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Against culture (engl. Counter culture ) discloses a specific, long-term effective socially subgroup of a given culture . In contrast to a “ subculture ” - according to John Milton Yinger - “counterculture” means the questioning of primary values and norms of the majority culture. Sometimes (social) visions and ideas of utopia play a role.

Early examples of such countercultures can be found in the traveling folk such as wandering artisans , the vagabond movement , pietism, and the early labor movement .

Some youth cultures of the 20th century are also called countercultures. Examples are: Wandervogel , Swing-Jugend , Hippie-Movement , 68er-Movement , Provo-Movement , New Social Movements and in the GDR from the 1970s to the mid-1980s the blueser or customer scene . Since the 1980s, the punk movement has been understood as a younger counterculture , which has spread around the world from Great Britain (e.g. punk in Indonesia ).

A counter-public or even a parallel society can emerge from a counterculture .

In art, countercultures often form in the underground .


  • Martin Ableitinger: Hardcore Punk and the Opportunities of Counterculture. Analysis of a failed attempt (= series of publications on political theory. 4). Kovač, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-8300-1636-0 .
  • Jens Gehret (ed.): Counterculture today. The alternative movement from Woodstock to Tunix. 2nd Edition. Azid-Presse, Amsterdam 1979, ISBN 90-70215-03-9 .
  • Joseph Heath , Andrew Potter: Consumer Rebels. The myth of the counterculture. Rogner & Bernhard at Zweiausendeins, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-8077-1008-6 .
  • Walter Hollstein : The opposite society. Alternative forms of life. Verlag Neue Gesellschaft, Bonn 1979, ISBN 3-87831-298-9 (4th, expanded edition. (= Rororo. Taschenbücher. 7454). Rowohlt-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1981, ISBN 3-499-17454-5 ).
  • Udo Pasterny , Jens Gehret (Hrsg.): German-language bibliography of counterculture. Books & magazines from 1950–1980. = Counterculture bibliography. Azid-Presse et al., Amsterdam 1982, ISBN 90-70215-10-1 .
  • Theodore Roszak : Counterculture. Thoughts on the technocratic society and the opposition of the youth (= List pocket books. 390). List, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-471-60390-5 .
  • Horst Schmidt-Brümmer: Venice, California. Against culture, through fantasy. Ernst Wasmuth, Tübingen 1972, ISBN 3-8030-0121-8 .
  • John Milton Yinger : Countercultures. The Promise and the Peril of a World Turned Upside Down. Free Press, New York NY 1982, ISBN 0-02-935890-6 .

Web links

Wiktionary: counterculture  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations