of the debate in Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality as follows: “... There were two directions of feminist thought on this Theme. One criticized the restriction of female sexual behavior and pointed to the high price paid for being sexually active. This tradition of feminist thought about sex called for sexual liberation that should work for both women and men. The second direction viewed sexual liberation as an inherently mere extension of male prerogatives. The conservative anti-sexual discourse resonates in this tradition. "
Repeated criticism was formulated that the lesbian sadomasochists are the only group of women that is not supported by feminists, especially the lesbian part of the American BDSM scene has contributed to this discussion, for example in the publications of Pat Califia in the UNITED STATES. In later years, heterosexual women from the sadomasochistic scene increasingly turned against the negative assessment of their sexuality; books such as Lust in Submission are an example of this . Women profess the masochism of Sina-Aline Geißler from Germany.
Femdom in art, literature and film
Known for the use of femdom motifs in their works are, among others, Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch with what is probably the most famous novel on the subject of female dominance, Venus in fur . The autobiographical works of Edith Cadivec , who was convicted in the Vienna sadist trial in 1924, have been reissued and repeatedly indexed to this day . Marion Zimmer Bradley uses female supremacy motifs in The Women of Isis ; Anne Rice processes both Maledom and Femdom in heterosexual and bisexual orientation under her pseudonyms Anne Rampling with Exit to Eden and AN Roquelaure with the Sleeping Beauty trilogy . 1993 Terence Sellers describes her experiences from a sadistic point of view in The correct sadism .
One of the most important motives of the cartoonist Eric Stanton is female dominance; Sardax and "Eneg" ( Gene Bilbrew ) also deal with this topic. Hata Delhi processes the motif in the style of the 1920s, while Bill Ward often depicts dominant women stylistically as pin-up . Others, like Namio Harukawa, have dedicated themselves to particular practices like facesitting . The femdom theme has also been taken up by photographers, often combined with typically female accessories and role-playing or fetish equipment, for example corsets , high heels or even costumes similar to a governess , more recently with cosplay aesthetics.
A well-known film on this subject is The Flambéed Woman with Gudrun Landgrebe . An extraordinary femdom story was filmed with Maren Kroymann in Persecuted . In the series Starship Enterprise: The Next Century , the Betazoids, to which ship consultant Deanna Troi ( Marina Sirtis ) belongs, are a race in which women are superior to men.
Pieces of music that relate to the motif Femdom are, for example, Please, Please from the Doctors , Black Widow from Eisbrecher or I Wanna Be Your Slave from Demented Are Go , in which the entire spectrum of Femdom is mentioned. Likewise, Madonna the subject in the stage show her Confessions tour processed.
- Christina Abernathy: Miss Abernathy's Concise Slave Training Manual. Greenery Press, 1996, ISBN 0-9639763-9-7 .
- Lorelei: The Mistress Manual: The Good Girl's Guide to Female Dominance. Greenery Press, 2000, ISBN 1-890159-19-0 .
- Claudia Varrin, Cynthia Lechan: The Art of Sensual Female Dominance: A Guide for Women. Citadel Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8065-2089-2 .
- Elise Sutton: Female Domination. LuLu Publications, 2003, ISBN 1-4116-0325-7 .
- Georgeann Cross: Sexual Power for Women. 1997 (engl.)
- ↑ Datenschlag - Paper Tiger: Femdom
- ↑ Datenschlag - Paper Tiger: Other World Kingdom
- ^ Anne McClintock: Maid to Order: Commercial Fetishism and Gender Power. In: Social Text Volume 37 (1), 1993, pp. 87-116.
- ^ Eugene E. Levitt, Charles Moser, Karen Jamison: The Prevalence and Some Attributes of Females in the Sadomasochistic Subculture: A Second Report. In: Archives of Sexual Behavior. Volume 4, 1994, pp. 465-473, p. 469.
- ↑ a b Mistress L: A Faustian Bargain: Speaking out against the Media . In: Feminist Review 67 (1), 2001, pp. 145-150, p. 148.
- ↑ Giesela Breiting in: Alice Schwarzer (Ed.): PorNO. Victims & perpetrators. Resistance & backlash. Responsibility & Law. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, 1994, pp. 178-179.
- ↑ Gayle Rubin: Thinking Sex. Notes on a Radical Theory of Sexual Politics. In: Andreas Kraß (Ed.): Thinking Queer. Against the order of sexuality (Queer Studies). Suhrkamp, 2003, ISBN 3-518-12248-7 , pp. 31-79.
- ↑ Sina-Aline Geissler: Pleasure in submission. Women profess masochism. Moewig, 2004, ISBN 3-8118-3897-0 .
- ^ Thomas A. Wetzstein, Linda Steinmetz, Christa Reis, Roland Eckert: Sadomasochism - scenes and rituals. Rowohlt, 1993, ISBN 3-499-19632-8 .
- ↑ Edith Cadivec: Eros, the meaning of my life. Belleville, 2005, ISBN 3-923646-83-6 .
- ^ Marion Zimmer Bradley: The Wives of Isis. Lübbe, ISBN 978-3-7857-0474-5 .
- ↑ Terence Sellers: The correct sadism. Ikoo, 1993, ISBN 3-88677-912-2 .