Nico (singer)

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Nico, 1985

Nico (born October 16, 1938 as Christa Päffgen in Cologne , † July 18, 1988 in Ibiza ) was a German actress , singer , composer and songwriter . In the 1950s she was the first German to be one of the most successful international models on the fashion scene. As a musician, she was groundbreaking for music styles such as punk , wave and gothic and for women to come in pop and rock music.

life and career

There are different statements about Christa Päffgen's life, as she often spruced up her biography with interesting stories of origin in order to conceal her German origins, and in interviews she sometimes made herself younger than she was. She often said that she had no German roots, but was the child of Spanish-Yugoslav parents and was born in Budapest , which was refuted by relatives in Berlin.

Family, childhood and youth

Päffgen's father Wilhelm, according to her statement an archaeologist, came from the Cologne brewery dynasty Päffgen . The wealthy Catholic family did not agree to the marriage with the Protestant mother Margarete Schulze, who came from a humble background, although Christa had been baptized a Catholic especially for this reason. The father was drafted into the Wehrmacht shortly after her birth and died in 1942.

Since the conservative brewery family did not want to support mother and child, they moved from Cologne first to Berlin-Schöneberg , to their sister Helma Wolff and her son Ulrich, who was similar to Nico and who later became an architect. When the hail of bombs increased, they moved to Lübbenau / Spreewald , where their father was station master, to a house near the station. She had little contact with the Päffgen family; she only met her cousin CO Paeffgen as an adult.

At the age of 13, according to various rumors, Nico should a. also raped by herself, by a US Air Force GI who is said to have been sentenced to death for the act. In "Secret Side" on The End ... she processed the fact, according to various sources.


After the war, the mother worked as a tailor and saleswoman for women's fashion in Berlin's KaDeWe . Christa went to high school and got ballet lessons, which her mother financed with hard work. Since the mother tailors for many wealthy private individuals, she used her daughter as a demonstration lady; this is how Christa came into contact with fashion at an early age and knew how effective it was. People from the opera and theater and other upper class society invited mother and daughter to performances to which they would otherwise not have had easy access due to their background from humble backgrounds. When the daughter no longer wanted to go to school at the age of 14 because she did not like the “synchronized” transfer of knowledge, the mother first gave her a small job as a saleswoman. However, Christa preferred to continue demonstrating clothes and was soon employed as the in-house demonstration lady because of her very tall figure of over 1.75 m for her time and her attractive appearance. At one of the KaDeWe fashion shows she was discovered at the age of 15 by the ambitious young photographer Herbert Tobias , who got her orders for fashion series in the first German post-war fashion magazines and advertising brochures. The fashion designer Heinz Oestergaard procured her international orders, so that she was booked for well-known fashion magazines. In 1956 (according to other sources, 1959) she moved to Paris and was employed by Dorian Leigh's agency . There she introduced herself to the Dior star photographer Willy Maywald , who not only took fashion photos of her, but also stood by her as an important friend. Oestergaard recommended her name change, as Christa sounds too German, and named her Nico after the filmmaker Nico Papatakis. It is unclear whether Papatakis was his partner at the time - secretly because of the criminality of homosexuality . What is certain is that Oestergaard adored him very much and that Nico later became Papatakis' girlfriend. At the time, she experimented with various stage names; so she called herself Christa Nico , Nico Otzak , in the end she stayed with Nico . At the end of the 1950s she was the first German to be one of the most internationally successful models in the fashion scene, comparable to today's supermodels, and was signed by the New York agency Eileen Ford . At that time she was earning so much money that she could afford to buy a house in Ibiza in 1962 and bring her mother there, who at the time was already suffering from severe health problems due to the onset of Parkinson's disease .


Initially booked as an attractive extra without text, she got more and more offers for the film. She starred in commercials and got her first lengthy appearance in Federico Fellini's film La Dolce Vita in 1960 , in which she played herself. In 1961 she attended in New York City , the acting school of Lee Strasberg . According to Nico, one of her fellow students was Marilyn Monroe, who lived in New York in 1961 . In 1963 she had her first leading role in the French film Das Mädchen Ariane , in which her heavy German accent was criticized, but her portrayal was generally favorably discussed by the critics, which encouraged her to continue on the path and to deepen her acting skills with professional acting lessons . The then jazz musician Victor Brox introduced her to the world of music.

Years in New York

Nico, 1974

In New York she met Andy Warhol . He was enthusiastic about her, as he was looking for a new muse for inspiration after the argument with Edie Sedgwick , and began to promote her and her ambitions. She became part of the Factory , one of the Warhol superstars and played in various Warhol films such as The Chelsea Girls . In 1966 she was so well known that she was voted "Popgirl '66". Warhol looked for a suitable band for Nico and found The Velvet Underground , brought them together and produced their debut album The Velvet Underground & Nico , which is not least characterized by Nico's vocals, her characteristic deep voice and her unmistakable accent. Their presence was crucial for the record company to even give the band a record deal, which made the singer and main songwriter Lou Reed to create. There was a brief love affair between Nico and Lou Reed; However, Reed and his group did not want to be reduced to the role of the backing band, so that Nico was only allowed to sing three songs ( Femme Fatale , All Tomorrow's Parties and I'll Be Your Mirror ) on the record and otherwise to beat the tambourine and with Had to look good. A reset that Nico disliked, as she persisted in her singing career. So the relationship soon broke up. Lou Reed became the driving force behind the band and pushed the unofficial member Nico out of the band's context. Nico's new sponsor became Reed's bandmate John Cale .

Solo career

Even before Velvet Underground, Nico had aspired to a career as a solo singer and had initial successes in Europe. She commuted back and forth between Paris and London , got to know various musicians and producers such as Bob Dylan , Brian Jones from the Rolling Stones and Jimmy Page from the Yardbirds and later Led Zeppelin . In 1965 she recorded her first single I'm Not Sayin ' , for which a suitable music video was shot, which she shows, in black and white, singing on the streets of London and on the banks of the Thames and is one of the first music videos ever. The song appeared on Immediate , the label of Rolling Stones manager Andrew Loog Oldham, where Jimmy Page worked as a producer alongside Brian Jones, with whom she was dating at the time.

"Chelsea Girl"

In 1967 she recorded her first solo album Chelsea Girl in New York , on which she sang songs by Bob Dylan, Tim Hardin , Lou Reed, Jackson Browne and John Cale. Nico was dissatisfied with the record. She found them too cheesy and couldn't stand the background music, especially with flutes and harps. She could only put one song of her own on the record, It Was a Pleasure Then , all the others were written by others. She also had no say in production. At the time, Nico met the still unknown Leonard Cohen , whom she introduced to the New York art scene around Andy Warhol and Lou Reed. Cohen fell unhappily in love with Nico and was inspired by her to write the songs The Jewel in Your Shoulder , Take This Longing (The Bells) , Memories , Joan of Arc and One of Us Cannot Be Wrong .

"The Marble Index"

Cale, who also left The Velvet Underground in 1968 , continued to produce for them. This is how the album The Marble Index , released the following year, came about in Los Angeles , in which she broke away from the sweet pop of her debut. Under the direct influence of the Doors singer Jim Morrison , who had encouraged her to write her own songs, Nico's music became more and more unconventional and was not very successful commercially. Among other things, Nico played an Indian harmonium . “It's an artifact. You can't package suicide, ”said John Cale once about The Marble Index's commercial failure . Marble Index is now considered a milestone in music history, which anticipated musical styles such as dark wave, gothic and punk, but also ambient . Their albums featured numerous guests such as Brian Eno , who is now considered the inventor of ambient, or Phil Manzanera from Roxy Music . For the song Evening of Light she shot a music video, directed by François De Menil, together with Iggy Pop and The Stooges . The album Desertshore was also produced by Cale in London in 1970. Both works were re-released in 2007 as a remastered double CD The Frozen Borderline 1968-1970 with 17 bonus tracks.

"The end…"

Nico, 1974
Tomb of Nico and her mother in the Grunewald-Forst cemetery

In 1974 she recorded the album The End ... which was advertised by the record company as “why commit suicide when you can buy this record?” Which alluded to the somber version of the theme song The End (originally by the Doors) . On the album, she sang, among other things, the Song of Germany in an amended version: In the third stanza replaced them are ... the pledge of happiness by the German fatherland . During a performance, she dedicated the song to the imprisoned RAF terrorist Andreas Baader and sparked a scandal. Indignant concert-goers threw bottles and rubbish at them.

In 1981 Nico recorded her penultimate studio album, Drama of Exile . The master tapes got lost under unknown circumstances. The album was recorded a second time with a slightly different line-up. Both versions came on the market; Nico called the LP based on the first version a bootleg . In 1984 she recorded  her last studio album, Camera Obscura , again with Cale as producer and accompanied by the band The Faction .

Liaison with Alain Delon and son Ari

In 1962 their son Christian Aaron Päffgen, called Ari, was born. Päffgen named Alain Delon , whom she had met while filming Nur die Sonne was Zeuge , as her father. She was supposed to play the role of margin in the film . On arrival, she learned that the role had been changed to Marie Laforêt . Delon comforted them and they began an affair. At the time in question, however, he also had a relationship with Romy Schneider to this day, denying paternity. The process was closely watched by the tabloids at the time. In the end, Nico lost the process because of formal errors, as she had failed to name Delon as the father when the birth certificate was issued. Ari Päffgen initially grew up with his mother, but had behavioral problems, as Nico was overwhelmed with the upbringing, so that his maternal grandmother took him in. When she then fell ill with Parkinson's and could no longer take care of the child, Delon's mother Edith Boulogne made sure that the child came to her at the end of the sixties. He was later adopted by her second husband in order to integrate him into the family, but knew how to avoid that Delon's son also became his brother. This adoption resulted in Delon's breakup with his mother that lasted until her death. Because of Päffgen's increasing drug addiction, the family kept her son away from her and only allowed him to visit her sporadically. It was not until the age of 19 that Ari took up closer contact with his mother again, but struggled with drug addiction and constant relapses himself. Ari works as an artist as a photographer and actor and has two children, a son (* 1999) who has no interest in the celebrities of his family and who works as an educator , and a daughter (* 2006). He defended himself against the allegations against his mother. Quote: “She was a very good mother. She gave me everything. Even drugs. "

Substance abuse and death

Nico began taking drugs while she was a model in Paris, cannabis and amphetamines , which she swallowed to suppress appetite. In the 1970s, while in liaison with Philippe Garrel , Nico began injecting heroin under his influence and became addicted. She even encouraged those around her, such as the members of her companion band, to use heroin and used drugs with her son when he moved in with her at the age of 19 in 1981.

In 1985 she was on methadone therapy and had been clean for the last three years of her life, apart from cannabis use.

On July 18, 1988, she fell while riding a bicycle in Ibiza and died in hospital on the same day due to a cerebral hemorrhage that was not recognized in time . Nico was buried in Berlin at the Grunewald-Forst cemetery (am Schildhorn ) in her mother's grave.

Cultural influence

Nico's conscious radical departure from everything that had made her out before, her nihilistic attitude, appearance and fashion, her denial of the traditional female role and all political correctness , the uncompromisingly experimental and gloomy atmosphere of her albums, brought her a lot during her lifetime and after her death Respect. Internationally, Nico's importance is undisputed. In Germany, however, it was largely ignored. In 2006, the naming of a place in Cologne failed because of their “not exemplary” way of life due to the votes of the CDU.

External impact and lifestyle

Nico not only anticipated many later trends with her music, but also with her entire attitude to life. So she made many decisions in her visual appearance that later became characteristic of the punk and gothic scene. She dyed her hair black, let her appearance deteriorate and wore black kohl around her eyes as the only make-up . She openly used heroin and injured herself with her syringes. She wore black, old-fashioned, torn clothes, heavy leather boots, long coats, and avoided the sun. She was considered the woman who never laughs .

Musical influence

She was adored by artists like Ian Curtis ( Joy Division ), Ian Astbury ( The Southern Death Cult ). Iggy Pop , whom she met through Danny Fields , dedicated the ballad-like song Nazi Girlfriend to her after an affair . Many women in the music scene, such as Siouxsie Sioux , Lisa Gerrard , Patti Smith , Marianne Faithfull and Björk , were inspired by Nico's music, wrote songs in her honor or interpreted her works and lyrics. Peter Murphy ( Bauhaus ) described Nico's albums The Marble Index and The End ... even as the first "real" Gothic albums. Murphy performed with Nico in Manchester in October 1981 and both sang the Velvet underground hit I'm Waiting for the Man .

In their albums, elements are used experimentally for the first time, which later characterize the musical genres ambient and industrial . Nico himself always carried a tape recorder to capture unusual sounds from the outside world. A novelty at that time, which before her only sound artists outside of the well-known pop and rock music such as John Cage practiced. X-TG released their album Desertshore u. a. Redesigned with Sasha Gray and released under the Industrial Records label.


A letter from an unknown fan to Nico on her grave

In 1995 the highly acclaimed documentary Nico Icon by Cologne director Susanne Ofteringer was released about her . A year later it was also broadcast by the client, ZDF .

In the first and subsequent seasons of the Gilmore Girls series, which aired for the first time in 2000 , Nico was mentioned several times by the music-loving Lane Kim (played by Keiko Agena ), who describes herself as a big fan of the artist.

In 2002 Werner Fritsch's Nico - Sphinx made of ice was premiered at the Darmstadt State Theater . Based on the monologue created by Fritsch, a radio play was also produced, which was broadcast for the first time in 2003. Actors of Nico in the play were among others Birgit Doll and Soap & Skin (2008).

In 2007 Nico was given a retrospective at the Cologne Conference . Among other things, rarely shown films by the French director Philippe Garrel were shown, in which Nico had worked as an actress. In the 1970s, Garrel was Nico's significant other.

The Cologne Museum of Applied Art dedicated a multimedia show to her for the first time 70 years after her birth (October 30, 2008 - February 1, 2009), which showed Nicos' fashion, film and music.

On October 17, 2008, a tribute concert for Nico took place in Berlin, which was moderated by her ex-companion Lüül , Lutz Ulbrich. Appeared at the concert at the Volksbühne Berlin a . a. the German pop singer Marianne Rosenberg , the Austrian singer Anja Plaschg alias Soap & Skin , Marianne Enzensberger , James Young (the keyboard player in Nico's last band The Faction) and Ari Boulogne (sometimes called Ari Päffgen), Nico's son, who was in France published a book of his memoirs under the title L'amour n'oublie jamais , the cover of which shows a photo of him and his mother.

Nico Päffgen is on the 2004 album of the indie band Angelika Express , and the 2005 album by the alternative rock band Anberlin also features the homage Dance, Dance Christa Päffgen . Marianne Faithfull released the song for Nico on her album Kissin 'Time in 2002 , which she wrote after reading Nico's biography. Even the song Nico Album Tilt the band Latin Quarter refers to Päffgen.

The legendary Tigerman recorded four reinterpretations of Nico pieces with the Hifi Klub in France (with Rita Redshoes as a guest singer on Femme Fatale ). The four pieces were combined into a mini tribute album and appeared in 2012 as a 10 "EP under the title Ghost of Nico .

In 2017, Vogue voted Nico number 1 among the “most influential rock blondes of all time”.

In 2018 the film Nico, 1988 , was released, which focuses on the last years of Päffgen's life, but also contains flashbacks to the early years of her career. Nico is portrayed by the Danish actress Trine Dyrholm , but scenes with the real Christa Päffgen from narrow films and documentaries can also be seen. In Germany, the film opened in cinemas on July 18, 2018.

In 2018, Rolling Stone selected the song It has not taken long among the best 111 songs by a musician / band of German origin.


  • 1967: The Velvet Underground & Nico (UK: platinumplatinum)
  • 1967: Chelsea Girl
  • 1969: The Marble Index
  • 1970: Desertshore
  • 1972: Le Bataclan '72 (Live, with Lou Reed and John Cale)
  • 1974: The End ...
  • 1974: June 1, 1974 (with Kevin Ayers, John Cale, and Brian Eno)
  • 1980: Strange Window (Live in Milwaukee)
  • 1981: Drama of Exile
  • 1981: Lüül : Lüül (vocals in "Reich der Träume")
  • 1982: Do or Die: Diary 1982 (Nico in Europe)
  • 1984: Camera Obscura
  • 1985: Nico Live in Pécs
  • 1986: Live Heroes
  • 1986: Behind the Iron Curtain
  • 1987: Nico in Tokyo


  • 1989: Hanging Gardens
  • 1994: Heroine
  • 1994: Fata Morgana (Nico's Last Concert) , live 1988.
  • 1998: The Classic Years
  • 2002: Innocent and Vain
  • 2007: All Tomorrow's Parties (live 1983, double album)
  • 2007: Nico: The Frozen Borderline

Filmography (excerpt)


  • Vagn Lundbye: Nico . Berg, Denmark 1969.
  • Richard Witts: Nico: The Life and Lies of an Icon . Virgin Books, London 1993, ISBN 1-85227-470-0 .
  • James Young: Songs They Never Play on the Radio: Nico, the Last Bohemian Bloomsbury, London 1992, ISBN 0-7475-1194-2 .
    • Nico - Journey into the Dark: The Last Years of a Rock Legend , translation by Rüdiger Völckers, Egmont VGS 1992, ISBN 3-8025-2233-8 .
    • Nico - The End , USA edition, The Overlook Press, USA, 1993, ISBN 0-87951-504-X .
    • Nico - Songs They Never Play on the Radio , Second English Edition, Arrow 1993, ISBN 0-09-927571-6 .
    • Nico - Songs They Never Play on the Radio , Third English Edition, Bloomsbury 1999, ISBN 0-7475-4411-5 .
  • Lutz Ulbrich : Lüül. A musical life between Agitation Free, Ashra, Nico, the Neue Deutsche Welle and the 17 hippies . Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin, 2006, ISBN 3-89602-696-8
  • Ari (d. I. Ari Boulogne / Päffgen): L'amour n'oublie jamais . 1st edition. Pauvert, Paris April 12, 2001, ISBN 2-7202-1400-0 .
  • Antoine Giacomoni: Nico. Photographies . Dragoon, Paris 2002.
  • Nico, Jacques Pauvert, Ari Boulogne: Nico. Cible mouvante. Chansons, Poèmes, Journal . Pauvert, Paris 2001.
  • Ingeborg Schober : Pop tragedies: the most spectacular cases from the Beach Boys to Nirvana . Ueberreuter, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-8000-7004-9 .
  • Lutz Ulbrich : Nico - In the shadow of the moon goddess . CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2016, ISBN 978-1-5232-8998-1 .
  • Tobias Lemkuhl : Nico: biography of a riddle. Rowohlt, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-7371-0032-8 .
  • Manfred Rothenberger and Thomas Weber (eds.): Nico - How can the air be so heavy on a day when the sky is so blue . starfruit publications , Nuremberg 2019, ISBN 978-3-922895-34-3 .

Inspired by Nico's biography

  • Werner Fritsch : Nico - Sphinx made of ice ( monologue ), Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 2004.
  • Alban Lefranc : Attacks: Fassbinder. Vespers. Nico (novel). Blumenbar Verlag, Munich October 2008, ISBN 978-3-936738-43-8 .
  • Alban Lefranc: Vous n'étiez pas là (novel).
  • Film: Nico - Icon (Germany 1995) by Susanne Ofteringer
  • Film: Nico, 1988 (Italy, Belgium 2017) by Susanna Nicchiarelli. With Trine Dyrholm (who sings herself).

Web links

Commons : Nico  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Albin Zack III: The Velvet Underground Companion: Four Decades of Commentary. Ingram International, 2001, ISBN 0-8256-7242-2 , p. 45.
    Jim Condon: The Perils of Nico. Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1983.
  2. Axel von Cossart: Cult around Nico: (Model, Aktrice, Chanteuse). BookRix, Munich, 2015, ISBN 978-3-7368-8132-7 .
  3. James Young: Songs They Never Play on the Radio: Nico, the Last Bohemian. Bloomsbury, London 1992, ISBN 0-7475-1194-2 , pp. 150ff.
  4. George Starostin: Album Reviews - The End: A terrific Goth piece of work, with enough diversity and atmosphere this time - well, Eno is contributing, after all. In: December 28, 2013, accessed on August 21, 2018 .
  5. Willy Maywald: The splinters of the mirror. Schirmer / Mosel, 1985, ISBN 3-88814-165-6 .
  6. ^ AG Nauta: Nico. In: July 8, 2012, accessed August 21, 2018 .
  7. ^ Peter Hogan: The Dead Straight Guide to The Velvet Underground and Lou Reed. This Day In Music Books, 2017, p. 52 .
  8. ^ Richard Witts: Nico: Life And Lies Of An Icon. Random House, 2017: “Marilyn Monroe was in my class. It was very exciting. "
  9. Axel von Cossart Kult um Nico: (Model, Aktrice, Chanteuse) BookRix 2015
  10. ^ Sylvie Simmons: I'm Your Man. The life of Leonard Cohen. Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-442-74289-9 , pp. 223-225.
  11. Stephen Davis: Jim Morrison - Life, Death, Legend. Gotham, New York 2004, p. 192.
  12. Dave Thompson : Shadow World. Heroes and legends of Gothic Rock. Hannibal, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-236-5 , p. 70.
  13. ^ Evening of Light (1969). In: Internet Movie Database . Retrieved August 21, 2018 .
  14. ^ Dana Horáková: Strong women. Bastei Lübbe, 2011, ISBN 978-3-86995-016-7 , p. 163 ( limited preview in Google book search).
    Michael Miesbach: Nico on the 25th anniversary of his death: "I am truly unique". In: Bayern-2 broadcast “Playback”. July 20, 2013, accessed August 21, 2018 .
  15. Andreas Rosenfelder: The riddle about Nico: Christa Päffgen could still be alive. In: GQ - Gentlemen's Quarterly . October 22, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2018 .
  16. Andrea Jenewein: Delon and Nico The most beautiful man in the world. In: Stuttgarter Zeitung . December 31, 2010, accessed August 22, 2018 .
  17. Lutz Krusche: Ari Boulogne, 38, wrote a book: About his longing for his father to recognize him. He says it's Alain Delon: the mother's son. In: Berliner Zeitung . May 22, 2001. Retrieved August 22, 2018 .
  18. ^ Ari Boulogne, fils présumé d'Alain Delon: “Avec ma mère on partageait la drogue”. In: PurePeople . April 15, 2018, accessed August 22, 2018 (French).
  19. Jürg Zbinden: Nico (* 1938 Cologne; † 1988 Ibiza). In: . May 11, 2015, accessed August 22, 2018 .
  20. Alexandra Wach: The dream of the abyss, the Cologne singer Nico would have turned 70 today. In: Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger . October 16, 2008, p. 26 , accessed August 22, 2018 .
  21. Drug wreck and pop icon: Nico died thirty years ago. Berliner Zeitung, July 17, 2018
  22. Kerstin Kohlenberg: Grunewald cemetery: In the past, suicides had to be buried in front of the city. Today Nico von Velvet-Underground lies there. In: . June 15, 2000, accessed August 22, 2018 .
  23. Christian Bos: Cologne has no place for Nico. In: Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger. December 13, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2018 .
  24. Juliane Streich: Nico - more than Lou Reed's “Femme Fatale”. In: MDR culture . July 18, 2018, accessed August 22, 2018 . Ecki Stieg: Nico. In: Grenzwellen-News . December 3, 1997, accessed August 21, 2018 (interview and biography).
  25. ^ Sylvie Simmons: I'm Your Man. The life of Leonard Cohen , Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-442-74289-9 , p. 223
  26. Dave Thompson : Shadow World. Heroes and legends of Gothic Rock . Hannibal, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-236-5 , pp. 154-158
  27. Nico. In: IMDb. Retrieved December 2, 2016 .
  28. Manfred Horak: Nico - Sphinx made of ice. (No longer available online.) In: Archived from the original on April 25, 2015 ; accessed on August 22, 2018 .
  29. ^ Nico - Cologne, Berlin, Paris, New York - stations of a pop icon. Museum of Applied Arts Cologne: October 30, 2008 to February 1, 2009. (No longer available online.) In: Archived from the original on December 2, 2013 ; accessed on August 22, 2018 . Alexandra Wach: Cologne singer Nico: The dream of the abyss. In: Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger . October 15, 2008, accessed August 22, 2018 .
  30. Serge Mironneau: L'amour n'oublie jamais. In: Nico, Bibliography. January 11, 2011, accessed August 22, 2018 (French). Serge Mironneau: Bibliography. January 11, 2011, accessed August 22, 2018 (French). Ari Boulogne: L'amour n'oublie jamais . Pauvert, Paris 2001, ISBN 2-7202-1400-0 (French).

  31. Nico, 1988 in the Internet Movie Database (English)
  32. The best German songs: Nico - "It Has Not Taken Long". In: Rolling Stone . July 18, 2018, accessed August 22, 2018 .
  33. Music Sales Awards: UK
  34. ^ Richard Witts: Publications. In: Richard Witt's website. March 17, 2018, accessed on August 22, 2018 .
  35. Angela Gutzeit: Tobias Lehmkuhl: “Nico. Biography of a Riddle ”- figurehead on the bow of a Viking ship. An interview with Tobias Lehmkuhl. In: Deutschlandfunk broadcast “Büchermarkt”. August 21, 2018. Retrieved August 21, 2018 .
  36. Ulrich Bermann: Manfred Rothenberger: “Book about singer Nico: A life like a Greek drama. Interview with Manfred Rothenberger ”. In: Deutschlandfunk broadcast “Corso”. August 20, 2019. Retrieved September 28, 2019 .
  37. Nico - Sphinx made of ice. A theater project at the Sophiensaele Berlin. Federal Cultural Foundation, accessed on August 22, 2018 . Wolfgang Lange: Nico - Sphinx made of ice. Monologue by Werner Fritsch (2005, Suhrkamp): Review. (No longer available online.) In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . April 19, 2005, archived from the original on May 19, 2012 ; Retrieved on August 22, 2018 (reproduced on