Andy Warhol [ ˈændi ˈwɔːɹhɔl ] (born August 6, 1928 in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , † February 22, 1987 in Manhattan , New York City ; actually Andrew Warhola ) was an American artist , filmmaker and publisher as well as co-founder and most important representative of American Pop Art . His career began in the 1950s as a graphic artist and illustrator for fashion, glossy and lifestyle magazines and developed quickly. He left behind an extensive body of work, which ranges from simple advertising graphics to paintings, objects, films and books. He also worked as a music producer .
life and work
childhood and education
Andy Warhol was the youngest of three sons of a poor peasant family with Lemko - Ruthenian (in more recent terminology and more precisely: Russian ) roots. His parents Ondrej Varhola ( Americanized to Warhola) (1888–1942) and Julia Justyna (born Zavacka; 1892–1972), were immigrants from the village of Miková near Medzilaborce in the Carpathian Mountains , in the northeast of today's Slovakia (then: Kingdom of Hungary ) . His birth name was Andrew Warhola, which he later Americanized. He was baptized a Greek Catholic .
Andy Warhol liked to flirt with his date of birth and occasionally "rejuvenated" himself to 1930, sometimes even to 1933, which is why biographies often contain a wide variety of information; however, he confessed to his birthplace in Pittsburgh in the US state of Pennsylvania . There he was born at 73 Orr Street.
In 1934 the family left their two-bedroom apartment in the poor Soho neighborhood and moved into their own one-story brick house at 3252 Dawson Street in South Oakland.
At the age of eight Warhol fell ill with St. Vitus' dance ( chorea minor ), coupled with a rare pigment disorder, so that for a long time he was thought to be an albino . The bedridden child quickly developed a passion for comics and movies , began to draw and cut out paper figures. During this time Warhol developed an intense bond with his mother Julia.
From 1945 to 1949 Warhol studied commercial art at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, now Carnegie Mellon University , and graduated in painting and design. After completing his studies, he moved with his fellow student, the artist Philip Pearlstein , to New York, which was not only a literary and artistic center, but also a stronghold of advertising. In the late 1940s Warhol was working in a shoe factory. On the way to work he was approached by Alexander Iolas , who saw him every day through the shop window of his gallery. The contact later resulted in Warhol's first exhibition.
Beginnings and development of screen printing (until the end of the 1960s)
In the early 1950s, Warhol made a living from doing odd jobs as a commercial artist and window dresser or selling fruit and vegetables on the street. The magazine “Mademoiselle” published drawings by him in February 1950, which were signed “Andy Warhol”: Andrew Warhola had become Andy Warhol. During this time he developed his technique of drop and dripping , a method that anticipated his later screen prints : Motifs of angels, putti , butterflies or cats drawn with ink and ink were copied with a sheet of blotting paper and transferred to a new sheet. In collaboration with the designer Suzie Frankfurt, a variety of articles were created for journals, magazines, greeting cards and promotional gifts as well as humorous cookbooks (“Wild Raspberries”, 1959). At so-called “Coloring Parties” he invited friends and guests who helped to color his works (which already indicated the later serial “factory-like” production method of his works and films by employees).
In 1952 Warhol asked the Greek Alexander Iolas for a solo exhibition. Warhol had already met him in 1945, meanwhile Iolas was director of the Hugo Gallery . Warhol produced a sketchbook, but the season was already over and Iolas had already packed his bags to travel to Europe like most prominent New Yorkers at that time of year. He made an exception, but due to a lack of staff, he had to ask the owner of a nearby bookstore to supervise the exhibition. Warhol exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1956 , but both times as a graphic artist, not as a visual artist.
Paintings and screen prints
Although Warhol was extremely successful as an industrial and commercial graphic designer - at the end of the 1950s he was one of the highest-paid graphic designers in Manhattan - he soon chose the artistic path and looked for new ideas for his pictures on canvas. Warhol concentrated on trivial subjects from pop culture; Hollywood stars , comic and cartoon motifs such as Mickey Mouse , Popeye or Superman , which he initially made and reproduced by hand. With these images taken from the advertising scene, he consciously distanced himself from the Abstract Expressionism of Mark Rothko or Barnett Newman or the Action Paintings of Jackson Pollock . However, he soon found resignedly that artist colleagues like Roy Lichtenstein or Robert Rauschenberg were already scanning the terrain with similar motifs. He made a connection to his previous life by conceiving a shop window collection from the hand-painted "discarded" works for the Bonwit Teller department store on New York's 5th Avenue and using a new technique.
At the beginning of the 1960s he became familiar with screen printing and began intensively to cut out and collect images from leaflets, movie booklets, magazines such as Life or Time magazine, in order to use them for his images in the sense of “ mixed media ”. Characteristic for the following period of his work is the use of widespread motifs familiar to every American (mostly from commercial advertising and press photos), from which he had screen templates made and which he then repeated in series (quote: “I love to do the same thing over and over again ”-“ I love to do the same thing over and over again ”). A typical work title of that time is Thirty Are Better Than One : A Mona Lisa postcard was reproduced 30 times on the canvas and was therefore better than just one - the original counts less than the quantitative reproduction ( multiple ).
|Campbell's Soup Cans|
|Andy Warhol , 1962|
|Polymer paint on 32 canvases|
|each 50.8 × 40.6 cm|
|Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York|
In 1962, Warhol had his first solo exhibition as an artist, Campbell's Soup Cans, at the invitation of Irving Blum, then partner of Walter Hopps ' Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles (July 9 to August 4, 1962). He made 32 almost identical pictures because the canned soup was available in 32 different flavors.
At first one met these pictures with total incomprehension, only five buyers recognized the revolutionary innovation of Warhol's point of view; one of them was the actor Dennis Hopper , the other Donald Factor, a later part of the heir to the Max Factor corporation. None of the buyers received his picture, for which each would have paid $ 100 because Irving Blum, in consultation with Andy Warhol, wanted to bring the ensemble together, and after the exhibition bought the pictures for $ 100,000, although Warhol only wanted $ 1,000 for the 32 pictures. In 1996 they were sold to the Museum of Modern Art in New York City for $ 15 million.
One of the best-known works from this period is probably the depiction of a cinema still from the film Niagara with Marilyn Monroe , which Warhol processed in many color variations over the years. Countless " Elvise ", " James Deans " and " Liz Taylors " were to follow. However, all of these images clearly show one thing: They represent deliberately selected and further processed excerpts from the templates. Warhol's often-quoted bon mot , after he no longer paints and all his templates are already there, so he no longer produces art himself, but this itself, i.e. the artist no longer exists in the traditional understanding, must be evaluated under this aspect. It is the selection, the design and the underlying concept that decisively shapes the work. Warhol's unmistakable feeling for the effects that a corresponding design and color scheme, acquired over the years as a commercial artist, form the consistently further developed biographical and aesthetic basis. One of Warhol's recurring veiling tactics in interviews is accordingly the assertion that some of these works were only produced on his instructions by his young colleague, the trained screen printer and poet Gerard Malanga ( Salvador Dalí, for example, had previously said something similar about his way of working ).
Warhol used everything from popular culture that he somehow found "glamorous" or reinterpreted - even if, as in his famous very first series, it was a soup can from Campbell’s . With the “Death and Disaster” series started in 1962, in which he used press photos of deaths in car accidents, catastrophes and electric chairs (see Electric Chair ) and distorted them with small retouching, he made the technical manipulation of the experience of reality the subject of painting. In this way, he demonstrated that the aesthetically prepared and reproduced horror can be consumed. The art critics also soon recognized that these pictures had a tremendous aesthetic appeal: their seriality diverted attention away from the motif towards the design of the originals, thereby revealing the manipulative character of popular culture of our time - we are all in through the mass media guided by our perception. “In addition, the pictures had their visual appeal by changing the original templates through bright colors and deliberately sloppy application of paint so that a quasi“ cinematic ”viewing was possible. Warhol's pictures have been celebrated as a sensation on the art market since 1965 at the latest. "
→ Main article: The Factory
In his ateliers, called "Factory", founded in 1962, in various factory buildings in New York, he worked on a wide variety of projects. The factories were, so to speak, Warhol's experimental field: Atelier, film studio and “party location” with subsequent “residence” for the protagonists. At the same time, they formed the pool of the creative scene in New York. Stars like Bob Dylan, Mick Jagger and Jim Morrison came here and artist colleagues like Salvador Dalí and Marcel Duchamp .
Warhol initially specialized in screen printing. The starting material for this was mostly images from the media , for example from Life magazine or film, postcards and autograph cards . Later he preferred to use his own Polaroid images for his work. Many of Warhol's pictures were not only made by himself, but also by his assistants such as B. Gerard Malanga performed. Famous are the three-dimensional Brillo boxes (screen prints of a cleaning agent on wooden boxes), the Campbell soup cans, countless Marilyn Monroe portraits (some of which are negative ) or the series of car accidents, skulls or electric chairs made in the tradition of a Memento Mori . He preferred to choose 100 by 100 centimeter canvases for his works. Meanwhile, the obsessed cinema fan Warhol turned increasingly to his own film production in his search for new material. Probably inspired by filmmakers from the film makers' cooperative such as Jonas Mekas , he bought a Bolex 16 mm camera and began filming employees of his factory , celebrities and strangers in all imaginable situations. Well-known from the 1960s are underground films such as Empire , an eight-hour portrait of the Empire State Building in a single shot, or Eat , a 45-minute film that shows Pop Art artist Robert Indiana eating mushrooms, and countless so-called screen tests (together with Malanga). With the rock group The Velvet Underground , which he sponsored and initially produced , he conceived the multimedia happenings (“ Exploding Plastic Inevitable ”), which were pretentious to scandalous for the time . On the one hand, the audience was "wiped out" by the deafening amplifier noise of the rock group, film projections and intense light and stroboscopic effects . On the other hand, the performances shocked through the sexual provocations of the dancing actors (mostly Gerard Malanga and the actresses Mary Woronov and Edie Sedgwick ).
After the assassination attempt by women's rights activist Valerie Solanas in 1968, the artist took it easy: The “Factory” was transformed into an office building, and he increasingly saw himself as a film producer .
In the 1970s he was an avid visitor to the New York party and glamor scene. B. Studio 54 , where he increasingly portrayed celebrities on Polaroid recordings . His films with junkies that border on pornography ( Flesh , Trash , Blue Movie ) are known from this time, although he increasingly left their direction to Paul Morrissey.
Camp movies like the Western - persiflage Lonesome Cowboys or horror films Flesh for Frankenstein / Andy Warhol's Frankenstein and Blood for Dracula / Andy Warhol's Dracula emerged largely directed by Paul Morrissey , the actor Joe Dallesandro almost always belonged there to fill. They exaggerated and exceeded the respective genres , in the case of Lonesome Cowboys e.g. B. through improvised play and homosexual cowboys, in the case of Blood for Dracula through Udo Kier as the feeble Count Dracula , who aroused pity rather than fear in the search for a virgin.
Contrary to popular belief , the world-famous tongue logo, the trademark of the Rolling Stones , was not designed by Andy Warhol, but by the designer John Pasche . Warhol designed the album cover for the LP Sticky Fingers with recordings of Joe Dallesandro's lower body. The tongue logo was first published on a sheet that accompanies this record.
Andy Warhol concentrated on his second passion, film, from the early 1960s. Since moving to his second studio, the Factory , in late 1963 , this huge studio in the middle of Manhattan has been a magnet for New York bohemians . Dancers, transvestites, would-be actors, painters, musicians, everything gradually gathered here, Warhol allowed everything and everyone to live out their passions. And he documented all of this with a film camera (later also with Polaroids ). Using a Bolex narrow-film camera, he began to systematically take pictures of visitors, artist friends and other celebrities (e.g. Mick Jagger , Bob Dylan , Marcel Duchamp and Salvador Dalí). Everyone was welcome as a motif for the screen tests (“test shots”). Hundreds of films, only partially published to this day, were made according to the same principle: the subject sat on a chair and was illuminated by a bright lamp while Warhol switched on the camera and left, so that the "actor" was alone for three minutes with the lens in front of his face , the time it took for the roll of film to pass through. The results of the attitudes ranged across all moods and emotional states . A sophisticated lighting technique with hard cast shadows made these recordings important meditative documents of the end of modernity .
Together with the Factory team, especially his assistant Gerard Malanga and the photographer Billy Name , Warhol also shot a large number of feature films in mass production. Inspired by screenings in the Film-Makers' Cinematheque , the forum for underground films in New York under the direction of Jonas Mekas , Warhol developed his own film language . Typical of the early films is the still camera, which mercilessly captures a single object or a single action for hours without any cut . “ Sleep ”, the first film, documents the beat poet John Giorno for over four hours while he was sleeping, “ Eat ” his painter colleague Robert Indiana while nibbling on a mushroom with pleasure. The highlight of this series is undoubtedly " Empire ", which shows the Empire State Building from falling dark until late at night - for eight hours.
Many films had more of the plot. There were enough self-promoters in the factory, just waiting to be filmed and to expose themselves in front of the camera. Mario Montez , a Puerto Rican transvestite, gave a performance as "Harlot" and "Hedy" ( Hedy Lamarr ), " Blow Job " showed the head and upper body of a young man who was visibly (but not visibly) enjoying the pleasures of fellatio . " Couch ", the most famous film in this series, shows a colorful row of stripes of mostly stark naked male (and a few female) actors in various pairings. On the one hand, the focus on the world of homosexuality in its various forms becomes clear, on the other hand, Warhol's voyeurism , who never openly lived out his own homosexuality. The second phase of Warhol's filmmaking is shaped by the collaboration with screenwriter Ronald Tavel , who, influenced by the theater of the absurd , spiced up the plot and dialogues with a good dose of comedy and camp aesthetics.
In ironic exaggeration and as an underground alternative to the well-known Hollywood actors, the "stars", Warhol called his actors superstars . This was primarily used to refer to the women in his films. His first real “superstar” was the young talent and model Edie Sedgwick , a very rich girl from the best family on the wrong track. He showed himself with her, sometimes in the same outfit (silver-dyed hair) in public, especially at parties, from which he ticked off up to six per night with his whole troupe. The Sedgwick affair only lasted a year because her drug use made her problems rampant and she lost control of herself. She joined Bob Dylan. The best-known, perhaps also the best film by Warhol from this period is The Chelsea Girls from 1966, which - partly black and white, partly in color - shows various protagonists of the Factory as residents of the legendary Chelsea Hotel in Chelsea (Manhattan) . Drug excesses, psychoses , exhibitionism and sexual escapades are mercilessly demonstrated. In its time, when the hippie euphoria was at its height, the film was a deep black, disturbing document of the urban counterculture of New York, in it heroin and speed stood against hash and LSD .
Towards the end of the 1960s, all of this came to an abrupt end: the mentally confused suffragette Valerie Solanas (she had played a tiny supporting role in a Warhol film) committed an assassination attempt on Warhol, who at the time was his film “Blue Movie” (superstar “ Viva “During hours of intercourse with Louis Waldon). The painter had to go to the hospital, and in the following years he left the direction to his collaborator Paul Morrissey . He made completely different, commercially oriented feature films, for which Warhol only gave the name. In contrast to the early experimental films, these were shown across the US and Europe. Warhol is famous for these today.
According to the latest estimates by the Whitney Museum of American Art , which holds the film estate, Warhol has made more than 400 screen tests, nearly 280 films and over 4,000 videos in his lifetime.
More art projects
Warhol also explored new territories beyond painting and film. He recognized the tendencies of contemporary art very early and remodeled them to his own cause. So he sponsored the rock group The Velvet Underground by having them rehearse in the Factory ( Lou Reed , John Cale , Sterling Morrison and Maureen Tucker had flown out of all the previous practice rooms, pubs and apartments because they were brutally loud), and he financed her first record as a "producer". To do this, he brought the German model Nico into the studio.
The band's live performances are legendary. Warhol, as mastermind, used many innovative means for the light show for the first time that are commonplace today: stroboscopes and mirror balls , slide and film projections, color filters and overlays. The band basically only performed in black clothes and sunglasses. Designed were Exploding Plastic Inevitable performances mentioned as a sensational multimedia - happenings to which Malanga, Eric Emerson and Mary Woronov aufführten their "whip dance". As in his films, Warhol documented the “dark side” of contemporary rock music with his band.
Warhol worked tirelessly as a photographer. Everything and everyone was portrayed. He captured what was happening around him with his Polaroid instant cameras , and there are tens of thousands of photos in his estate that have never been shown to the public.
Warhol also tried his hand at writing books. Because he not only much-photographed, filmed and painted, but also made tape recordings, the idea to him, a person came out of his area for 24 hours (probably alluding to Ulysses by James Joyce ) to the microphone to track and everything he said hold on. He found this person in “ Ondine ” (Robert Olivo), a notorious speed freak who chattered non-stop when he had taken drugs again - which was the constant condition for him. The recordings, actually not made in one piece, but over several months, represent an illegible document of the absurdity. Monologues lasting hours, alternating with aggressive conversations, to which Edie Sedgwick, Lou Reed and others also contributed, are completely amateurish by chance in the Factory visitors present. The book is teeming with mistakes, but that's exactly what Warhol wanted. When the publisher's editor objected, Warhol declared the book to be a work of art and with it all errors, inconsistencies, gaps and confused passages. The title of the book says it all: A: A Novel (A: A Novel) , where "A" for amphetamine is, the effects documented it.
Little is known that he even “wrote” a play. In 1971 the piece Pork was performed in New York and London (directed by Anthony J. Ingrassia ), which was based on tapes of telephone conversations between Warhol and Brigid Berlin . The play, which was said to be 29 acts and 200 hours long at first, caused confusion and anger everywhere because it seemed to be a reckoning with its own superstars below the belt. The title Pork , "Pig", is a corruption of the alias Brigid Polk, Billy Name became Billy Noname, "Viva" became Vulva , the actions of the mostly nude actors were obscene. Nevertheless, it ran at The Roundhouse in London for over a year.
The attack and the time after
After an assassination attempt by the radical women's rights activist Valerie Solanas on June 3, 1968, in which Warhol was critically injured by several gunshot wounds and had to spend a long time in hospital, both his open dealings with the factory employees and visitors and the artist's work changed : He concentrated again more on his pictures and screen prints and later even marketed the works that were shot in the Solanas assassination ("Elvis Lives", "Shot Marilyn"). The story of the Solanas assassination was filmed in 1996 under the title I Shot Andy Warhol .
Warhol's new studio in Union Square has been monitored by cameras since the attack. He increasingly left business matters to his employees; so he immediately put the young climber Frederick Hughes in the management staff of his art machine, while Morrissey continued to take care of the film production. Warhol had his gunshot wounds photographed by the American star photographer Richard Avedon . In the end, the factory was transformed from the trendy “scene location” into a normal office floor. The employees of the first hours, Gerard Malanga and Billy Name, disappeared from the factory after disagreements. Hughes came from a good family and had excellent connections with Texan oil industrialists and art collectors such as Dominique de Ménil . In the years that followed, Warhol repeatedly supplied them with portrait commissions and drove up the prices for his pictures.
After his own “party refuge” had been destroyed by the assassination, Warhol plunged himself increasingly into the commercial party scene in the early 1970s and soon became a regular at Studio 54 , one of the most frequented discos in New York at the time. There the high society met in the basement and sniffed cocaine , which was extremely expensive at the time. The art critics had repeatedly accused Warhol, at this time "sold out" to have. The (non-political) contact with quite dubious figures from the environment of the Shah of Persia or the Filipino dictator Marcos was not very beneficial for a good image. 1972 his beloved mother Julia died; Another reason for the artist to deal with the subject of death in a screen print series (the Vanitas series “Skulls”, “Shadows” etc.). In his private life, the artist withdrew more and more to his New York townhouse, where he lived with his partner Jed Johnson for over ten years.
As the 1970s progressed, Warhol finally began (in his sense) to produce commerce out of art : like on an assembly line, he portrayed everyone who paid him the corresponding fee. He painted vehicles for car companies like BMW or Mercedes-Benz and was always a welcome guest in video and television productions. He photographed his (mostly prominent and wealthy) customers in his sessions with the Polaroid camera, which he then gave to expose the printing stencils for his screen prints. He also increasingly concentrated on the colportage , made endless tape recordings and photographed stars and starlets of the New York scene without restraint and indiscriminately for his magazine Interview , founded in November 1969 . He and his co-workers gladly and relentlessly compromised their often drunk or drug-intoxicated interviewees with the articles and photographs of their magazine.
All of this is significant for the development of postmodern aesthetics, and here too Warhol must be given the role of a pioneer: the apparent randomness reflects the overflowing, ever more differentiating and increasingly unmanageable flow of communication in the information society . Warhol always tried out the latest because it offered itself to him. His importance as an artist is largely due to the fact that he quickly recognized the possibilities of new aesthetic expressions, for example he was a pioneer of video film (here, too, there are hundreds of hours of material completely unknown to this day), and he aestheticized his newly found social role as Contact point for gossip by founding Interview magazine, the first lifestyle magazine ever. As a portrait painter , he has created a complete series which, in terms of art history, is in the tradition of Velazquez and court painting. The fact that he was fully aware of all of this is documented by the "Time Capsules" that have only become known in recent years and that he has been putting on since the early 1970s. Up until his death, Warhol filled a total of around 600 moving boxes with everything that was important or less important to him. Fantastic contemporary documents have emerged from this, the particular charm of which will only be revealed now and in the decades to come.
In May 1979 Warhol, who was showing his new pictures in the Hans Mayer Gallery in Düsseldorf, met the German sculptor Joseph Beuys for the first time . Both artists met again in 1980. The occasion was the exhibition Joseph Beuys by Andy Warhol , which took place on April 1, 1980 in the Lucio Amelio Gallery in Naples, and on which nine screen-printed portraits entitled Joseph Beuys , the Warhol von Beuys following a meeting in New York after Polaroid - Recordings were made.
In the 1980s Warhol worked with artist friends such as Keith Haring , Jean-Michel Basquiat and Francesco Clemente . During this phase, several joint paintings were created. Each artist worked with his own technique and combined them on a canvas. In 1984 he was represented at the group exhibition From Here - Two Months of New German Art in Düsseldorf . On January 12, 1985, Warhol took part in the “Global Art Fusion” project , together with Joseph Beuys and the Japanese artist Kaii Higashiyama . This was an intercontinental FAX-ART project initiated by the concept artist Ueli Fuchser, in which a fax with drawings by all three artists involved was sent around the world within 32 minutes and received in the Museum of Modern Art, in the Palais-Liechtenstein in Vienna. This fax was intended to represent a sign of peace during the Cold War.
His last thematic group of works with large-format works was created at the request of the gallery owner and friend Alexander Iolas in examination of the mural L'Ultima Cena ( The Last Supper ), which Leonardo da Vinci painted between 1494 and 1497 on the north wall of the refectory of the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie painted in Milan. Warhol's exhibition took place opposite the church in the Palazzo delle Stelline Milan in 1987. The huge painting cycle comprises over 100 pictures traditionally painted with a brush and produced using the screen printing technique, some of which are over 4 × 10 meters in size. Warhol's joke sat on Warhol's neck until the very end: The “Last Suppers” are not about preoccupation with the original, but rather the further processing of a kitschy plaster sculpture that he found in a junk shop in Little Italy . The last exhibition during his lifetime was for the gallery owner who enabled Warhol to have his first solo exhibition in New York in 1952.
On the morning of February 22, 1987, Warhol died unexpectedly and under circumstances that are still unexplained from complications of a gallbladder operation in New York Hospital in Manhattan. He was buried in close family in his native Pittsburgh. The artist was commemorated with a mass in St. Patrick's Cathedral with the participation of over 2000 mourners, including Raquel Welch , Bianca Jagger , Grace Jones , Deborah Harry and Claus von Bülow .
In his will , Fred Hughes was appointed administrator of the estate. As the main heir of his property - the New York Magazine estimated it at that time to more than 100 million US dollars - the artist, in addition to family members, the foundation had Stiftung Andy Warhol Foundation for Visual Arts determined. Apart from the auction of devotional objects , the works from Warhol's private collection of his artist colleagues such as Cy Twombly or Rauschenberg brought several million dollars.
Reflections on the person
Andy Warhol was an introverted , shy and opaque personality. He did not live his homosexuality publicly, although when asked about it, he did not deny it. By making (male) homosexuality one of the central fixed points of his work throughout his life, he encouraged the discussion of the subject.
In the 1960s, he mostly wore a white-blonde, partly silver-colored wig and dark sunglasses. Warhol revealed little about himself, was taciturn and stylized himself as the Sphinx and icon of the New York art scene. The writer Truman Capote called him a "Sphinx without a secret". In interviews and conversations, he cleverly evaded the expectations of himself and consistently practiced building up the myth "Andy Warhol". Once he even sent a doppelganger ( Allen Midgette ) to public lectures at universities and press meetings. He had a very close relationship with his mother, who lived with him in New York. He was religious, but even so in his own way. After his death it became known that he had more intensive contact with the parish church of St. Vincent Ferrer on the Upper East Side and that he participated in feeding the poor at Christmas in later years.
After the assassination attempt in 1968, Warhol was a different person: Since then, he has tended to be obsessive about buying and collecting , which was reflected both in his work and in his private life. Although the artist suffered lifelong fear of falling into poverty again, there was hardly a flea market in New York that he spared and where he did not “have to” buy at least one item, as he once described in his notes. He was one of the first to rediscover the qualities of Art Déco and bought watches, brooches and furniture from that time. Warhol's spacious private house was a single collection of historical works of art and works by contemporary artist colleagues such as Lichtenstein, Rauschenberg and Twombly, as well as valuable furniture, tons of kitsch objects (e.g. Mickey Mouse figures), the finest and cheapest porcelain , lost property, chewing gum machines and much more more. According to press articles, the auction of his estate is said to have raised around $ 900 million.
In his diary entries , published posthumously in 1989 by his secretary and close confidante Pat Hackett , one learns more about Andy Warhol as a person and his true personality. If one interprets the book, Warhol must have increasingly suffered in the late 1980s from fears of diseases such as AIDS , which he himself described as "gay cancer", the consequences of the attack and gradual loneliness caused by his failed homosexual relationships. Warhol also became superstitious, increased his hypochondria and fell for some quacks, faith healers and “stone therapists”. What stood out about Warhol, however, was his laconic and cynical handling of death throughout his life: when his first “ muse ” Edie Sedgwick and other employees of his factory died, he hardly showed any emotion. He himself complained to the end about his increasing physical complaints, but never publicly. That contradicted the image that he wanted to leave the outside world: “I always wanted to be a machine”.
“If you want to know everything about Andy Warhol, you only have to look at the surface of my pictures and films and of me, and that's me. There is nothing behind it. "
Warhol's pictorial works thrive on an experimental and luminescent color scheme (mostly using acrylic paints ), in which he consciously relied on generative alienation and also stoically accepted errors when copying templates or left the production of the screen prints to his employees. Much of the work, however, probably does not even come from his hand. When visiting galleries or museums, he is said to have amused himself by counterfeiting his own works. His work is characterized by originality, subtle humor but also cynicism ; be it its Do-It-Yourself -Pictures to Selbstausmalen, camouflage , inversions or image series Electric Chair (electric chair) , of which he is quoted as saying: "I make it in any color as long as they fit only the curtains."
Warhol's work has always been characterized by the serial reproduction or reproducibility of pictorial objects, the everyday, the trivial and the banal. Always fascinated by the idea of “copying” and the consequent sequence (including his passion for film), Warhol first tried to draw pictures from cinema magazines by hand. As a result, he made himself familiar with the method of indirect screen printing ( transfer printing ) and began to filter and implement everyday, current and familiar motifs from the media (newspapers, magazines). For this reason, Warhol was often accused of plagiarism . He preferred bright acrylic colors and strong color contrasts for his pictures (e.g. Marilyn, Elvis, Liz). From the 1970s onwards, Warhol was increasingly looking for new techniques and forms of expression (e.g. piss paintings , pictures “painted” with urine by oxidation on copper paint). In his later work he used a. a. also diamond dust in his work (e.g. the series of portraits by Joseph Beuys ).
His portraits of well-known personalities (Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley , Liz Taylor, Mao and many others) are paramount. He was also interested in the aesthetics of goods and consumer society , although consumption was viewed positively by him. It is controversial whether this was a variant of over-identification , like many of his statements. He loved artificiality and refined gossip and managed (as a trained graphic artist) skillfully to invent and celebrate himself as an image / brand . His work follows the constant attempt to break the boundaries between art and commerce, i.e. commercially applied art ( advertising , design ) and fine arts ( high culture ). He represented the ideal of a business art .
Museums for Warhol
In 1991 the Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art in Medzilaborce , Slovakia , was founded by Warhol's brother John Warhola (1925–2010), the Slovak Minister of Culture and the Warhol Foundation, New York. It contains several originals and personal items donated by the Warhol Foundation and its relatives. The 2001 documentary film Absolut Warhola by Polish director Stanisław Mucha is dedicated to this museum and the area around Medzilaborce.
Another museum, The Andy Warhol Museum , opened its exhibition rooms, spread over seven floors, in 1994 in Pittsburgh, the city of his birth. The collection comprises 900 paintings, around 100 sculptures, almost 2,000 works on paper, more than 1,000 prints, 4,000 photographs as well as an extensive film and video collection and extensive archive materials.
For Warhol's 85th birthday in 2013, the Andy Warhol Museum switched on a live video stream from the artist's grave. The project is entitled "Figment" (Eng. "Imagination", based on a saying by Warhol that he did not want to have a grave inscription, but just to be "Figment"). The webcam should be on the air continuously, according to museum director Eric Shiner "... a fantastic way to get Andy on the air 24 hours, seven days a week and in connection with our global audience."
Warhol's contribution to the establishment of Pop Art in the visual, performing and cinematographic arts in the 1960s is significant.
According to the judgment of the German art critic Klaus Honnef , nothing was unknown what Warhol created; he didn't invent anything except the star Andy Warhol.
The American art critic Philip Ursprung noted: “Warhol's work is interpreted as a machine parody of the consumer society, which is partially permeated by enthusiastic and homoerotic allusions, e.g. B. the early graphics and later films. On the other hand, his self-description as a “business artist” is received quite critically. He contrasted the image of the autonomous artist, who determines his own commissions, with the image of an artist who is permanently at service. ”This is how he portrayed everyone who was willing to pay 25,000 dollars.
According to Dieter Buchhart, it remains controversial to this day whether Warhol's work portrays the capitalist consumer world in an affirmative or ironic and decoupling manner. “While the established, modernist criticism ( Clement Greenberg , Harold Rosenberg , Herbert Read ) denounced Pop Art as part of the culture industry [...], the new, postmodern art criticism celebrated in Warhol's works the affirmation of American consumer culture and the removal of the demarcation between autonomous and trivial art. A third position was represented by the countercultural movement of the beatniks and student movement; she wanted it to be a criticism of the American affluent society and an ironic treatment of the stars of the show business. "
One of Warhol's motto was: "Good business is the best art". As a capitalist entrepreneur in his own right, the artist inspired artists such as Jeff Koons , Takashi Murakami , Damien Hirst , Richard Prince and Keith Haring , who took up Warhol's strategies and developed them further.
Lou Reed and John Cale, former members of The Velvet Underground, dedicated the 1990 homage album Songs for Drella to Warhol . The 15 tracks on the album reflect stations in Warhol's life as well as aspects of his personality and work.
David Bowie has admired Warhol since the 1960s and referred to him as one of his great sources of inspiration. In 1971 he wrote the song Andy Warhol , which appeared on his studio album Hunky Dory that same year ; In September of that year he visited Warhol's factory and played the song for him. According to Warhol biographer Victor Bockris , Warhol should not have been particularly enthusiastic: “David Bowie said the song was meant positively. But Andy found him horrible ... Andy looks like a scream ... of course he didn't like such a line because he had big complexes about his appearance. ”In 1996 Bowie played Andy Warhol himself in Julian Schnabel's biopic Basquiat .
Rosa von Praunheim tied Warhol and several of his superstars (e.g. Holly Woodlawn , Taylor Mead and Jackie Curtis ) in some of his films (e.g. Underground and Emigrants , Tally Brown - New York and Mein New York ).
In March 2011, The Andy Monument - a larger-than-life chrome-plated statue of Andy Warhol designed by artist Rob Pruitt - was installed in Union Square in front of the former Warhols Factory site. In the fall of 2012, it was moved to the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston , Texas , where it remained for six months after being unveiled on October 20.
Andy Warhol's work Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster) raised more than $ 105 million (€ 78 million) in an auction on November 13, 2013. The buyer remained unknown. It is Warhol's most expensive work. According to Sotheby’s , the previous auction record for a Warhol picture, Green Car Crash - Green Burning Car I , was $ 71.7 million, auctioned in 2007. Like the current record picture, it shows a car accident, only in green instead of silver . The picture Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster) is 2.67 meters high and four meters wide. The left side shows 15 screen prints of a traffic accident, the right side an empty, silver-colored surface. Both come from Warhol's 1963 series Death and Disaster .
The sale of Warhol works is unpredictable. A few minutes after the record, Liz # 1 , a portrait of Elizabeth Taylor, was sold for $ 20.3 million only at the lowest price of the estimated value range. The day before, a picture resembling an advertising poster for Coca-Cola had raised nearly $ 60 million at Christie's , which was in line with expectations. Other Warhols, however, find no buyers at all.
In November 2014, two pictures, Triple Elvis and Four Marlons , from the inventory of the German casino operator WestSpiel were auctioned at Christie's in New York. Together they raised $ 151.5 million (€ 120 million); The Elvis portrait accounted for $ 81.9 million.
Andy Warhol participated in the 4th documenta in Kassel in 1968 (with Ten Marilyns , shown for the first time in Europe), at Documenta 6 (1977) and Documenta 7 in 1982 as an artist. A larger selection of solo and group exhibitions can be found under the web link "Art Aspects".
Fifty years after Campbell's Soup Cans (created in 1962), an exhibition entitled Regarding Warhol: “Fifty Years, Sixty Artists” opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York at the end of 2012 and was intended to show Warhol's influence on fellow artists. It contained 100 works by 59 artists as well as around 50 works by Warhol, including soup cans, the famous Brillo boxes, portraits of Elvis and Elizabeth Taylor . The exhibition has been criticized by the press for its lack of originality.
A major Andy Warhol exhibition in Southeast Asia in 2013 also reached Shanghai , People's Republic of China , and had to be subjected to Chinese censorship . It shows a curated retrospective, but without Mao Zedong pictures. The Chinese government had the well-known series of portraits of the former chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, removed. The Mao portrait series shows Mao, alongside Marilyn Monroe and the Campbell soup cans, as a commodity, icon or brand.
In winter 2013/14, the Bank Austria Kunstforum Wien presented a large retrospective with works by Andy Warhol and Jean-Michel Basquiat . In the years 1984/85 the two artists created numerous joint works, which form an impressive and multifaceted field of tension between these very different artist characters.
For the first time in Europe, the Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz dedicated themselves to the subject of Andy Warhol's Death and Disaster in 2014/2015 . In 2017, the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney focused on the artist's early years in their exhibition Adman: Warhol before pop with over 300 objects.
The group exhibition I'm a Believer. Pop Art and contemporary art from the Lenbachhaus and the KiCo Foundation , which has been on view in the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus since March 2018 , shows classic positions by Andy Warhol and other well-known artists from the second half of the 20th century. In addition, some of his works are in the possession of the Munich gallery.
The year numbers refer to versions dated for the first time.
- 1948/49: Dancers , Orchestra , offset lithographs
- 1955: À la recherche du Shoe Perdu , series of offset lithographs
- 1961: Superman , Dick Tracy , Popeye and other comic motifs
- 1962: Do it Yourself (Sailing Boats) , Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1962: Campbell's Soup (various variations)
- 1962 Big Crushed Campbell's Soup Can (Cream of Chicken), Larry Gagosian Collection
- 1962 One Hundred Campbell's Soup Cans , Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1962: 200 One Dollar Bills
- 1962: Daily News , Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1962: Marilyn Diptych
- 1962: Dance Diagram -Tango , Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1963: Ethel Scull 36 Times . Acrylic and screen print on canvas, 254 × 65 cm. Jointly owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Whitney Museum .
- 1963: Triple Elvis
- 1963: Thirty Are Better Than One (paraphrases based on Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa )
- 1963: White Car Crash 19 Times (from the Disaster series, various versions)
- 1963: White Disaster , Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1963: Green Disaster , Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1963: Electric Chair (from the Disaster series, various versions)
- 1963: Most Wanted 369 8.5.7 John Joseph H. Jr., alias John Hennesy, 13 Most Wanted Men No.11 , Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1964: Brillo Box
- 1964: Marilyn (various versions, some printed inverted)
- 1964: Flowers
- 1964: Brillo, Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Mott's Apple Juice Boxes, Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1964: Jackie , triptych , Museum Ludwig , Cologne
- 1964: Jackie , Museum of Modern Art , Frankfurt
- 1966: Cow Wallpaper , Silver Clouds
- 1967: Big Electric Chair (series)
- 1967: Marilyn Monroe (ill.)
- 1968: Campbell's Tomato Soup
- 1971: Gunter Sachs , 120 × 120 cm.
- 1972: Mao (portfolio with 10 serigraphs, edition of 250 pieces)
- 1975: Mick Jagger , Neue Galerie, Ludwig Collection, Aachen
- 1976: American Indian Series, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art
- 1977: Muhammad Ali
- 1978: Shadows , Oxidation Paintings
- 1979: After the party
- 1979-1986: Reversal Series ; Reversals of known subjects
- 1980: Holstentor , Lübeck , St. Anne's Monastery Museum
- 1980: Joseph Beuys , Bernd Klüser Gallery, Munich
- 1980–1984: Series of famous and historical personalities:
- Ten Portraits of Jews of the Twentieth Century (1980)
- 17 prominent German citizens , compiled for the exhibition " From Here - Two Months of New German Art in Düsseldorf " (1984)
- 1982: Dollar Sign
- 1982: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (ill.)
- 1983: Species at Risk series (Animals in danger of extinction)
- 1985/86: The Last Supper ( paraphrases based on Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper ; several variations) (Fig.)
- 1986: Grace Jones .
- 1986: Frederick the Great , acrylic and color serigraph, 213 × 184 cm
- 1987: Moonwalk (History of TV Series)
Some of Andy Warhol's works are difficult to date because they were largely unpublished. Allegedly they were also "produced" indiscriminately by employees in his factory . This may be a typical “pop” claim by Warhol himself. Just as he is said to have said himself later that he amused himself at exhibitions by the forgeries of his own works. Rather, however, the opposite was the case: Warhol was obsessed with control. Nothing left his studio that was not approved by himself. It is known that in 1968 Gerard Malanga offered counterfeit Warhols for sale in Italy - he knew how they were made. Warhol was informed of this by a Roman gallery owner, Malanga immediately got into great legal difficulties and had to submit a cease and desist declaration.
- Screen Tests (1964–1966)
- Sleep (July 1963) Produced and directed
- Kiss (August 1963) Produced and directed
- Tarzan And Jane Regained… Sort Of (September / October 1963) Produced and directed
- Andy Warhol Films Jack Smith Filming Normal Love (October 1963) Produced and directed
- Haircut (November 1963) Produced and directed
- Blow Job (January 1964) Produced and directed
- Eat (February 1964) Produced and directed
- Empire (June 1964) Produced and directed
- Batman Dracula (July 1964) Produced and directed
- Couch (July 1964) Produced and directed
- Henry Geldzahler (July 1964) Produced and directed
- Taylor Mead 's Ass (September 1964) Produced and directed
- Harlot (December 1964) Produced and directed
- 13 Most Beautiful Women (1964) Produced and directed
- The 13 Most Beautiful Boys (1965) Produced and directed
- Screen Test No. 1 (January 1965) production and direction
- Screen Test No. 2 (January 1965) Produced and directed
- The Life Of Juanita Castro (January 1965) Produced and directed
- Horse (March 1965) Produced and directed
- Vinyl (March 1965) Produced and directed
- Poor Little Rich Girl (March / April 1965) Produced and directed
- Kitchen (May / June 1965) Produced and directed
- Beauty # 2 (July 1965) Produced and directed
- Girls In Prison (July 1965) Produced and directed
- Space (July 1965) Produced and directed
- Outer And Inner Space (July 1965) Produced and directed
- My Hustler (August 1965) Produced and directed
- Paul Swan (August / September 1965) Producer and Director
- Camp (August / September 1965) production and direction
- Hedy (November 1965) Produced and directed
- More Milk Yvette (November 1965) Produced and directed
- Lupe (The Death of Lupe Velez) (December 1965) Produced and directed
- The Velvet Underground and Nico. A Symphony Of Sound (January 1966) Produced and directed
- Bufferin (early 1966) production and direction
- Bike Boy (1966) Produced and directed
- The Chelsea Girls (Summer 1966) Produced and directed
- **** (Four Stars) (August 1966 to September 1967) Production, direction and screenplay
- Kiss The Boot (Winter 1966) Produced and directed
- Imitation Of Christ (May / June 1967) Produced and directed
- I, A Man (July 1967) Produced and directed
- Bike Boy (August 1967) Produced and directed
- The Loves Of Ondine (August 1967) Produced and directed
- Nude Restaurant (October 1967) Produced and directed
- Lonesome Cowboys (December 1967) Produced and directed
- Blue Movie (July / August 1968) Produced and directed
- Flesh (1968) production
- Trash (1970) production
- Women in Revolt (1971) production
- Heat (1972) Last part of the trilogy after Flesh and Trash production
- Andy Warhol's Frankenstein (1973) production
- Andy Warhol's Dracula (1974) production
- Identikit / The Driver's Seat (1974) Starring
- Andy Warhol's Bad (1976) production
- Cocaine Cowboys (1979) cast member
Note on movies and videos
Warhol has produced an innumerable series of films, mostly experimental in character (also known as underground films ) , some of which can no longer be recorded chronologically; For example, the film **** (Four Stars) lasted around 24 hours, was only shown once and then cut into different individual films. Some films were partially used for Warhol's Exploding Plastic Inevitable happening shows. Since 1968 (after the assassination) Paul Morrissey was the director of the films, Warhol only gave his name for it. Ironically, the best-known films like Flesh , Trash and Bad are not from Warhol at all, they are just imitations of the early experimental films .
Differences between original and purchased versions
The videos / DVDs of the films with the label FSK 16 are partly heavily cut. Even the versions with the FSK 18 release are, if you can believe the reviews, shortened in individual cases compared to the original version.
Warhol's appearances in film and television
Warhol himself appeared in numerous television, advertising and video spots in the 1980s (including for the computer company Apple ), the presentation of the Amiga computer, and in a video by the bands The Cars and Curiosity Killed the Cat , in the TV soap opera The Love Boat or the movie Tootsie . On local New York television, he had his own television show Andy Warhol's Fifteen Minutes for five years .
- The Velvet Underground & Nico , (The legendary "Banana Album"), record 1967, remastered CD versions 1996 and 2012 (45th Anniversary Edition)
- Various Artists, Cool Gabriels (1956), Groove LG-1003
- JJ Johnson , Kai Winding , Benny Green , Trombone by Three (1956), Prestige 4
- Kenny Burrell , Volume 2 (1957), Blue Note BLP-1543
- Moondog , The Story of Moondog (1957), Prestige 7099
- Maurice Ravel / Boston Symphony Orchestra , Daphnis and Chloe (1958), RCA LM-1893
- Kenny Burrell, Blue Lights (1958), Blue Note 1596
- Tennessee Williams , Reading from The Glass Menagerie (1960), Caedmon TC 1005
- Johnny Griffin , The Congregation (1959), Blue Note 1580
- The Velvet Underground , The Velvet Underground & Nico (1967), Verve V6-5008
- Rolling Stones , Sticky Fingers (1971), Rolling Stones 39105
- John Cale , The Academy in Peril (1972), recapitulation REP 44212
- Paul Anka , The Painter (1976), UA LA653-G
- Rolling Stones, Love You Live (1977), Rolling Stones COC 2-9001
- Diana Ross , Silk Electric (1982), RCA AFL1-4384
- Billy Squier , Emotions In Motion (1982), Capitol ST 512217
- Aretha Franklin , Aretha (1986), Arista AL8442
- John Lennon , Menlove Ave. (1986) Capitol R-144136
Books by Warhol
- Interviews with Andy Warhol , edited by Kenneth Goldsmith , Verlag Kurt Liebig, Schmieheim, 2006, ISBN 3-938715-02-2 .
- Andy Warhol, Stephen Shore , Nat Finkelstein, and Billy Name: The Index Book. Black Star Random House, New York 1967.
- Andy Warhol: A: A Novel . Grove Press, New York 1968; New edition Virgin Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7535-1081-2 .
- Andy Warhol: The Philosophy of Andy Warhol (From A to B and Back Again) , Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, London 1975, ISBN 0-15-189050-1 .
- Andy Warhol and Bob Colacello : Exposures . New York / London 1979, ISBN 0-09-139200-4 .
- Andy Warhol and Pat Hackett: Popism. The Warhol '60s , Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, London 1980, ISBN 0-15-173095-4 .
- Reprint: Penguin Books, 2007. ISBN 978-0-14-190526-6
- Andy Warhol: America . Harpercollins, New York 1985, ISBN 0-06-096004-3 .
- Andy Warhol and Pat Hackett: The Diary. Droemer Knaur, 1989, ISBN 3-426-26429-3 (German, OT: The Andy Warhol Diaries )
- Andy Warhol: The philosophy of Andy Warhol from A to B and back. New edition 2006, Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, ISBN 978-3-596-17315-0 .
- Andy Warhol and Truman Capote: A Sunday in New York. Gatza, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-928262-14-9 .
- Andy Warhol, Suzie Frankfurt: Wild Raspberries . New York 1959; New edition Little, Brown and Company, 1997, ISBN 0-8212-2340-2 (English).
In 1977 Andy Warhol entrusted Thomas Ammann to publish his catalog raisonné. The publication was delayed until 2002, the third volume appeared in 2010.
- George Frei / Neil Printz (eds.): Andy Warhol Werkverzeichnis / Catalog Raisonné Vol. I (1961–1963) , Phaidon, New York 2002, ISBN 978-0-7148-4086-4
- George Frei / Neil Printz (eds.): Andy Warhol Werkverzeichnis / Catalog Raisonné Vol. II (1964–1969) Phaidon, New York 2004, ISBN 978-0-7148-4087-1
- George Frei / Neil Printz (Eds.): Andy Warhol Werkverzeichnis / Catalog Raisonné Vol. III (1970–1974) Phaidon, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-7148-5698-8
- Frayda Feldman & Jörg Schellmann (eds.): Andy Warhol Prints: A Catalog Raisonné: 1962–1987. DAP, New York 1997, ISBN 1-881616-90-8
- Peter Iden , Rolf Lauter , Pictures for Frankfurt: Inventory catalog of the Museum of Modern Art , Munich, Prestel 1985, ISBN 3-79-130702-9
- Daniel Blau (Ed.): Andy Warhol. From Silverpoint to Silver Screen. 1950s drawings . Hirmer, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-7774-5341-5 .
- Willi Blöß, Annette Schulze-Kremer: Andy Warhol - The factory. Flotainment, Aachen 2003, ISBN 3-936877-01-7 .
- Steven Bluttal, Dave Hickey et al .: Andy Warhol Giant Size. Phaidon Press, London 2009 [first edition 2006], ISBN 978-0-7148-4980-5 (English); German translation by Phaidon, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-0-7148-5846-3 .
- Victor Bockris : Andy Warhol. Heyne, Munich 1991. ISBN 3-546-41393-8 .
- David Bourdon : Warhol. DuMont, Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-7701-2338-7 .
- Isabelle Dufresne (Ultra Violet): Andy Warhol superstar. Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1988, ISBN 3-7857-0535-2 .
- Klaus Gier: Andy Warhol's Record and Cover Design: Studies on the graphic and formal design of records and record packaging by Andy Warhol using the example of "The Velvet Underground & Nico" and "Sticky Fingers". Publishing house Peter Lang. Frankfurt am Main. 2001. 386 pp. ISBN 3-631-3741-86 .
- Jörg Heiser: Double life: art and pop music . (At the same time dissertation at the Humboldt University Berlin, 2014 udT: Jörg Heiser: Double life between art and pop music ). Philo Fine Arts, Hamburg 2015. ISBN 978-3-86572-691-9 .
- Klaus Honnef : Andy Warhol 1928–1987. Art as commerce . Taschen, Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-8228-6378-7 .
- Isabel Kuhl: LIVING_ART: Andy Warhol . Prestel Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7913-3738-8 . (LIVING_ART series)
- Fred Larwrence Guiles: Andy Warhol. Voyeur of Life [biography]. From the American by Bernhard Schmid. With 24 illustrations. Paul List. Munich. 1989. 399 pp. ISBN 3-471-77655-9 . (Original title: Andy Warhol - Loner at the Ball. London 1989).
- Michael Lüthy: Andy Warhol. Thirty Are Better Than One. Insel, Frankfurt / M. 1995, ISBN 3-458-33459-9 (online as PDF at michaelluethy.de )
- Kynaston McShine et al .: Andy Warhol retrospective. Prestel, Munich 1994 [first edition 1990], ISBN 3-7913-0918-8 . (For the Andy Warhol exhibition , retrospective at the Museum Ludwig, Cologne)
- Stefana Sabin : Andy Warhol. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1992, ISBN 978-3-499-50485-3 .
- Anne Schloen: The renaissance of gold. Gold in 20th Century Art . Verlag für Moderne Kunst, Nuremberg 2010, pp. 65–73, ISBN 978-3-940748-13-3 .
- Stephen Shore (photos), Lynne Tillman (text): The Velvet Years. Warhols's Factory 1965-67. Pavilion Books, 1995, ISBN 1-85793-323-0 (English)
- Annette Spohn: Andy Warhol. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-518-18227-7 .
- John Wilcock: The Autobiography and Sex Life of Andy Warhol . Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2011, ISBN 978-3-85445-362-8 (Original edition: The Autobiography And Sex Life Of Andy Warhol )
- Nina Tessa Zahner: The new rules of art. Andy Warhol and the renovation of the art business in the 20th century. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 978-3-593-38038-4 .
- Kim Evans: Andy Warhol , 77 min., Arthaus Musik GmbH 2008 (1987), ISBN 978-3-939873-24-2 (multilingual)
- Ric Burns: Andy Warhol: A Documentary Film , USA 2006 (German version: Andy Warhol - Godfather of Pop ), 230 min.
- Andy Warhol in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Andy Warhol on kunstaspekte.de
- Literature by and about Andy Warhol in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Andy Warhol in the German Digital Library
- Search for Andy Warhol in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Video for the exhibition "Warhol, Wool, Newman" at the Kunsthaus Graz - video podcast produced by CastYourArt
- Lee Parsons on the exhibition The Warhol Look, Glamor, Style, Fashion
- Biography of the Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburg (English)
- Warholstars -Detailed site of most actors and participants from Warhol's Factory (English)
- Warhol Foundation (English)
- Materials by and about Andy Warhol in the documenta archive
- The American Library of Congress names Forest City in Pennsylvania as the place of birth in the personal information .
- Andy Warhol. In: fineartmultiple.de. Retrieved June 13, 2017 .
- Stefana Sabin: Andy Warhol , Rowohlt, 1992, pp. 10f / 140
- Andy Warhol's Life , warhol.org, accessed November 12, 2017
- Quoted from Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh
- Stefana Sabin: Andy Warhol , Rowohlt, 1992, p. 10 f
- Stefana Sabin: Andy Warhol , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1992, p. 20
- Edward Willett: Andy Warhol: Everyone Will Be Famous for 15 Minutes , p. 37
- Jan Greenberg, Sandra Jordan: Andy Warhol, Prince of Pop , p. 31
- Kynaston McShine et al .: Andy Warhol retrospective , Prestel, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-7913-0918-8 , S. 404
- Stefana Sabin: Andy Warhol . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1992, p. 65 ff.
- Mario Wehner: Andy Warhol - Godfather of Pop Art. In: mwgestaltung.de. December 14, 2014, archived from the original on March 8, 2016 ; accessed on March 7, 2016 .
- Dachshunds in Pop Culture: Andy Warhol , dachshundlove.blogspot.de, accessed on August 16, 2013
- Susanne Anna (ed.): Joseph Beuys, Düsseldorf . Hatje Cantz, Stadtmuseum Düsseldorf, September 29 to December 30, 2007, Ostfildern 2008, p. 168 f.
- Paola Santamaria: Lucio Amelio 1931-1949 . In: Michele Bonuomo (ed.): Warhol Beuys. Omaggio a Lucio Amelio , ISBN 978-88-202-1862-1 , p. 211
- André Chahil: Vienna 1985: Phenomenon Fax Art. Beuys, Warhol and Higashiyama set an example for the Cold War. . accessed on October 14, 2015.
- The Day the Factory Died. In: sueddeutsche.de . November 27, 2007, accessed October 13, 2018 .
- "Andy Warhol: Das Tagebuch" by Pat Hackett (1989) at Droemer Knaur Munich, ISBN 3-426-26429-3 (German)
- William Grimes: John Warhola, brother of Andy Warhol, Dies at 85 , The New York Times , December 28, 2010
- the warhol: about the museum , warhol.org, accessed on June 29, 2013
- Museum starts webcam - live from Andy Warhol's grave. Handelsblatt, accessed on August 6, 2013 .
- Klaus Honnef: Warhol 1928-1987. Art as commerce. Taschen, Cologne 2006, p. 93.
- Philip origin: The art of the present. 1960 until today . CH Beck, Munich 2010, p. 24.
- Dieter Buchhart: The artist as CEO and the CEO as artist. In: Kunstforum International, vol. 200 (January-February 2010), p. 42.
- Walther Müller-Jentsch: Art in Society , Wiesbaden 2012; quoted from: Paolo Bianchi: From the precarious existence of art critic (er) . In: Kunstforum International, vol. 221 (May-June 2013), p. 37.
- From traded to trader , dradio.de, accessed on June 29, 2013
- Victor Bockris: Andy Warhol. Heyne, Munich 1991, p. 376f.
- Rosa von Praunheim. Retrieved June 19, 2017 .
- Warhol monument is moving to Texas , post-gazette.com, accessed November 15, 2012
- Another record auction: Over one hundred million dollars for a Warhol , spiegel.de, November 14, 2013, accessed on November 15, 2013
- Controversial sale from NRW: Warhol pictures bring 150 million dollars. In: Spiegel Online . November 12, 2014, accessed November 13, 2014 .
- Claudia Bodin: Gigantischer Warhol-Eintopf ( Memento from October 21, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), art-magazin.de, accessed on June 30, 2013
- China censors Andy Warhol ( Memento from May 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Warhol / Basquiat ( memento of February 2, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) in the Bank Austria Kunstforum, Vienna
- Warhol in Chemnitz
- Adman: Warhol pop before. February 25 - May 28, 2017.
- Lenbachhaus - I'm a Believer. Retrieved March 18, 2019 .
- FAZ of August 28, 2010, page 35
- Russell Means, star of Andy Warhol silk screen, dies | Art | Agenda | Phaedo. Retrieved March 8, 2017 .
- Warhol in Lübeck ( Memento from June 25, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- David Bourdon, Pat Hackett
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Warhola, Andrew (maiden name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American pop art artist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 6, 1928|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 22, 1987|
|Place of death||Manhattan , New York City , United States|