Setting (engl. Shot ) denotes a sequence of frames associated with a uninterrupted film camera were taken. It is the smallest unit in the film. The entire film will later be cut from the various settings . Settings can also be shared, e.g. B. to represent a conversation alternately from different perspectives . The name setting comes from the silent movie era, when the camera setting was not changed during a scene . Today, camera movement is also common in an uninterrupted filmed process. The settings change in a scene.
The duration depends on the intentions. If all the details of a setting are to be perceived, the setting should last about as long as its verbal description lasts.
A rule of thumb from classic film editing says that a shot should last at least three seconds in order to give the viewer enough time to “read” the composition and content of the image. However, under the influence of music videos , this rule has increasingly faded into the background. But there are also earlier examples of a deliberate disregard of this guideline value, mostly in order to create a feeling of unrest. In this context, the “shower scene” in Alfred Hitchcock's thriller Psycho has become famous : the audience is bombarded with a total of 70 cuts over a period of 45 seconds, which massively intensifies the disturbing effect of the central murder. The effect is additionally supported by a subsequent plan sequence which, in a deliberately slow tracking shot, extends the following minute to the limits of what is bearable. The tempo and rhythm of a film are determined by the length of the shots.
The director can have several so-called takes made from one shot , either to correct obvious mistakes (slip of the tongue, laughing fits, visible boom, etc.) or to ensure greater scope for decision-making later when editing. By dividing it into cut and counter-cut, different takes of the same setting can be combined inconspicuously, as the cut between the takes is obscured by an inserted counter-cut (see also Buffer Shot ).
The term “take” is also used in the field of film synchronization to separate individual sections of a film that are to be set to music. In this context, the terms “take” and “take” are synonymous, since no changes are generally made to the film montage during synchronization. So there is exactly one take from each shot.
The term probably comes from photography , where you spend most of the time with different settings, e.g. B. light, has to do for a recording.
Design means during a setting
- Setting size
- Image composition
- Focal length
- Point of view and point of view
- Camera movement
- Lighting design
- Duration of the setting
After the recording, the assembly is designed. Randomly collecting pictures and then tinkering with the cutting system does not lead to the desired result. The intention of the assembly must therefore be taken into account when recording.
Individual parameters can be varied within the same setting, e.g. B. the sharpness . The set dressing (arrangement of scenery and props , lighting, etc.), on the other hand, is usually "set" once and changed at most between two takes. Such changes can lead to connection errors if they are not also reproduced for the associated counter cuts.
Brief overview of the setting sizes:
- Long shot, overview, orientation
- Medium long shot, scenery, limited field of view
- American shot (medium shot), e.g. B. from knee up
- Medium close-up, e.g. B. Upper half of the body
- Close-up, e.g. B. Third of the height
- Close-up, e.g. B. Head full screen
- Detail (extreme close-up), e.g. B. Parts of the face
- Joachim Böhringer, Peter Bühler, Patrick Schaich: Compendium of media design for digital and print media. Third, completely revised and expanded edition. Berlin / Heidelberg 2006, p. 185