Recording Industry Association of America
The Recording Industry Association of America ( RIAA for short ; English for 'Association of the Music Industry in America') is an interest group that represents companies from the music industry in the United States . The association gives awards for record sales - for example the gold record - and represents the rights of the music industry.
The RIAA works with the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), which is active in Germany and around the world .
All frequencies were recorded at the same volume on the shellac record. The RIAA was founded in 1952 in order to create a uniform technical standard for records , which made it possible to store more music on a record and to reduce the noise or to increase the signal-to- noise ratio .
This cutting characteristic standard, also known as the RIAA curve , works like this: When cutting a record, you cut low and high frequencies with differently changed amplitudes into the record. Accordingly, the lows are weakened and the highs are increased.
If this method were not used, the basses would require a larger groove spacing due to their strong deflection. That would result in a shortened playing time. In addition, due to the inadequate dynamics of the pickup , the highs cannot be reproduced faithfully; low heights would be drowned out in the noise of the needle and groove wall.
In order to bring the changed frequency response ( emphasis ) of the record back into its original form, the process must be repeated as a mirror image as deemphasis during playback . It is said that the frequency response is equalized . There are or were two options for this:
- Crystal pickups have an equalizing characteristic, but they do not provide an exact mirror image of the distortion curve. The output signal is relatively high, so that an amplifier stage can be omitted. This system was used for simpler turntables.
- Magnetic pickups require a preamplifier which, through the selection of the components, can provide a fairly precise approximation of the required frequency curve. Even in the consumer sector, this system had completely replaced the crystal pickups. Moving coil cartridges can be equated with magnetic cartridges except for the fact that they deliver an even weaker output signal.
The RIAA curve is not the only standard. Curves according to CCIR , NAB and DIN are also possible , which can be switched over with some preamplifiers.
The RIAA got into the media worldwide through the conflicts with file sharing networks . Among other things, she stands up for the rights of the four largest record companies ( Sony BMG Music Entertainment , EMI Group , Universal Music Group and Warner ), and thus (from her point of view) also for their artists. Critics accuse the RIAA of being able to determine CD prices through a kind of cartel . In addition, they do not determine the data on CD sales like market researchers do : Usually, the number of CDs that go over the counter is taken to map the record purchases. However, the RIAA uses the order numbers of the dealers for its statistics. This leads to a difference between the two figures, for example when retailers try to keep their stocks low for cost reasons, but still have a lot on the shelves and in stock and consequently reorder fewer.
Under pressure from the RIAA, a new law came into being in America, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act .
Limits to the award of phonograms
The RIAA has officially been giving awards for the delivery and use of music albums , singles and video albums in the United States since March 14, 1958 . The record companies concerned must apply for the certifications; the awards are not automatically assigned. The following number of units must be exceeded:
No diamond awards are given for video albums, but the platinum awards are regularly counted.
The association does not set up any current sales charts. Billboard magazine takes on this task .
|Award 1||until December 31, 1975||until December 31, 1983||until December 31, 1998||since January 1, 1999|
|2 × platinum||-||2,000,000|
|Award||until August 31, 1996||since September 1, 1996|
|2 × platinum||1,000,000||2,000,000|
Singles / ringtones
|Award||until December 31, 1988||since January 1, 1989|
|2 × platinum||4,000,000||2,000,000|
|2 × platinum||200,000|
|2 × platinum||100,000|
Spanish-language sound carriers
|Award||since January 1, 2001|
|2 × platinum||120,000|
Artist with the most gold albums
These artists received the most gold awards for albums as of October 11, 2016:
- Elvis Presley (106)
- Barbra Streisand (51)
- The Beatles (48)
- The Rolling Stones (43)
- Neil Diamond (40)
- George Strait (39)
- Elton John (37)
- Frank Sinatra (34)
- Bob Dylan (33)
- Kenny Rogers (28)
Artist with the most platinum albums
These artists received the most platinum awards for albums as of October 11, 2016:
- Elvis Presley (90)
- The Beatles (68)
- George Strait (46)
- Barbra Streisand (42)
- Elton John (41)
- The Rolling Stones (39)
- Garth Brooks (36)
- Neil Diamond (33)
- AC / DC (32)
- Led Zeppelin (32)
Artist with the most excellent singles
These artists received the most gold and platinum awards for singles (as of October 11, 2016):
- Rihanna (40 + 61)
- Taylor Swift (46 + 52)
- Katy Perry (19 + 31) (2 diamond)
- Lady Gaga (17 + 25) (2)
- Justin Bieber (22 + 24) (1)
- Elvis Presley (54 + 34)
- Kanye West (27 + 29)
- Drake (22 + 27)
- Flo Rida (13 + 23)
- Bruno Mars (9 + 16)
This ranking is based on the certified units of the respective artist.
The most successful artists
Overall, these artists have sold the most albums in the United States (as of October 9, 2016):
- The Beatles - 178.0 million albums
- Garth Brooks - 138.0 million albums
- Elvis Presley - 136.0 million albums
- Led Zeppelin - 111.5 million albums
- The Eagles - 101.0 million albums
- Billy Joel - 82.5 million albums
- Michael Jackson - 79.0 million albums
- Elton John - 77.0 million albums
- Pink Floyd - 75.0 million albums
- AC / DC - 72.0 million albums
The most successful albums
These albums were the most successful in the US (as of October 9, 2016):
- Michael Jackson - Thriller - 33 Million Albums
- The Eagles - Greatest Hits - 29 million albums
- Billy Joel - Greatest Hits Volume I & II - 23 million albums
- Led Zeppelin - Led Zeppelin IV - 23 million albums
- Pink Floyd - The Wall - 23 million albums
- AC / DC - Back in Black - 22 million albums
- Garth Brooks - Double Live - 21 million albums
- Fleetwood Mac - Rumors - 20 million albums
- Shania Twain - Come On Over - 20 Million Albums
- The Beatles - The Beatles ( The White Album ) - 19 million albums
- Website of the RIAA (English)
- ↑ The RIAA filter
- ↑ Further graphics on the RIAA characteristic
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i About the Awards . In: Recording Industry Association of America . Retrieved November 21, 2016.
- ^ RIIA Certifications . In: Billboard Magazine , August 10, 1996. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
- ^ Paul Grein: New Golden Rule: 500,000 Sales Mark for All Singles . In: Los Angeles Times , May 14, 1989. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- ↑ Gold & Platinum - Top Selling Artists. RIAA, October 9, 2016, accessed October 9, 2016 .
- ↑ Gold & Platinum - Top 100 Albums. RIAA, October 9, 2016, accessed October 9, 2016 .