Muses have been named as divine or ingenious sources of inspiration for artists since the time of Greek mythology (kiss of the muse; kissed by the muse). The origin is the ancient idea that ideas (thinking) do not develop by themselves, but are input from gods (or muses ) from outside.
The term goes back to the muses in Greek mythology . In ancient mythology, the muses are spring nymphs - nine sisters who were conceived by the Greek father god Zeus with the spring goddess Mnemosyne (goddess of memory). The muses join Apollo , the god of the fine arts, who directs them and with them pays homage to Zeus on the Greek mountain Helikon .
The (first known) Greek poet Hesiod describes the world of gods and also the muses in his work Theogony .
In modern times, people began to be called muses - mostly friends of artists, and occasionally men. Muses inspire through their character , their charisma , their human affection or through an erotic relationship . For women as artists , becoming a muse was often the only way to make a career as an artist .
Some of these muse women, who often achieved fame as respected artists themselves, have gone down in history - for example Anaïs Nin , Mathilde Wesendonck , Youki Foujita-Desnos , Charlotte von Stein , Amanda Lear , Dora Maar , Alma Mahler-Werfel , Marietta di Monaco , Gabriele Münter , Emmy Hennings , Camille Claudel , Gala Éluard Dalí , Jeanne-Claude , Meret Oppenheim , Edie Sedgwick , Lotti Huber and Anita Pallenberg .
- Peter Braun, Eva Wagner: Kissed by the muse - strong women behind great artists. Ars Vivendi, Cadolzburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-86913-096-5 .
- Juliet Heslewood: Lovers: Artists and their Muses. 40 portraits from Raphael to Man Ray. Reimer, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3496014447 .
- Francine Prose: The Life of the Muses: From Lou Andreas-Salomé to Yoko Ono. Translated from the English by Brigitte Jakobeit and Susanne Höbel. Verlag Nagel & Kimche AG, Vienna, Munich 2004, ISBN 978-3312003365 .
- Annette Vezin, Luc Vezin: Muses of the 20th century. Translated from the French by Sabine Herting and Bernadette Ott. Knesebeck, Munich 2003, ISBN 978-3896601643 .
- Fig. Parnaso
- German translation by O. Schönberger, Stuttgart: Reclam 2002, ISBN 3-15-009763-0
- by Christian Dueblin: Bettina Eichin about her life, her understanding of art and her sculptures. November 26, 2010, accessed October 26, 2019 (German).
- Francine Prose, Brigitte Jakobeit , Susanne Höbel: The life of the muses. From Lou Andreas-Salomé to Yoko Ono. Nagel & Kimche, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-312-00336-9