Nirvana (American band)
Krist Novoselic (left) and Kurt Cobain at the
MTV Video Music Awards on September 9, 1992
|origin||Aberdeen , Washington , United States|
|Genre (s)||Alternative rock , grunge|
|Kurt Cobain (1987-1994, †)|
|Krist Novoselic (1987-1994)|
|Aaron Burckhard (1987)|
|Kurt Cobain (1987-1994, †)|
|Krist Novoselic (1987-1994)|
|Dave Grohl (1990-1994)|
Guitar, backing vocal
|Pat Smear (1993-1994)|
|Dale Crover (1988, 1990)|
|Dave Foster (1988)|
|Chad Channing (1988-1990)|
|Jason Everman (1989)|
|Dan Peters (1990)|
|Tour musician at times|
|Lori Goldston (1993-1994)|
|Melora Creager (1994)|
Nirvana was an American rock band from Aberdeen , Washington state . The band was formed in 1987 and achieved great popularity in late 1991 with the song Smells Like Teen Spirit and the album Nevermind .
Seven years after the formation, the band broke up in the spring of 1994 in connection with the death of the singer Kurt Cobain . The band sold around 75 million records.
The two met in 1984 at school and especially around the band Melvins . In the winter of 1985 Cobain founded the band Fecal Matter as bassist with the later Melvins drummer Dale Crover . After the group had recorded two demos at Cobain's Tante Mari and played a few concerts, including as the opening act for the Melvins, they broke up again. The December 1985 Fecal Matter demo convinced Novoselic to start a band with Cobain. In the same month the two, Cobain as singer and Novoselic on bass, founded the Creedence Clearwater Revival association The Sellouts together with drummer Steve Newman . In the same month Cobain and Novoselic had another band with drummer Bob McFadden, but both bands broke up that same winter.
In March 1986 Krist Novoselic moved to Phoenix , Arizona with his girlfriend Shelli . After Novoselic moved back to Aberdeen in the fall of 1986, he and Cobain immediately began looking for a new drummer.
In January 1987 they finally formed a band with Aaron Burckhard that played under the names Ted Ed Fred and The Stiff Woodies . The first differences quickly emerged - while Burckhard mainly listened to metal , Novoselic and Cobain were inspired by Gang of Four , Scratch Acid and Butthole Surfers . In addition, Burckhard showed significantly less commitment than the two of them. Later, Kurt Cobain, whose zeal for work also initially overwhelmed Novoselic, said:
"I wanted to put out a record or do a few gigs and keep the project from going down the drain like everyone else in the past six years."
In March the band finally performed their first concert at a private party in Raymond. At that time, Ted Ed Fred was already playing mostly his own songs. In the same month the band gave their first public concert in the GESCCO Hall in Olympia in front of around ten people. On April 17, 1987, an appearance for the campus transmitter Kaos FM of the Evergreen State College took place.
In the fall of 1987 Cobain moved to Olympia, Burckhard remained the only band member in Aberdeen. Burckhard's lack of engagement and the physical distance meant that the band was inactive until Cobain and Novoselic began rehearsing in December 1987 with Dale Crover as the new drummer.
On January 23, 1988, the band recorded a first ten track demo with producer Jack Endino . The session at the popular Reciprocal Recordings recording studio in Seattle cost the band $ 152.44, which Cobain paid. In the spring, Cobain had initial talks with Jonathan Poneman of the Seattle underground label Sub Pop , in which the release of a single was planned. As a replacement for Crover, who moved to San Francisco , Dave Foster joined the band as a drummer.
On March 19, 1988, the band played under the name Nirvana for the first time . Before that, the group was called Ted Ed Fred , Bliss , Throat Oyster , Pen Cap Chew and Windowpane, among others . When it came to choosing the name, Kurt Cobain later said: “I wanted a name that was somehow nice, nice and pretty, not such a disgusting punk rock name like Angry Samoans”, but at the same time he was not very happy with hindsight: “It's closed esoteric and serious. ”On May 29, Foster was replaced by Chad Channing because he rarely came to rehearsals. Meanwhile, the demo from January 1988 had convinced the Sub Pop label to release the single Love Buzz / Big Cheese in November 1988 with an edition of 1000 copies. The title track is a cover of the Dutch pop band Shocking Blue , which Kurt Cobain was persuaded to do by Krist Novoselic.
After the release of Love Buzz / Big Cheese , Sub Pop struggled with some financial problems at the end of 1988, so that Nirvana had no hope of an album release for the time being. Nevertheless, the band went back to the studio in December 1988 and January 1989 with Endino. The 30 hours on a total of three days should cost the band 606.17 dollars. The amount paid by Jason Everman, a friend and fan of the band, who became second guitarist a short time later in the early summer of 1989 because Kurt had not had enough practice singing, playing guitar and memorizing the lyrics at the same time.
Before that, however, Nirvana embarked on a first two-week tour of the west coast in February 1989 . Since Nirvana were still almost unknown at that time, they often only played in front of ten visitors, who also appeared more because of the label. In total, the band had over 100 gigs in 1989.
On August 8, 1989, the debut album Bleach was finally released . In advance, the band led a first US tour through small clubs and bars, which ended on July 18 a little earlier than planned in New York with Everman being kicked out of the band. In August, Nirvana recorded five tracks with Steve Fisk at Music Source Studio that were to appear on an EP. In September, the canceled performances of the July tour were made up for, where up to 200 fans attended the concerts and the band earned money for the first time.
A 42-day European tour with the sub-pop band Tad began on October 23, 1989 in Newcastle upon Tyne in England , where Nirvana gave the first concert in Germany on November 7 at the B-52 in Mönchengladbach . Since the two bands to ninth with equipment in the price set by Sub Pop Fiat - minibus had to take ten seats almost every night for the next performance, the atmosphere during the tour was very excited. The fact that the small halls and clubs were mostly sold out and the audience was enthusiastic could not change that, so that Nirvana distanced themselves further from Sub Pop after the tour.
In early 1990 Sub Pop was again on the verge of financial collapse and the release of a second album seemed unlikely. The band continued to play concerts in the United States until April 2, 1990, when recording with Butch Vig at Smart Studios began. The seven tracks recorded in the course of a week were sent to Sub Pop, but actually represented the demo for the negotiations with major labels .
In September 1990 appeared the only release of the band, in which Dan Peters of Mudhoney sat on the drums: The single Sliver . Chad Channing was kicked out of the band during the first demo recordings for the second record. In Kurt Cobain's diaries , he described the drumming of Channings as "bungling". For a short tour they borrowed Dale Crover from the Melvins again, until Dave Grohl was hired by Scream as a new permanent drummer in August . With the demo tape, the band entered into negotiations with Geffen Records - sub-label DGC on.
On April 30, 1991, the band signed their recording deal and received an advance of $ 287,000. Sub Pop received $ 75,000 to include Geffen in the contract and give them the necessary rights. The idea of producing the album with Scott Litt and Don Dixon was discarded, they stayed with Butch Vig. In August 1991 Nirvana played The Year That Punk Broke Tour of Europe with Sonic Youth and Ramones and at the Reading Festival in Reading , England .
On September 10, 1991, the title Smells Like Teen Spirit was released as a single. The associated album Nevermind was released on September 24, 1991 and rose three weeks later, on October 12, in the US charts and quickly caused a sensation. With a production of 50,000 copies, Geffen's pre-sales expectations quickly turned out to be a blatant miscalculation, and it had to be re-pressed. Just a few weeks later the platinum record was awarded by the American record association RIAA for one million copies of Nevermind sold .
The band played another European tour from November 4th to December 7th, which also took them to Germany for 4 concerts from November 10th. On December 6th, the band performed on Channel 4's Tonight-With-Jonathan-Ross show, popular in the UK. One day later, on December 7th, Smells Like Teen Spirit rose to number 7 on the UK single Charts a. In the broadcast Rapido of BBC Two (TV) depth account of Nirvana. Meanwhile, the band had to cancel the rest of the tour due to a virus infection from Cobain, which he contracted after the Transmusicales Festival in Rennes , France . The year ended on December 31, 1991 with a New Year's Concert at the Cow Palace in San Francisco , California .
On January 11, 1992 Nevermind rose to the top of the US album charts, displacing Michael Jackson's album Dangerous . At that time, Smells Like Teen Spirit had already risen to number 6 on the US singles charts and went platinum on April 1, 1992. Nirvana soon appeared on NBC's Saturday Night Live .
The EP Hormoaning was also released there for the tour in Australia (January), Japan and New Zealand (February) . During the tour, Nevermind also rose to number 7 in the UK charts (February 1, 1992), while the album had already sold three million times in the US. The re-released debut album Bleach (1989) entered the US charts for the first time on February 22, 1992 at number 89. On March 7, 1992, Bleach also debuted in the UK charts at number 33.
On March 2, 1992, the single Come As You Are was released in the UK, while it was only released on May 2, 1992 in the US. Because the guitar riff of the song was taken over from the Killing Joke single Eighties (1985), the band filed an unsuccessful lawsuit against Nirvana. At the same time, several other grunge bands made their breakthrough in the slipstream of Nevermind's success .
The third single was released on July 13, 1992, the song Lithium . While In Bloom was the fourth and final single from Nevermind , the band began working on a new album together with Jack Endino, the producer of the Bleach album , in October .
After these lightning-fast successes, the music industry also honored the band's artistic performance. For Smells Like Teen Spirit , Nirvana were honored at the 9th MTV Video Music Awards on September 9, 1992 in Los Angeles for " Best Alternative Music Video " and "Best New Artist Video". On the award for “Best Alternative Music Video”, however, “Smells Like Team Spirit” was engraved instead of “Smells Like Teen Spirit”. Nirvana played lithium live and then destroyed their equipment. Krist Novoselic got the bass on his head when it fell on him while being thrown under the ceiling lights, and passed out briefly. When he left the stage, Cobain spat at a piano, which he took to be Axl Rose's , which, however, turned out to be Elton John's piano , to which the music world reacted in horror. Cobain later apologized.
In Utero (1993)
On December 14, 1992, Incesticide was a compilation of B-sides and unpublished material that was quickly put together to meet the rapidly increasing demand for a follow-up album. The plate contained inter alia. also a cover version of the song Turnaround . A video of the album will be released for the long out of print single Sliver from 1990. The video showed the band in a totally neglected apartment with greasy hair, a cheap production that was completed in two takes . On March 6th, Oh, The Guilt was released as a split single with The Jesus Lizards Puss in Great Britain and reached number 12. The split single was later also released in the USA in a limited edition of 100,000 copies on the Touch and Go Records label .
The band was honored as Best International Act at the Brit Awards at Alexandra Palace in London on February 16 . For Pro Choice , Nirvana and Pearl Jam played at a rally organized by the Organization for Women's Right to Abortion .
In February 1993 the band continued with the producer Steve Albini with the recordings for the new album (working title: I Hate Myself and I Want to Die ) in Minnesota . The result drew the displeasure of the record company DGC, who called the recordings "shit". Albini later told Village Voice that the label and management did not want Albini to produce the band; however, the band prevailed. In the period that followed, Nirvana made headlines primarily through numerous drug-related arrests, prison terms and rehabilitation attempts by Kurt Cobain, who was addicted to heroin and depressed. In the 10th MTV Video Music Awards in Universal City (CA) has been in Bloom (1992, Nevermind for) Alternative Best Video voted. In it, the band, which in the end broke their instruments, showed itself in suits and good expressions in the style of the early 1960s.
After the single Heart-Shaped Box was released on August 30, 1993 , the third album In Utero followed on September 13 and debuted in the UK charts at number 1. The band was again a guest on NBC Saturday Night Live before In Utero appeared in the US and also immediately topped the charts. In the fall, the band went on a world tour with Pat Smear , who had previously played with The Germs , on the second guitar.
On November 18, the band played an acoustic instrument concert for the MTV Unplugged series at Sony Music Studios in New York City . The song I Hate Myself and I Want to Die was released on the Beavis and Butt Head Experience compilation on November 23, followed by the double A-side All Apologies / Rape Me in Great Britain on December 6 . Shortly before the end of the year, on December 13th, the band played a sold out concert with The Breeders and Cypress Hill at Pier 48 in Seattle, Washington, which was broadcast on MTV ("Live and Loud" ).
On January 8, 1994, Nirvana played their last concert in the United States at the Center Arena in Seattle . At the end of January, Rolling Stone named the band as Best Band and the album In Utero as Best Album in the Music Awards Critics Picks . On February 6th, Nirvana started their European tour in Cascais . The end of this tour was originally planned for April 8th in Dublin , but the band played their last concert on March 1st in Terminal 1 of the former Munich-Riem airport . The Munich concert was broadcast in excerpts on the TV channel VIVA .
After a hospital stay, Kurt Cobain fled the Exodus Recovery Center in Marina del Rey , Los Angeles on April 1, breaking off the last attempt at drug withdrawal . A week later, on April 8, Kurt Cobain was found dead and with a gunshot wound in his apartment. The band's musical legacy has since been managed by a community of his widow Courtney Love and band members Dave Grohl and Krist Novoselic.
On September 8, at the 11th MTV Video Music Awards at New York's Radio City Music Hall , Nirvana received the Best Alternative Video and Best Art Direction awards for the video for Heart-Shaped Box (1993, In Utero ). The live record Verse Chorus Verse , which had been announced for November at the beginning of August , did not appear. Instead, Geffen released the acoustic album MTV Unplugged in New York , which was released on October 31, 1994 and topped the charts. It was sold over 3 million times in two months.
Further awards and records (1995–2009)
Despite the band's sudden end, they continued to receive awards. They won the 22nd American Music Awards in 1995 in the Favorite Artist / Heavy Metal - Hard Rock category . On February 28, 1996, MTV Unplugged was named Best Alternative Music Album at the 38th Grammy Awards ceremony in New York .
Interest in her music also continued. The unplugged version of the song All Apologies (1993, In Utero ) was most played on college radios in 1995 and received the BMI Award Pop in Los Angeles for it . The two albums Bleach (1989) and Incesticide (1992) received platinum status in 1995 for one million sales each. By October 1995 - in the USA alone - In Utero (1993) had sold 9 million copies, and by autumn 1997 MTV Unplugged in New York had sold 5 million copies. The hundred thousandth copy of the video Live! Tonight! Sold Out! was already sold in January 1995.
As a result, there were more publications. The live compilation From the Muddy Banks of the Wishkah , released in October 1996, contained excerpts from concerts between 1988 and 1994 and reached first place in the US charts.
In October 2002 a greatest hits collection followed with the new song You Know You're Right and in November 2004 the Box With the Lights Out consisting of three CDs and a DVD , which contains many of the band's unreleased songs between 1987 and 1994.
Dave Grohl, Pat Smear and Krist Novoselic initially stayed in the music business. Dave Grohl founded the Foo Fighters with Pat Smear in March 1995 . While Dave Grohl played there permanently, Pat Smear is back after a long break and also works as a music producer. Krist Novoselic first founded the band Sweet 75 and in 2001, together with Curt Kirkwood and Bud Gaugh, the now dissolved Eyes Adrift . In 2003 he announced his retirement from the music business and in the meantime dealt with local politics in Seattle. In December 2006 Novoselic supported the band Flipper on a tour and returned to music. He recorded an album with Flipper, but separated from the band again in late September 2008.
Dave Grohl and Pat Smear are still together at the Foo Fighters . Krist Novoselic is currently the bass player for the band Giants In The Trees . Dale Crover is still a drummer and singer with the Melvins . Jason Everman, who was guitarist with Soundgarden for a short time , signed up for the United States Army and is still a consultant with it today. Dan Peters is still Mudhoney's drummer .
For the first time in over 18 years, the chords of Smells Like Teen Spirit rang out from the remaining band members in June 2011 . Dave Grohl, Krist Novoselic and Pat Smear played the song without a vocals when they were practicing together in California for a performance by the Foo Fighters. When asked how it felt, Dave Grohl replied: “It was like… a ghost. It was heavy. "
On December 12th, 2012, the remaining band members of Nirvana played live together on a stage for the first time - in New York's Madison Square Garden with the support of Paul McCartney . The occasion was 121212 , a benefit concert for the victims of the Hurricane Sandy disaster. They played the song Cut Me Some Slack , which can also be heard on the soundtrack of Dave Grohl's Sound City Movie , released in spring 2013 .
On April 10, 2014, the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame . The laudation was given by Michael Stipe from REM. Dave Grohl, Krist Novoselic and Pat Smear also performed. Guest singers were Joan Jett , Lorde , Kim Gordon ( Sonic Youth ) and St. Vincent .
In terms of content, Cobain left most of his songs open, leaving room for interpretation. In the career of Nirvana, however, there were a number of topics that Cobain processed in his texts. Many texts of Nirvana are quite short, often individual parts are often repeated. On Bleach , many lyrics have only one stanza that is repeated several times. Kurt Cobain initially wrote many texts spontaneously in the studio or on the way to the studio, later he also spontaneously put them together from existing poems of his own. About the lyrics to Bleach , Cobain later said: “Texts weren't important to me at the time. [...] Not a single song - by whoever - was important to me back then because of its lyrics. "
Characteristic of the music of Nirvana, as is generally the case in grunge , is the combination of punk with elements of metal and hard rock . In addition to the Melvins , the early influences included new wave bands such as Gang of Four, Scratch Acid and Butthole Surfers .
At the end of 1988, the band members, along with the entire alternative rock scene in Seattle, began to be interested in the great glam rock bands of the 1970s. Already on Bleach , in addition to these typical grunge influences, in the piece About a Girl, the interest in pop music such as The Beatles becomes clear. Cobain later expressed his disappointment that he was stylistically limited by the label's influence and could neither pursue the influence of experimental New Wave nor the interest in catchy pop melodies. He summed up the expectations of Nirvana to Michael Azerrad with the words "Reduce it to the essentials and make sure that it sounds like Aerosmith". However Azerrad rated these restrictions as important for the style of finding the band, because they "[accepted] that their development to musical maturity lot with Aerosmith and Black Sabbath had to do." ( Michael Azerrad in Come As You Are ) especially important for The Pixies' album Surfer Rosa also achieved stylistic development . For him, this album represented the mixture of pop and alternative punk that corresponded to his own sound ideal. He later said: "I listened to Surfer Rosa songs that I wrote but discarded for fear of playing them to someone." Azerrad said the Pixies' success encouraged Cobain to pursue this ideal.
Another specialty of Nirvana is Kurt Cobain's voice. Both the producer Jack Endino and the sub-pop boss Jonathan Poneman were already enthusiastic about Cobain's vocals after the first demo in January 1988, which they described as "fascinating" and "powerful".
The band not only moved musically between punk and rock, their attitude towards the music industry in particular was characterized by a certain ambivalence. Cobain had the clear goal of becoming a rock star, especially at the beginning and before his career. Still, he often took the opportunity to express his disdain for the music industry and its audiences. Cobain expressed this ambivalence in 1989 with the following ironic words:
“Nirvana notice a standstill in the underground scene and sell-out tendencies to the big pig capitalist major labels. But do we therefore feel a moral duty to fight this cancerous tumor? NOT AT ALL! We want to cash in just like the bigwigs. "
Nirvana often tried to break the prevailing conventions in the music business and pose as an antihero. At the 1992 MTV Video Music Awards , Kurt Cobain spat on Elton John's piano as he left the stage , thinking that Axl Rose of Guns N 'Roses , with whom he had previously quarreled, should play on it. In the charts show Top of the Pops on November 27, 1991 in the BBC studios, London , the band interpreted their Smells Like Teen Spirit in a lengthy version despite half playback . The drummer and bassist obviously deliberately did not play in sync with the music of their hit that was being played in the studio, Cobain almost never touched his guitar, rather he clutched his microphone or spread his arms. The trio smashed their equipment at numerous public appearances, including at MTV Video Music Awards and Saturday Night Live . During TV appearances, the three often did not play the songs agreed with the director , which meant that the song titles displayed on the screen did not match the songs being played.
The appearance of Nirvana was staged more and more with each repetition of certain show elements (such as the destruction) and made the band appear staged itself. The conflict triggered by this effect can be cited as a reason for Cobain's decision to commit suicide, which he previously wrote in his suicide note as follows:
“For example, when we're backstage and the lights go out and the manic roar of the crowd starts, it doesn't affect me in the way that Freddie Mercury seemed to have touched it. He seemed to love and enjoy the mania and adoration of the fans. That's something I totally admire and envy. "
In addition to its commercial success, the band had a major impact on the music scene and industry and is sometimes seen as the mouthpiece of a generation.
The band has sold over 75 million albums. Nirvana made indie rock mainstream and heralded the brief bloom of grunge . Tommy Udo attested Nirvana in 2002 in his nu-metal -History Harte Brocken "a combination of huge record sales, critical acclaim and broad recognition in the mainstream audience," managed with it Nirvana, the "Rock 'n' Roll [...] when he it was generally considered worn out to [breathe new life into] ". According to the death of Kurt Cobain have marked a closing point for the grunge and a turning point for the skirt in general, since the debut album of grain of nu metal takes the place of grunge. Tommy Udo goes on to claim that nirvana re-established the United States as the center of rock music.
"Nirvana popularized punk, post-punk, and indie rock, unintentionally bringing it into the American mainstream like no other band before it."
"Nirvana popularized punk, post-punk and indie rock by inadvertently bringing it into the American mainstream like no other band before."
Michael Azerrad even speaks of "a new era" that began with Nevermind's number one placement on the Billboard charts for the music industry: "From now on everything was either pre- or post-nirvana." ( Michael Azerrad in Come As You Are ) He also claims that after Nirvana the big music labels concentrated on bands with “longer-term potential” and their own fan base and tried less to stimulate sales through advertising.
Top ranking, total weeks, awardChart placementsChart placements
(Year, title, music label , placements, weeks, awards, notes)
DE24 1 (14 weeks)
AT26 1 (6 weeks)
First published: June 15, 1989
Sales: + 2,570,000
First published: September 24, 1991
Sales: + 30,000,000
CH16 (12 weeks)
First published: September 21, 1993
Sales: + 15,000,000
- Charles R. Cross: Here We Are Now. The Lasting Impact of Kurt Cobain. HarperCollins, 2014, ISBN 978-0-06-230821-4 .
- Everett True: Nirvana - The Real Story . Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2008, ISBN 978-3-85445-289-8 (Original edition: Nirvana: The True Story ).
- Kurt Cobain : Diaries. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-462-03184-8 .
- Michael Azerrad: Nirvana - The True Kurt Cobain Story . Hannibal Verlag, Vienna 1994, ISBN 978-3-85445-099-3 (Original edition: Come As You Are - The Story Of Nirvana ).
- Charles R. Cross: Heaven Above Nirvana - Kurt Cobain's Life and Death . Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2002, ISBN 978-3-85445-222-5 (original edition: Heavier Than Heaven ).
- Carrie Borzillo-Vrenna: Kurt Cobain and Nirvana Chronicle - Diary of a Career . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-247-0 .
- Michael Sailer: Generation X in: WOM Journal . 09/1994.
- Roger Behrens , Martin Büsser and others: Testcard, No. 5, compact knowledge for the dance floor, culture industry . Ventil Verlag, Mainz 1997, ISBN 3-931555-04-6 .
- Tom Holert , Mark Terkessidis : Mainstream of the minorities. Id-Verlag, Mannheim 1996, ISBN 3-89408-059-0 .
- Tommaso Pincio, Suse Vetterlein: Love of the other world. Ullstein Tb-Verlag, 2003, ISBN 3-548-25667-8 .
- Chuck Crisafulli: Nirvana Teen Spirit - The story for every song. Rockbuch Verlag Buhmann & Haeseler, 2004, ISBN 3-927638-16-1 .
- Gillian G. Gaar: Entertain Us: The Rise of Nirvana. Jawbone Publishing, 2012, German edition: Nirvana: Der Aufstieg. Verlag Nicole Schmenk, Oberhausen 2014, ISBN 978-3-943022-25-4 .
- Official German website
- Nirvana at AllMusic (English)
- Nirvana at laut.de
- Live guide of all Nirvana concerts
- Nirvana ( December 29, 2008 memento in the Internet Archive ) in the Rolling Stone Review Archive
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 37/38 .
- Carrie Borzillo-Vrenna: Kurt Cobain and Nirvana Chronicle - Diary of a career . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-247-0 , p. 16 .
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 68 .
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 69 .
- Carrie Borzillo-Vrenna: Kurt Cobain and Nirvana Chronicle - Diary of a career . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-247-0 , p. 19 .
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 78 .
- Carrie Borzillo-Vrenna: Kurt Cobain and Nirvana Chronicle - Diary of a career . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-247-0 , p. 21 .
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 70 .
- Letter from Kurt Cobain and Krist Novoselic to Dave Foster in Kurt Cobain: Diaries. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-462-03184-8 , p. 21.
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 . P. 67
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 99 .
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 100 .
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 101 .
- Charles R. Cross: The Sky Above Nirvana - Kurt Cobain's Life and Death . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 2002, ISBN 3-85445-222-5 , p. 135 .
- release date "Bleach"
- Release date
- Charles R. Cross: Heaven Above Nirvana - Kurt Cobain's Life and Death . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 2002, ISBN 3-85445-222-5 , p. 146 .
- Christopher Chirvi: First Nirvana concert in Germany: "I think they went well". In: shz.de. Retrieved November 16, 2019 .
- Charles R. Cross: Heaven Above Nirvana - Kurt Cobain's Life and Death . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 2002, ISBN 3-85445-222-5 , p. 148 .
- Charles R. Cross: Heaven Above Nirvana - Kurt Cobain's Life and Death . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 2002, ISBN 3-85445-222-5 , p. 149/150 .
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 , p. 149 .
- release date Sliver
- Release date "Smells Like Teen Spirit"
- Release date "Come as You Are"
- Release date "Lithium"
- Smells Like Team Spirit . Festivalrocker.net. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
- Release date "Incesticide"
- release date "In Utero"
- release date "All Apologies / Rape Me"
- release date "MTV Unplugged in New York"
- Nirvana jamming with the original line-up Nirvana in 2011
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 . P. 103
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 . P. 96
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 . P. 109
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 . P. 112
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 . P. 113
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 . P. 78
- Michael Azerrad: Come As You Are . Verlagsgruppe Koch GmbH / Hannibal, Höfen 1994, ISBN 3-85445-099-0 . P. 119
- Kurt Cobain - The End of an Era . philibuster.de. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
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